Metagenomic analysis revealed higher microbial and functional gene diversities in deep landfill
ABSTRACT: Waste decomposition in landfills is a complex and microbe-mediated process. Understanding the microbial community composition and structure is critical for accelerating decomposition and reducing adverse impact on the environment. Here, we examined the microbial communities along with landfill depth and age (LDA) in a sanitary landfill in Beijing, China using 16s rRNA Illumina sequencing and GeoChip 4.6. We found that Clostridiales and Methanofollis were the predominant bacteria and archaea in the present landfill, respectively. Interestingly, in contrast with the decreasing trend of microbial diversity in soil, both phylogenetic and functional diversities were higher in deeper and older refuse in the landfill. Phylogenetic compositions were obviously different in the refuse with the same LDA and such difference is mainly attributed to the heterogeneity of refuse instead of random process. Nevertheless, functional structures were similar within the same LDA, indicating that microbial community assembly in the landfill may be better reflected by functional genes rather than phylogenetic identity. Mantel test and canonical correspondence analysis suggested that environmental variables had significant impacts on both phylogenetic composition and functional structure. Higher stress genes, genes for degrading toxic substances and endemic genes in deeper and older refuse indicated that they were needed for the microorganisms to survive in the more severe environments. This study suggests that landfills are a repository of stress-resistant and contaminant-degrading microorganisms, which can be used for accelerating landfill stabilization and enhancing in situ degradation. Fifteen refuse samples with five landfill depths and ages (6m/2a, 12m/4a, 18m/6a, 24m/8a and 30m/10a) were collected from a sanitary landfill in Beijing, China. Three replicates in every landfill depth and age
Project description:To understand microbial community functional structures of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the effects of environmental factors on their structure, 12 activated sludge samples were collected from four WWTPs in Beijing. GeoChip 4.2 was used to determine the microbial functional genes involved in a variety of biogeochemical processes. The results showed that, for each gene category, such as egl, amyA, nir, ppx, dsrA sox and benAB, there were a number of microorganisms shared by all 12 samples, suggestive of the presence of a core microbial community in the activated sludge of four WWTPs. Variance partitioning analyses (VPA) showed that a total of 53% of microbial community variation can be explained by wastewater characteristics (25%) and operational parameters (23%), respectively. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of activated sludge in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables in WWTPs. Four full-scale wastewater treatment systems located in Beijing were investigated. Triplicate samples were collected in each site.
Project description:Soil microorganisms act as gatekeepers for soil-atmosphere carbon exchange by balancing the accumulation and release of soil organic matter. However, poor understanding of the mechanisms responsible hinders the development of effective land management strategies to enhance soil carbon storage. Here we empirically test the link between microbial ecophysiological traits and topsoil carbon content across geographically distributed soils and land use contrasts. We discovered distinct pH-controls on microbial mechanisms of carbon accumulation. Land use intensification in low-pH soils that increased pH above a threshold (~ 6.2) lead to carbon loss through increased decomposition following alleviation of acid-retardation of microbial growth. However, loss of carbon with intensification in near neutral-pH soils was linked to decreased microbial biomass and reduced growth efficiency that was, in turn, related to tradeoffs with stress alleviation and resource acquisition. Thus, less intensive management practices in near neutral-pH soils have more potential for carbon storage through increased microbial growth efficiency; whereas, in acidic soils microbial growth is a bigger constraint on decomposition rates.
Project description:Microbial decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Arctic permafrost is one of the most important, but poorly understood, factors in determining the greenhouse gas feedback of tundra ecosystems to climate. Here, we examine changes in the structure of microbial communities in an anoxic incubation experiment at either –2 or 8 °C for up to 122 days using both an organic and a mineral soil collected from the Barrow Environmental Observatory in northern Alaska, USA. Soils were characterized for SOC and geochemistry, and GeoChips 5.0 were used to determine microbial community structure and functional genes associated with C availability and Fe(III) reduction. Overall design: 30 samples were collected under 10 conditions from Barrow, Alaska, with 3 replicates in each treatment
Project description:A high-density oligonucleotide microarray that targets functional genes in marine microbial community was designed as a result of a multi-institutional effort. The design is based on nucleotide sequence data obtained with metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. The chip targets ~20000 gene sequences represented by 145 gene categories relevant to microbial metabolism in the open ocean and coastal environments. The three domains of life and also viruses are represented on the chip. Using this microarray we were able to compare the functional responses of microbial communities to iron and phosphate enrichments in samples from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The response was attributed to individual lineages of microorganisms including uncharacterized strains. Transcription of 68% of the gene probes was detected from a variety of microorganisms, and the patterns of gene transcription indicated a relief from iron limitation and transition into nitrogen limitation. When combined with physicochemical descriptions of each system, the use of microarrays can help to develop a comprehensive understanding of the changes in microbially-driven processes. We analyzed three samples amended with phosphate and two sample amended with iron (III) after 48h of incubation
Project description:Soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate change in realistic climate regimes. Here, we assessed the effects of climate warming and cooling on soil microbial communities, which are key drivers in Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, four years after soil transplant over large transects from northern (N site) to central (NC site) and southern China (NS site) and vice versa. Four years after soil transplant, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass, community phylogenetic and functional structures were altered. Microbial functional diversity, measured by a metagenomic tool named GeoChip, and phylogenetic diversity are increased with temperature, while microbial biomass were similar or decreased. Nevertheless, the effects of climate change was overridden by maize cropping, underscoring the need to disentangle them in research. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that vegetation, climatic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation), soil nitrogen components and CO2 efflux were significantly correlated to the microbial community composition. Further investigation unveiled strong correlations between carbon cycling genes and CO2 efflux in bare soil but not cropped soil, and between nitrogen cycling genes and nitrification, which provides mechanistic understanding of these microbe-mediated processes and empowers an interesting possibility of incorporating bacterial gene abundance in greenhouse gas emission modeling. Fifty four samples were collected from three soil types (Phaeozem,Cambisol,Acrisol) in three sites (Hailun, Fengqiu and Yingtan) along a latitude with reciprocal transplant; Both with and without maize cropping in each site; Three replicates in every treatments.
Project description:Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long term metal pollution. Studying twelve sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that both community composition (via MiSeq Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) and functional gene potential (using GeoChip 4.2) were highly similar across the gradients despite drastically diverging metal contamination levels. Metal pollution level significantly impacted microbial community structure (p = 0.037), but not bacterial taxon richness. Metal pollution altered the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Also, a group of metal resistance genes showed significant correlations with metal concentrations in soil, although no clear impact of metal pollution levels on overall functional diversity and structure of microbial communities was observed. While screens of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA, provided only limited insight into resilience mechanisms, analysis of specific functional genes, e.g. involved in metal resistance, appeared to be a more promising strategy. This study showed that the effect of metal pollution on soil microbial communities was not straightforward, but could be filtered out from natural variation and habitat factors by multivariate statistical analysis and spatial sampling involving separate pollution gradients. 12 samples were collected from two long-term polluted areas (Olkusz and Miasteczko Śląskie) in Southern Poland. In the study presented here, a consecutively operated, well-defined cohort of 50 NSCLC cases, followed up more than five years, was used to acquire expression profiles of a total of 8,644 unique genes, leading to the successful construction of supervised
Project description:Members of the bacterial phylum Spirochaetes are primarily studied for their commensal and pathogenic roles in animal hosts. However, Spirochaetes are also frequently detected in anoxic hydrocarbon-contaminated environments but their ecological role in such ecosystems has so far remained unclear. Here we provide a functional trait to these frequently detected organisms with an example of a sulfate-reducing, naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture consisting of a sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium Desulfobacterium naphthalenivorans and a novel spirochete Rectinema cohabitans. Using a combination of genomic, proteomic, and physiological studies we show that R. cohabitans grows by fermentation of organic compounds derived from biomass from dead cells (necromass). It recycles the derived electrons in the form of H2 to the sulfate-reducing D. naphthalenivorans, thereby supporting naphthalene degradation and forming a simple microbial loop. We provide metagenomic evidence that equivalent associations between Spirochaetes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms are of general importance in hydrocarbon- and organohalide-contaminated ecosystems. We propose that environmental Spirochaetes form a critical component of a microbial loop central to nutrient cycling in subsurface environments. This emphasizes the importance of necromass and H2-cycling in highly toxic contaminated subsurface habitats such as hydrocarbon-polluted aquifers.
Project description:The human cervical-vaginal area contains proteins derived from microorganisms that may prevent or predispose women to gynecological conditions. The liquid Pap test fixative is an unexplored resource for analysis of microbial communities and the microbe-host interaction. Previously, we showed that the residual cell-free fixative from discarded Pap tests of healthy women could be used for mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic identification of cervical-vaginal proteins. In this study, we reprocessed these MS raw data files for metaproteomic analysis to characterize the microbial community composition and function of microbial proteins in the cervical-vaginal region. This was accomplished by developing a customized protein sequence database encompassing microbes likely present in the vagina. High-mass accuracy data were searched against the protein FASTA database using a two-step search method within the Galaxy for proteomics platform. Data was analyzed by MEGAN6 (MetaGenomeAnalyzer) for phylogenetic and functional characterization. We identified over 300 unique peptides from a variety of bacterial phyla and Candida. Peptides corresponding to proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, oxidation-reduction, and transport were identified. By identifying microbial peptides in Pap test supernatants it may be possible to acquire a functional signature of these microbes, as well as detect specific proteins associated with cervical health and disease.
Project description:Decomposition of soil organic matter in forest soils is thought to be controlled by the activity of saprotrophic fungi, while biotrophic fungi including ectomycorrhizal fungi act as vectors for input of plant carbon. The limited decomposing ability of ectomycorrhizal fungi is supported by recent findings showing that they have lost many of the genes that encode hydrolytic plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in their saprophytic ancestors. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that ectomycorrhizal fungi representing at least four origins of symbiosis have retained significant capacity to degrade humus-rich litter amended with glucose. Spectroscopy showed that this decomposition involves an oxidative mechanism and that the extent of oxidation varies with the phylogeny and ecology of the species. RNA-Seq analyses revealed that the genome-wide set of expressed transcripts during litter decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a unique set of enzymes that are involved in oxidative lignocellulose degradation by saprotrophic fungi. A comparison of closely related species within the Boletales showed that ectomycorrhizal fungi oxidized litter material as efficiently as brown-rot saprotrophs. The ectomycorrhizal species within this clade exhibited more similar decomposing mechanisms than expected from the species phylogeny in concordance with adaptive evolution occurring as a result of similar selection pressures. Our data shows that ectomycorrhizal fungi are potential organic matter decomposers, yet not saprotrophs. We suggest that the primary function of this decomposing activity is to mobilize nutrients embedded in organic matter complexes and that the activity is driven by host carbon supply. Comparative transcriptomics of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) versus brown-rot (BR) fungi while degrading soil-organic matter
Project description:Understanding the bacterial community structure, and their functional analysis for active bioremediation process is essential to design better and cost effective strategies. Microarray analysis enables us to simultaneously study the functional and phylogenetic markers of hundreds of microorganisms which are involved in active bioremediation process in an environment. We have previously described development of a hybrid 60-mer multibacterial microarray platform (BiodegPhyloChip) for profiling the bacterial communities and functional genes simultaneously in environments undergoing active bioremediation process (Pathak et al; Appl Microbiol Biotechnol,Vol. 90, 1739-1754). The present study involved profiling the status of bacterial communities and functional (biodegradation) genes using the developed 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray BiodegPhyloChip at five contaminated hotspots in the state of Gujarat, in western India. The expression pattern of functional genes (coding for key enzymes in active bioremediation process) at these sites was studied to understand the dynamics of biodegradation in the presence of diverse group of chemicals. The results indicated that the nature of pollutants and their abundance greatly influence the structure of bacterial communities and the extent of expression of genes involved in various biodegradation pathways. In addition, site specific factors also play a pivotal role to affect the microbial community structure as was evident from results of 16S rRNA gene profiling of the five contaminated sites, where the community structure varied from one site to another drastically. Agilent one-color CGH experiment and one-color Gene Expresssion expereiment,Organism: Genotypic designed Agilent-17159 Genotypic designed Agilent Multibacterial 8x15k Array , Labeling kits: Agilent Genomic DNA labeling Kit (Part Number: 5190-0453) and Agilent Quick Amp Kit PLUS (Part number: 5190-0442).