Postia placenta gene expression on different substrates
ABSTRACT: Using whole genome microarrays based on the annotated genomes of Postia placenta, we monitored the changes in its transcriptomes relevant to cell wall degradation during growth on three chemically distinct Populus trichocarpa (poplar) wood substrates. The research goal is to identtify genes essential for cellulose depolymerization. From a data set of 12438 unique gene models, each NimbleGen (Madison, WI) array targeted 9959 genes and featured 10 unique 60mers per gene, all in triplicate. RNA and protein were obtained from P. placenta strain MAD-698-R (USDA Forest Mycology Center, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison WI) grown in malt extract agar for 10 days prior to inoculation with wood wafers. Three poplar wood substrates with distinct cell wall chemical properties were selected from several hundred 4-year old poplar (Populus trichocarpa) trees grown in a common garden field trial at the University of British Columbia (Canada). We selected three poplar genotypes based on cell wall chemical traits. Substrate A corresponds to a genotype with a higher than average lignin content and lower that average glucose content; Substrate B, a lower than average lignin content and higher that average glucose content; Substrate C lignin and glucose contents are near the population average. Poplar wood stems were cut into 0.5 mm wafers on a microtome, sterilized for 20 min at 121°C, dried at 50°C overnight, and cooled to room temperature. The specimens were then inoculated in Petri dishes with actively growing mycelia. Approximately 5 g of wood wafers were placed in each Petri dish (exact weights were recorded), sealed and incubated at 22°C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity for 10, 20 or 30 days. For RNA, the degraded wafers were removed from the Petri dishes, immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C for later use. Total RNA was converted to Cy3 labelled cDNA, hybridized to microarrays and scanned as previously described by Vanden Wymelenberg et al 2010 (Appl Enviro Microbiol 76:3599-3610).The 24 arrays per fungal species were scanned and data extracted using NimbleScan v.2.4. The raw data was loaded into GeneSpring, where the intensities were converted to log2 and quantile normalized, and all probes per gene averaged. This data was then exported and further analyzed in R. For substrates “A” and “B”, three replicates were used for each wood substrate/fungus and incubation period combination. For substrate “C” only 2 biological replicates were employed.
Project description:Using whole genome microarrays based on the annotated genomes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, we monitored the changes in its transcriptomes relevant to cell wall degradation during growth on three chemically distinct Populus trichocarpa (poplar) wood substrates. Results of this study are sumbitted for review in Biotechnology for Biofuels From a data set of 10004 unique gene models, each NimbleGen (Madison, WI) array targeted 9959 genes and featured 12 unique 60mers per gene, all in triplicate. RNA and protein were obtained from P. chrysosporium strain RP-78 (USDA Forest Mycology Center, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison WI) grown in malt extract agar for 10 days prior to inoculation with wood wafers. Three poplar wood substrates with distinct cell wall chemical properties were selected from several hundred 4-year old Populus trichocarpa trees grown in a common garden field trial at the University of British Columbia (Canada). We selected three poplar genotypes based on cell wall chemical traits. Substrate A corresponds to a genotype with a higher than average lignin content and lower that average glucose content; Substrate B, a lower than average lignin content and higher that average glucose content; Substrate C lignin and glucose contents are near the population average. Poplar wood stems were cut into 0.5 mm wafers on a microtome, sterilized for 20 min at 121°C, dried at 50°C overnight, and cooled to room temperature. The specimens were then inoculated in Petri dishes with actively growing mycelia. Approximately 5 g of wood wafers were placed in each Petri dish (exact weights were recorded), sealed and incubated at 22°C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity for 10, 20 or 30 days. For RNA, the degraded wafers were removed from the Petri dishes, immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C for later use. Total RNA was converted to Cy3 labelled cDNA, hybridized to microarrays and scanned as previously described by Vanden Wymelenberg et al 2010 (Appl Enviro Microbiol 76:3599-3610).The 24 arrays per fungal species were scanned and data extracted using NimbleScan v.2.4. The raw data was loaded into GeneSpring, where the intensities were converted to log2 and quantile normalized, and all probes per gene averaged. This data was then exported and further analyzed in R. For substrates “A” and “B”, three replicates were used for each wood substrate/fungus and incubation period combination. For substrate “C” only 2 biological replicates were employed.
Project description:Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species.
Project description:Background:Low-temperature swelling of cotton linter cellulose and subsequent gelatinization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) greatly enhance rates of enzymatic digestion or maleic acid-AlCl3 catalyzed conversion to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA). However, lignin inhibits low-temperature swelling of TFA-treated intact wood particles from hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) and results in greatly reduced yields of glucose or catalytic conversion compared to lignin-free cellulose. Previous studies have established that wood particles from transgenic lines of hybrid poplar with high syringyl (S) lignin content give greater glucose yields following enzymatic digestion. Results:Low-temperature (- 20 °C) treatment of S-lignin-rich poplar wood particles in TFA slightly increased yields of glucose from enzymatic digestions and HMF and LA from maleic acid-AlCl3 catalysis. Subsequent gelatinization at 55 °C resulted in over 80% digestion of cellulose in only 3 to 6 h with high-S-lignin wood, compared to 20-60% digestion in the wild-type poplar hybrid and transgenic lines high in guaiacyl lignin or 5-hydroxy-G lignin. Disassembly of lignin in woody particles by Ni/C catalytic systems improved yields of glucose by enzymatic digestion or catalytic conversion to HMF and LA. Although lignin was completely removed by Ni/C-catalyzed delignification (CDL) treatment, recalcitrance to enzymatic digestion of cellulose from the high-S lines was reduced compared to other lignin variants. However, cellulose still exhibited considerable recalcitrance to complete enzymatic digestion or catalytic conversion after complete delignification. Low-temperature swelling of the CDL-treated wood particles in TFA resulted in nearly complete enzymatic hydrolysis, regardless of original lignin composition. Conclusions:Genetic modification of lignin composition can enhance the portfolio of aromatic products obtained from lignocellulosic biomass while promoting disassembly into biofuel and bioproduct substrates. CDL enhances rates of enzymatic digestion and chemical conversion, but cellulose remains intrinsically recalcitrant. Cold TFA is sufficient to overcome this recalcitrance after CDL treatment. Our results inform a 'no carbon left behind' strategy to convert total woody biomass into lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose value streams for the future biorefinery.
Project description:The molecular basis of cell-cell adhesion in woody tissues is not known. Xylem cells in wood particles of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba cv. INRA 717-1B4) were separated by oxidation of lignin with acidic sodium chlorite when combined with extraction of xylan and rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) using either dilute alkali or a combination of xylanase and RG-lyase. Acidic chlorite followed by dilute alkali treatment enables cell-cell separation by removing material from the compound middle lamellae between the primary walls. Although lignin is known to contribute to adhesion between wood cells, we found that removing lignin is a necessary but not sufficient condition to effect complete cell-cell separation in poplar lines with various ratios of syringyl:guaiacyl lignin. Transgenic poplar lines expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding an RG-lyase (AtRGIL6) showed enhanced cell-cell separation, increased accessibility of cellulose and xylan to hydrolytic enzyme activities, and increased fragmentation of intact wood particles into small cell clusters and single cells under mechanical stress. Our results indicate a novel function for RG-I, and also for xylan, as determinants of cell-cell adhesion in poplar wood cell walls. Genetic control of RG-I content provides a new strategy to increase catalyst accessibility and saccharification yields from woody biomass for biofuels and industrial chemicals.
Project description:Wood-degrading brown rot fungi are essential recyclers of plant biomass in forest ecosystems. Their efficient cellulolytic systems, which have potential biotechnological applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: lignocellulose oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polysaccharide hydrolysis by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Given that ROS are strongly oxidizing and non-selective, these two steps are likely segregated. A common hypothesis has been that brown rot fungi use a concentration gradient of chelated metal ions to confine ROS generation inside wood cell walls before enzymes can infiltrate. We examined an alternative: that lignocellulose-oxidation (LOX) components involved in ROS production are differentially expressed by brown rot fungi ahead of GH components. We used spatial mapping to resolve a temporal sequence in Postia placenta, sectioning thin wood wafers colonized directionally. Among sections, we measured gene expression by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) and assayed relevant enzyme activities. We found a marked pattern of LOX upregulation in a narrow (5-mm; 48-hr) zone at the hyphal front, which included many genes likely involved in ROS generation. Upregulation of GH5 endoglucanases and many other GHs clearly occurred later, behind the hyphal front, with notable exceptions of two likely expansins and a GH28 pectinase. Our results support a staggered mechanism for brown rot that is controlled by differential expression rather than microenvironmental gradients. This mechanism likely results in an oxidative pretreatment of lignocellulose, possibly facilitated by expansin- and pectinase-assisted cell wall swelling, before cellulases and hemicellulases are deployed for polysaccharide depolymerization. We sequenced mRNA from 9 Postia placenta samples taken from 3 wood sections of wafer design, with 3 bioreplicates for each wood section, to compare the gene expression during brown rot processes. Three wood sections of the wafer are representing early to late decay stages.
Project description:There is an increasing demand for renewable resources to replace fossil fuels. However, different applications such as the production of secondary biofuels or combustion for energy production require different wood properties. Therefore, high-throughput methods are needed for rapid screening of wood in large scale samples, e.g., to evaluate the outcome of tree breeding or genetic engineering. In this study, we investigated the intra-specific variability of lignin and energy contents in extractive-free wood of hybrid poplar progenies (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) and tested if the range was sufficient for the development of quantitative prediction models based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Since lignin is a major energy-bearing compound, we expected that the energy content of wood would be positively correlated with the lignin content.Lignin contents of extractive-free poplar wood samples determined by the acetyl bromide method ranged from 23.4% to 32.1%, and the calorific values measured with a combustion calorimeter varied from 17260 to 19767 J g-1. For the development of calibration models partial least square regression and cross validation was applied to correlate FTIR spectra determined with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) unit to measured values of lignin or energy contents. The best models with high coefficients of determination (R2 (calibration) = 0.91 and 0.90; R2 (cross-validation) = 0.81 and 0.79) and low root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV = 0.77% and 62 J g-1) for lignin and energy determination, respectively, were obtained after data pre-processing and automatic wavenumber restriction. The calibration models were validated by analyses of independent sets of wood samples yielding R2 = 0.88 and 0.86 for lignin and energy contents, respectively.These results show that FTIR-ATR spectroscopy is suitable as a high-throughput method for lignin and energy estimations in large data sets. Our study revealed that the intra-specific variations in lignin and energy contents were unrelated to each other and that the lignin content, therefore, was no predictor of the energy content. Employing principle component analyses we showed that factor loadings for the energy content were mainly associated with carbohydrate ring vibrations, whereas those for lignin were mainly related to aromatic compounds. Therefore, our analysis suggests that it may be possible to optimize the energy content of trees without concomitant increase in lignin.
Project description:Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have potential applications in biomass conversion and green chemicals due to their cost-effectiveness and environmentally friendly properties. This study reports on a feasible method of using DESs for lignin selective extraction from poplar wood meal. DESs obtained from various hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors were used to evaluate the dissolving capacity of lignin from poplar wood meal. Among the various DESs, lactic acid: choline chloride (9 : 1) exhibits the optimal extraction capacity, which is capable of selectively dissolving 95% of lignin from poplar wood meal at 120°C for 6 h. The purity of isolated lignin reaches 98% after regeneration in water. From Fourier Transform-IR, nitrobenzene oxidation and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the results demonstrate that the DESs can selectively cleave ether linkages and damage the non-condensation section of lignin, thereby facilitating lignin dissolution from wood meal. Thus, this study provides a promising route for the extraction of high-purity lignin from biomass materials.
Project description:Wood is extensively used as a construction material. Despite increasing knowledge of its mechanical properties, the contribution of the cell-wall matrix polymers to wood mechanics is still not well understood. Previous studies have shown that axial stiffness correlates with lignin content only for cellulose microfibril angles larger than around 20°, while no influence is found for smaller angles. Here, by analysing the wood of poplar with reduced lignin content due to down-regulation of CAFFEOYL SHIKIMATE ESTERASE, we show that lignin content also influences axial stiffness at smaller angles. Micro-tensile tests of the xylem revealed that axial stiffness was strongly reduced in the low-lignin transgenic lines. Strikingly, microfibril angles were around 15° for both wild-type and transgenic poplars, suggesting that cellulose orientation is not responsible for the observed changes in mechanical behavior. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the decrease in stiffness was almost completely related to the variation in both density and lignin content. We suggest that the influence of lignin content on axial stiffness may gradually increase as a function of the microfibril angle. Our results may help in building up comprehensive models of the cell wall that can unravel the individual roles of the matrix polymers.
Project description:Solid acids have been proposed as a hydrolytic agent for wood biomass dissolution. In this work, we presented an environmentally friendly physicochemical treatment to leave behind cellulose, dissolve hemicellulose, and remove lignin from poplar wood. Several pretreatments, such as autohydrolysis and disk refining, were compared to optimize and modify the process. The p-toluenesulfonic acid could extract lignin from wood with a small amount of cellulose degradation. Disk refining with subsequent acid hydrolysis (so-called physicochemical treatment) doubled the delignification efficiency. A comprehensive morphology and overall chemical composition were provided. The crystallinity index (CrI) of treated poplar was increased and the chemical structure was changed after physicochemical treatment. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrated physicochemical treatment affected the morphology of poplar wood by removing lignin and generating fiberization. In general, this work demonstrated this physicochemical method could be a promising fractionation technology for lignocellulosic biomass due to its advantages, such as good selectivity, in removing lignin while preserving cellulose.