Functional investigation of miRNAs by characterization of SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild type or mutant miRNA genes
ABSTRACT: Genome wide mRNA and miRNA profiling was performed in SH-SY5Y cells stably overexpressing wild type or mutant MIR204 or MIR618. Mutants came from a large scale genetic screening of brain expressed miRNA genes in patients with schizophrenia or idiopathic generalized epilepsy and in control individuals. Based on enrichment of the variants with the schizophrenic or epileptic phenotype and based on impact prediction, two variants, one near MIR204 (rs7861254) and one in MIR618 (rs2682818) were selected for functional validation. Genome wide profiling of mRNA (micro-array) and mature miRNAs (small RNA sequencing, submitted to SRA) was performed in the created stable cells to assess the effect of the variants and to investigate the function of these miRNA genes. Micro-array analysis on HTA2.0 array was performed at AROS Applied Biotechnology, Denmark. SH-SY5Y cells (purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, catalog number: 94030304-1VL) were transduced with MIR204 or MIR618 wild type or mutant constructs. The stable cells were then split to obtain biological replicates and were cultured separately prior to total RNA extraction and micro-array analysis on the HTA2.0 array. For MIR204 analysis: 2 wt cells versus 3 mutant cells; for MIR618 analysis: 3 wt cells versus 3 mutant cells were used.
Project description:Ischemic tolerance in the brain can be induced by transient limb ischemia, and this phenomenon is termed remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). It still remains elusive how this transfer of tolerance occurs. Exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier, and some molecules may transfer neuroprotective signals from the periphery to the brain. Serum miRNA-126 is associated with ischemic stroke, and exosomal miRNA-126 has shown protective effects against acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether exosomal miRNA-126 from RIPC serum can play a similar neuroprotective role. Exosomes were isolated from the venous serum of four healthy young male subjects, both before and after RIPC. Exosomal miRNA-126 was measured by real-time PCR. The miRNA-126 target sequence was predicted by bioinformatics software. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were incubated with exosomes, and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression and activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B, a potential target gene of miRNA-126, were examined in SH-SY5Y cells. The cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was also investigated. To confirm the association between miRNA-126 and DNMT3B, we overexpressed miRNA-126 in SH-SY5Y cells using lentiviral transfection. miRNA-126 expression was upregulated in RIPC exosomes, and bioinformatics prediction showed that miRNA-126 could bind with DNMT3B. DNMT levels and DNMT3B activity were downregulated in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with RIPC exosomes. After overexpression of miRNA-126 in SH-SY5Y cells, global methylation levels and DNMT3B gene expression were downregulated in these cells, consistent with the bioinformatics predictions. RIPC exosomes can affect the cell cycle and increase OGD tolerance in SH-SY5Y cells. RIPC seems to have neuroprotective effects by downregulating the expression of DNMTs in neural cells through the upregulation of serum exosomal miRNA-126.
Project description:A growing body of evidence indicates that pathological forms of amyloid beta (A?) peptide contribute to neuronal degeneration and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the impact of exogenous A?1-42 oligomers (A?O) and endogenously liberated A? peptides on transcription of genes for anti-oxidative and mitochondria-related proteins in cell lines (neuronal SH-SY5Y and microglial BV2) and in brain cortex of transgenic AD (Tg-AD) mice, respectively. Our results demonstrated significant A?O-evoked changes in transcription of genes in SH-SY5Y cells, where A?O enhanced expression of Sod1, Cat, mt-Nd1, Bcl2, and attenuated Sirt5, Sod2 and Sdha. In BV2 line, A?O increased the level of mRNA for Sod2, Dnm1l, Bcl2, and decreased for Gpx4, Sirt1, Sirt3, mt-Nd1, Sdha and Mfn2. Then, A?O enhanced free radicals level and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential only in SH-SY5Y cells, but reduced viability of both cell types. Inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and activator of sirtuin-1 more efficiently enhanced viability of SH-SY5Y than BV2 affected by A?O. Analysis of brain cortex of Tg-AD mice confirmed significant downregulation of Sirt1, Mfn1 and mt-Nd1 and upregulation of Dnm1l. In human AD brain, changes of microRNA pattern (miRNA-9, miRNA-34a, miRNA-146a and miRNA-155) seem to be responsible for decrease in Sirt1 expression. Overall, our results demonstrated a diverse response of neuronal and microglial cells to A?O toxicity. Alterations of genes encoding Sirt1, Mfn1 and Drp1 in an experimental model of AD suggest that modulation of mitochondria dynamics and Sirt1, including miRNA strategy, may be crucial for improvement of AD therapy.
Project description:Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs capable of regulating gene expression at the translational level. A number of studies have suggested that the expression of several miRNAs is changed in AD. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) is increased in serum and CSF in AD. We measured the expression of TNFA and several AD candidate gene-associated miRNAs (let7a/b, miR-128a/b, miR-27a/b, miR-155) in frontal and temporal neocortex from AD and control brains. The expression of these miRNAs was also measured after incubating non-differentiated (NDC) and retinoic acid -differentiated (DC) SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with TNF-α. TNFA expression was similar in AD and control brains but miR-128a/b levels were significantly reduced in the temporal cortex and miR-128b in the frontal cortex in AD. MiRNA levels did not correlate with TNFA expression in brain tissue but exposure of NDC and DC SH-SY5Y cells to TNF-α caused a variable dose-dependent response in the level of some of the miRNAs studied. Our brain tissue findings argue against a role for TNF-α in influencing the expression of these miRNAs in AD.
Project description:Mutations in the gene encoding the purine biosynthetic enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) cause the intractable neurodevelopmental Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) associated with aberrant development of brain dopamine pathways. In the current study, we have identified an increased expression of the microRNA miR181a in HPRT-deficient human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Among the genes potentially regulated by miR181a are several known to be required for neural development, including Engrailed1 (En1), Engrailed2 (En2), Lmx1a and Brn2. We demonstrate that these genes are down-regulated in HPRT-deficient SH-SY5Y cells and that over-expression of miR181a significantly reduces endogenous expression of these genes and inhibits translation of luciferase plasmids bearing the En1/2 or Lmx1a 3'UTR miRNA-binding elements. Conversely, inhibition of miR181a increases the expression of these genes and enhances translation of luciferase constructs bearing the En1/2 and Lmx1a 3'UTR miRNA-binding sequences. We also demonstrate that key neurodevelopmental genes (e.g. Nurr1, Pitx3, Wnt1 and Mash1) known to be functional partners of Lmx1a and Brn2 are also markedly down-regulated in SH-SY5Y cells over-expressing miR181a and in HPRT-deficient cells. Our findings in SH-SY5Y cells demonstrate that HPRT deficiency is accompanied by dysregulation of some of the important pathways that regulate the development of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine pathways and that this defect is associated with and possibly due at least partly to aberrant expression of miR181a. Because aberrant expression of miR181a is not as apparent in HPRT-deficient LND fibroblasts, the relevance of the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to human disease remains to be proven. Nevertheless, we propose that these pleiotropic neurodevelopment effects of miR181a may play a role in the pathogenesis of LND.
Project description:Evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the developed neurons in the adult brain. In contrast, the drug may be deleterious to immature or undifferentiated neural cells, although the mechanism is unclear. Recent investigations have suggested that microRNAs (miRNA) may be critical for effectiveness of psychotropic drugs including SSRI. We investigated whether fluoxetine could modulate expressions of neurologically relevant miRNAs in two neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cell lines. Initial screening results revealed that three (miR-489, miR-572 and miR-663a) and four (miR-320a, miR-489, miR-572 and miR-663a) miRNAs were up-regulated in SK-N-SH cells and SH-SY5Y cells, respectively, after 24 hours treatment of fluoxetine (1-25 ?M). Cell viability was reduced according to the dose of fluoxetine. The upregulation of miR-572 and miR-663a was consistent in both the SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells, confirmed by a larger scale culture condition. Our data is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine could increase the expression of miRNAs in undifferentiated neural cells, and that putative target genes of those miRNAs have been shown to be involved in fundamental neurodevelopmental processes.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Research on miRNAs has highlighted their importance in neural development, but the specific functions of neurally enriched miRNAs remain poorly understood. We report here the expression profile of miRNAs during neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Six miRNAs were significantly upregulated during differentiation induced by all-trans-retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We demonstrated that the ectopic expression of either miR-124a or miR-125b increases the percentage of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with neurite outgrowth. Subsequently, we focused our functional analysis on miR-125b and demonstrated the important role of this miRNA in both the spontaneous and induced differentiations of SH-SH5Y cells. miR-125b is also upregulated during the differentiation of human neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells, and miR-125b ectopic expression significantly promotes the neurite outgrowth of these cells. To identify the targets of miR-125b regulation, we profiled the global changes in gene expression following miR-125b ectopic expression in SH-SY5Y cells. miR-125b represses 164 genes that contain the seed match sequence of the miRNA and/or that are predicted to be direct targets of miR-125b by conventional methods. Pathway analysis suggests that a subset of miR-125b-repressed targets antagonizes neuronal genes in several neurogenic pathways, thereby mediating the positive effect of miR-125b on neuronal differentiation. We have further validated the binding of miR-125b to the miRNA response elements of 10 selected mRNA targets. Together, we report here for the first time the important role of miR-125b in human neuronal differentiation.
Project description:NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is a major subtype of NOX and is responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are important epigenetic regulators of NOX2. The present study aimed to identify the role of NOX2 miRNA?targets in ischemic stroke (IS). A rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury model and a SH?SY5Y cell hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model were used to simulate IS. Gene expression levels, ROS production and apoptosis in tissue or cells were determined, and bioinformatic analysis was conducted for target prediction of miRNA. In vitro experiments, including function?gain and luciferase activity assays, were also performed to assess the roles of miRNAs. The results indicated that NOX2 was significantly increased in brain tissues subjected to I/R and in SH?SY5Y cells subjected to H/R, while the expression of miR?532?3p (putative target of NOX2) was significantly decreased in brain tissues and plasma. Overexpression of miR?532?3p significantly suppressed NOX2 expression and ROS generation in SH?SY5Y cells subjected to H/R, as well as reduced the relative luciferase activity of cells transfected with a reporter gene plasmid. Collectively, these data indicated that miR?532?3p may be a target of NOX2 and a biomarker for CI/R injury. Thus, the present study may provide a novel target for drug development and IS therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SH-SY5Y cells exhibit a neuronal phenotype when treated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), but the molecular mechanism of activation in the signalling pathway mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the gene expression profiles in SK-N-SH cells and two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells (SH-SY5Y-A and SH-SY5Y-E), each of which show a different phenotype during RA-mediated differentiation. FINDINGS: SH-SY5Y-A cells differentiated in the presence of RA, whereas RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells required additional treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for full differentiation. After exposing cells to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, we identified 386 genes and categorised these genes into two clusters dependent on the PI3K signalling pathway during RA-mediated differentiation in SH-SY5Y-A cells. Transcriptional regulation of the gene cluster, including 158 neural genes, was greatly reduced in SK-N-SH cells and partially impaired in SH-SY5Y-E cells, which is consistent with a defect in the neuronal phenotype of these cells. Additional stimulation with BDNF induced a set of neural genes that were down-regulated in RA-treated SH-SY5Y-E cells but were abundant in differentiated SH-SY5Y-A cells. CONCLUSION: We identified gene clusters controlled by PI3K- and TRKB-mediated signalling pathways during the differentiation of two subtypes of SH-SY5Y cells. The TRKB-mediated bypass pathway compensates for impaired neural function generated by defects in several signalling pathways, including PI3K in SH-SY5Y-E cells. Our expression profiling data will be useful for further elucidation of the signal transduction-transcriptional network involving PI3K or TRKB.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that FTO variants strongly correlate with obesity and mainly influence energy intake with little effect on the basal metabolic rate. We suggest that FTO influences eating behavior by modulating intracellular energy levels and downstream signaling mechanisms which control energy intake and metabolism. Since FTO plays a particularly important role in adipocytes and in hypothalamic neurons, SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to understand how siRNA mediated knockdown of FTO expression alters cellular energy homeostasis. Cellular energy status was evaluated by measuring ATP levels using a luminescence assay and uptake of fluorescent glucose. FTO siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells mediated mRNA knockdown (-82%), increased ATP concentrations by up to 46% (P = 0.013) compared to controls, and decreased phosphorylation of AMPk and Akt in SH-SY5Y by -52% and -46% respectively as seen by immunoblotting. In contrast, FTO siRNA in 3T3-L1 cells decreased ATP concentration by -93% (p<0.0005), and increased AMPk and Akt phosphorylation by 204% and 70%, respectively suggesting that FTO mediates control of energy levels in a cell-type specific manner. Furthermore, glucose uptake was decreased in both SH-SY5Y (-51% p = 0.015) and 3T3-L1 cells (-30%, p = 0.0002). We also show that FTO knockdown decreases NPY mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells (-21%) through upregulation of pSTAT3 (118%). These results provide important evidence that FTO-variant linked obesity may be associated with altered metabolic functions through activation of downstream metabolic mediators including AMPk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is increasing evidence of a pivotal role for regulated mRNA translation in control of developmental cell fate transitions. Physiological and pathological stem and progenitor cell self-renewal is maintained by the mRNA-binding protein, Musashi1 through repression of translation of key mRNAs encoding cell cycle inhibitory proteins. The mechanism by which Musashi1 function is modified to allow translation of these target mRNAs under conditions that require inhibition of cell cycle progression, is unknown. RESULTS:In this study, we demonstrate that differentiation of primary embryonic rat neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) or human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells results in the rapid phosphorylation of Musashi1 on the evolutionarily conserved site serine 337 (S337). Phosphorylation of this site has been shown to be required for cell cycle control during the maturation of Xenopus oocytes. S337 phosphorylation in mammalian NSPCs and human SH-SY5Y cells correlates with the de-repression and translation of a Musashi reporter mRNA and with accumulation of protein from the endogenous Musashi target mRNA, p21(WAF1/CIP1). Inhibition of Musashi regulatory phosphorylation, through expression of a phospho-inhibitory mutant Musashi1 S337A or over-expression of the wild-type Musashi, blocked differentiation of both NSPCs and SH-SY5Y cells. Musashi1 was similarly phosphorylated in NSPCs and SH-SY5Y cells under conditions of nutrient deprivation-induced cell cycle arrest. Expression of the Musashi1 S337A mutant protein attenuated nutrient deprivation-induced NSPC and SH-SY5Y cell death. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that in response to environmental cues that oppose cell cycle progression, regulation of Musashi function is required to promote target mRNA translation and cell fate transition. Forced modulation of Musashi1 function may present a novel therapeutic strategy to oppose pathological stem cell self-renewal.