Project description:Nucleosome structure and positioning play pivotal roles in gene regulation, DNA repair and other essential processes in eukaryotic cells. Nucleosomal DNA is thought to be uniformly inaccessible to DNA binding and processing factors, such as MNase. Here, we show, however, that nucleosome accessibility and sensitivity to MNase varies. Digestion of Drosophila chromatin with two distinct concentrations of MNase revealed two types of nucleosomes: sensitive and resistant. MNase-resistant nucleosome arrays are less accessible to low concentrations of MNase, whereas MNase-sensitive arrays are degraded by high concentrations. MNase-resistant nucleosomes assemble on sequences depleted of A/T and enriched in G/C containing dinucleotides. In contrast, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes form on A/T rich sequences represented by transcription start and termination sites, enhancers and DNase hypersensitive sites. Lowering of cell growth temperature to ~10°C stabilizes MNase-sensitive nucleosomes suggesting that variations in sensitivity to MNase are related to either thermal fluctuations in chromatin fiber or the activity of enzymatic machinery. In the vicinity of active genes and DNase hypersensitive sites nucleosomes are organized into synchronous, periodic arrays. These patterns are likely to be caused by “phasing” nucleosomes off a potential barrier formed by DNA-bound factors and we provide an extensive biophysical framework to explain this effect. Mnase-seq, Mnase-ChIP-seq of Drosophila melanogaster embryo and S2 cells chromatin
Project description:The nucleosome plays a central role in genome regulation. Traditional methods for mapping nucleosomes depend on the resistance of the nucleosome core to micrococcal nuclease (MNase). However, the lengths of the protected DNA fragments are heterogeneous, limiting the accuracy of nucleosome position information. To resolve this problem, we removed residual linker DNA by simultaneous digestion of yeast chromatin with MNase and exonuclease III (ExoIII). Paired-end sequencing of mono-nucleosomes revealed not only core particles (145-147 bp), but also intermediate particles in which ~8 bp project from one side (154 bp) or both sides (161 bp) of the nucleosome core. We term these particles "pseudo-chromatosomes" because they are present in yeast lacking linker histone. They are also observed after MNase-ExoIII digestion of chromatin reconstituted using recombinant core histones. We propose that the pseudo-chromatosome provides a DNA framework to facilitate H1 binding. Comparison of budding yeast nucleosome sequences obtained using micrococcal nuclease (MNase-seq) and MNase + exonuclease III (ExoIII) (MNase-ExoIII-seq): wild type cells and hho1-null cells. Nucleosome sequences from native chromatin and H1-depleted chromatin from mouse liver. Nucleosome sequences from a plasmid reconstituted into nucleosomes using recombinant yeast histones or native chicken erythrocyte histones.
Project description:Chromatin transactions are typically studied in vivo, or in vitro using artificial chromatin lacking the epigenetic complexity of the natural material. Attempting to bridge the gap between these approaches, we established a system for isolating the yeast genome as a library of mono-nucleosomes harbouring the natural epigenetic signature, suitable for biochemical manipulation. Combined with deep sequencing, this library was used to investigate the stability of individual nucleosomes, and – as proof of principle - the nucleosome preference of the chromatin remodeling complex, RSC. In order to generate a library of native yeast nucleosomes, we developed a three-step purification protocol: first, purified yeast nuclei were incubated with micrococcal nuclease (MNase), which preferentially digests naked DNA to generate short chromatin fragments. The resulting fragments were extracted from the nuclei, then bound to and eluted from DEAE sepharose. This was followed by ultracentrifugation through a sucrose gradient to separate the fragments by length to further remove contaminating proteins and free DNA. We chose a simple disassembly assay, which involves incubating the nucleosome library with ATP and the histone chaperone Nap1, with or without RSC. In this assay, RSC binds to nucleosomes and transfers the histones to Nap1, thereby releasing ‘naked’ DNA. Under certain conditions, reaction intermediates can be observed (tetramers or hexasomes), but for simplicity we chose to compare the input nucleosomes with the final naked DNA product. To separate the RSC-dependent released DNA from the non-remodeled nucleosomes, the reactions were subjected to native agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA of the four bands isolated by gel-extraction. The upper bands, harboring nucleosomes, were named NUC (no RSC) and NUCR (with RSC), whereas the lower, ‘naked’ DNA bands were named DNA (no RSC) and DNAR (with RSC).
Project description:Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins including transcription factors (TFs) are key determinants of gene regulation and chromatin architecture. Formaldehyde cross-linking and sonication followed by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (X-ChIP) and sequencing is widely used for genome-wide profiling of protein binding, but is limited by low resolution and poor specificity and sensitivity. We have implemented a simple genome-wide ChIP protocol that starts with micrococcal nuclease-digested uncross-linked chromatin followed by affinity purification and paired-end sequencing without size-selection. The resulting ORGANIC (Occupied Regions of Genomes from Affinity-purified Naturally Isolated Chromatin) profiles of the budding yeast TFs Abf1 and Reb1 achieved near-perfect accuracy, in contrast to other profiling methods, which were much less sensitive and specific. Unlike profiles produced using X-ChIP methods such as ChIP-exo, ORGANIC profiles are not biased toward identifying sites in accessible chromatin and do not require input normalization. We also demonstrate the high specificity of our method when applied to larger genomes by profiling Drosophila GAGA Factor and Pipsqueak. Taken together, these results suggest that ORGANIC profiling outperforms current X-ChIP methodologies for genome-wide profiling of TF binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of micrococcal nuclease-digested native chromatin followed by paired-end sequencing (Occupied Regions of Genomes from Affinity-purified Naturally Isolated Chromatin 'ORGANIC' profiling) of DNA-binding proteins Abf1 and Reb1 from S. cerevisiae and GAGA-binding factor (GAF) and Pipsqueak (Psq) from D. melanogaster S2 cells; and, Sono-seq (paired-end sequencing of formaldehyde cross-linked and sonicated chromatin) of yeast nuclei. Reb1 ORGANIC profiling was performed at three different salt (NaCl) concentrations (80, 150, and 600 mM) and Abf1 ORGANIC profiling was done at two different salt concentrations (80 and 600 mM) to achieve varying levels of stringency. GAF and Psq ORGANIC profiles were determined at 80 mM salt. Two replicates each of Reb1 and Abf1 600 mM ORGANIC experiments, mixed Drosophila S2 cell and S. cerevisiae nuclei Reb1 ORGANIC experiments, yeast Sono-seq, and GAF and Psq ORGANIC experiments were performed. Each S. cerevisiae and mixed S2 cell/yeast ORGANIC profiling experiment included separately sequenced input chromatin and ChIP samples. Total of 24 samples.
Project description:Meiotic recombination is initiated by developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In S. cerevisiae, the vast majority of DSBs occur in the nucleosome-depleted regions at gene promoters, where transcription factors (TFs) bind. It has been proposed that TF binding can stimulate DSB formation nearby by modulating local chromatin structure. However, a prior study in TF bas1 mutant suggested that the role of TF binding in determining break formation is complex. Here, we examined fine-scale DSB distributions in TF mutant (bas1Δ and ino4Δ) strains. In bas1Δ mutants, 239 out of the 2468 hotspots showed reduced DSB activity, whereas 87 hotspots showed increased DSB activity. Similarly, in ino4Δ mutant, 415 out of the 2468 hotspots showed reduced DSB activity, whereas 322 hotspots showed increased DSB activity. We also mapped Bas1 and Ino4 binding sites in meiosis and found that only a small portion of the affected hotspots contained TF binding sites. This indicates that TF can influence DSB distribution both directly and indirectly. Surprisingly, these DSB changes in TF mutants did not correlate with change in chromatin structure and histone H3K4me3 modification, suggesting that the role of TF on DSB distribution cannot be simply explained by affecting local chromatin status. Twelve samples total: four wild type, four bas1 mutant and four ino4 mutant (each an independent culture has one H3K4me3 ChIP sample and one H3 ChIP sample)
Project description:Histone variant H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes are incorporated at most eukaryotic promoters. This incorporation is mediated by the conserved SWR1 complex, which replaces histone H2A in canonical nucleosomes with H2A.Z in an ATP-dependent manner. Here, we show that promoter-proximal nucleosomes are highly heterogeneous for H2A.Z in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with substantial representation of nucleosomes containing one, two, or no H2A.Z molecules. SWR1-catalyzed H2A.Z replacement in vitro occurs in a stepwise and unidirectional fashion, one H2A.Z-H2B dimer at a time, producing heterotypic nucleosomes as intermediates and homotypic H2A.Z nucleosomes as end products. The ATPase activity of SWR1 is specifically stimulated by H2A-containing nucleosomes without ensuing histone H2A eviction. Remarkably, further addition of free H2A.Z-H2B dimer leads to hyperstimulation of ATPase activity, eviction of nucleosomal H2A-H2B and deposition of H2A.Z-H2B. These results suggest that the combination of H2A-containing nucleosome and free H2A.Z-H2B dimer acting as both effector and substrate for SWR1 governs the specificity and outcome of the replacement reaction. Total nucleosomes from MNase-treated nuclear extracts were fractionated by sequential immunoprecipitation into homotypic H2A/H2A (AA), heterotypic H2A/H2A.Z (AZ), and homotypic H2A.Z/H2A.Z (ZZ) nucleosomes.
Project description:We characterize the acetylation of H3K122 for the first time. Towards this we mapped the genomic distribution of H3K122Ac, identified the enzyme introducing H3K122Ac, and addressed the functional contribution H3K122Ac to transcription. We found that H3K122Ac is associated with chromatin marks and genomic regions associated with active transcription and is catalysed by p300/CBP and can be regulated by estrogen signaling in MCF-7. Moreover H3K122Ac stimulates transcription as dermined by in vitro transcription assays ChIP seq study
Project description:We describe the genome-wide nucleosome profiles of four related yeast species. All species display the same global organization features first described in S. cerevisiae: a stereotypical nucleosome organization along genes, and the classification of promoters into these which contain or lack a pronounced Nucleosome Depleted region (NDR), with the latter displaying a more dynamic pattern of gene expression. This global similarity, however, does not reflect a static evolutionary pattern, as nucleosome positioning at specific genes diverged rapidly leaving practically no similarity between S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata orthologs (~50 Myr). We show that this rapid divergence in nucleosome positioning contrasts a conserved pattern of gene expression, consistent with the idea that divergence of nucleosome patterns has a limited effect on gene expression as many different configurations can support the same regulatory outcome. Nucleosomes from 4 different yeast species were isolated and sequenced using the Illumina GAII platform. Replicates were performed for 3 of the species
Project description:In eukaryotes, the chromatin architecture has a pivotal role in regulating all DNA-related processes. For P. falciparum, the causative agent of human malaria, the nucleosome landscape of the extremely AT-rich intergenic regulatory regions is largely unexplored. With the aid of a highly controlled MNase-seq procedure we reveal how positioning of nucleosomes provides a structural and regulatory framework to the transcriptional unit. We observe strong positioning of nucleosomes around splice sites that could aid co-transcriptional splicing events. In addition, nucleosome depleted regions are apparent hallmarks of transcription start sites (TSSs) and may support pre-initiation complex assembly. Moreover, we reveal nucleosome occupancy dynamics on strong TSSs during intraerythrocytic development, which correlate with gene expression changes and we observe a characteristic nucleosome architecture of functional - but not inert - TGCATGCA DNA motifs. Collectively, these findings highlight the regulatory capacity of the nucleosome landscape of this deadly human pathogen. Mnase-seq during the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle of Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-panned 3D7 parasites for 8 time-points, every 5 hours starting from 5 hours post invasion until 40 hours post-invasion (T5-T40). Cycle length of these parasites is ~43 hours, synchronicity window is ~ 8 hours. T40 has 2 technical replicates (independent digestions; T40A, T40B). Additionally, pellet control sample (T15), histone H4-ChIP control (T40A) and sonicated and amplified genomic DNA. Chromatin was digested using a combined MNase + exonuclease III treatment. Libraries were prepared according to a Plasmodium-optimized library preparation procedure including KAPA polymerase-mediated PCR amplification. Strand-specific RNA-seq for expression quantification during the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle of Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-panned 3D7 parasites for 8 time-points every 5 hours starting from 5 hours post invasion invasion until 40 hours post-invasion (T5-T40). Cycle length of these parasites is ~43 hours, synchronicity window is ~ 8 hours. These samples are originating from the exact same batch of parasites as are the MNase-Seq libraries. Libraries were prepared according to a Plasmodium-optimized library preparation procedure including KAPA polymerase-mediated PCR amplification.