Reversal of microRNA-150 silencing disadvantages crizotinib-resistant NPM-ALK-positive cell growth.
ABSTRACT: We used bisulfite conversion and Illumina sequencing to analyse miR-150 DNA methylation pattern lost in cells treated with decitabine, a demethylating agent, Crizotinib, an inhibitor of of ALK activity or siALK Targeted bisulfite conversion and Illumina sequencing in two cell lines bearing the t(2;5)(p23;q35)
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in both solid and hematological tumors. About 80% of ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cases are characterized by the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, encoding for the aberrant fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK, whereas 5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carry the inv(2)(p21;p23) rearrangement, encoding for the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion. The ALK/c-MET/ROS inhibitor crizotinib successfully improved the treatment of ALK-driven diseases. However, several cases of resistance appeared in NSCLC patients, and ALK amino acid substitutions were identified as a leading cause of resistance to crizotinib. Second-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib resistance. In this work, we profiled in vitro the activity of crizotinib, AP26113, ASP3026, alectinib, and ceritinib against six mutated forms of ALK associated with clinical resistance to crizotinib (C1156Y, L1196M, L1152R, G1202R, G1269A, and S1206Y) and provide a classification of mutants according to their level of sensitivity/resistance to the drugs. Since the biological activity of ALK mutations extends beyond the specific type of fusion, both NPM-ALK- and EML4-ALK-positive cellular models were used. Our data revealed that most mutants may be targeted by using different inhibitors. One relevant exception is represented by the G1202R substitution, which was highly resistant to all drugs (>10-fold increased IC50 compared to wild type) and may represent the most challenging mutation to overcome. These results provide a prediction of cross-resistance of known crizotinib-resistant mutations against all second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) clinically available, and therefore could be a useful tool to help clinicians in the management of crizotinib-resistance cases.
Project description:The regulatory microRNA miR-150 is involved in the development of hemopathies and is downregulated in T-lymphomas, such as anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) tumors. ALCL is defined by the presence or absence of translocations that activate the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), with nucleophosmin-ALK (NPM-ALK) fusions being the most common. Here, we compared samples of primary NPM-ALK(+) and NPM-ALK(-) ALCL to investigate the role of miR-150 downstream of NPM-ALK. Methylation of the MIR150 gene was substantially elevated in NPM-ALK(+) biopsies and correlated with reduced miR-150 expression. In NPM-ALK(+) cell lines, DNA hypermethylation-mediated miR-150 repression required ALK-dependent pathways, as ALK inhibition restored miR-150 expression. Moreover, epigenetic silencing of miR-150 was due to the activation of STAT3, a major downstream substrate of NPM-ALK, in cooperation with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Accordingly, miR-150 repression was turned off following treatment with the DNMT inhibitor, decitabine. In murine NPM-ALK(+) xenograft models, miR-150 upregulation induced antineoplastic activity. Treatment of crizotinib-resistant NPM-ALK(+) KARPAS-299-CR06 cells with decitabine or ectopic miR-150 expression reduced viability and growth. Altogether, our results suggest that hypomethylating drugs, alone or in combination with other agents, may benefit ALK(+) patients harboring tumors resistant to crizotinib and other anti-ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Moreover, these results support further work on miR-150 in these and other ALK(+) malignancies.
Project description:DNA methylation is a complex epigenetic marker that can be analysed using a wide variety of methods. Interpretation and visualisation of DNA methylation data can mask complexity in terms of methylation status at each CpG site, cellular heterogeneity of samples and allelic DNA methylation patterns within a given DNA strand. Bisulfite sequencing is considered the gold standard, however visualisation of massively parallel sequencing results remains a significant challenge. We created a program called Methpat that facilitates visualisation and interpretation of bisulfite sequencing data generated by massively parallel sequencing. To demonstrate this, we performed multiplex PCR that targeted 48 regions of interest across 95 human samples. The regions selected included known gene promoters associated with cancer, repetitive elements, known imprinted regions and mitochondrial genomic sequences. We interrogated a range of samples including human cell lines, primary tumours and primary tissue samples. Methpat generates two forms of output: a tab delimited text file for each sample that summarises DNA methylation patterns and their read counts for each amplicon and a HTML file that summarises this data visually. Methpat can be used with publicly available whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) datasets with sufficient read depths. Using Methpat, complex DNA methylation data derived from massively parallel sequencing can be summarised and visualised for biological interpretation. By accounting for allelic DNA methylation states and their abundance in a sample, Methpat can unmask the complexity of DNA methylation and reveal further biological insight in existing datasets. Multiplex bisulfite PCR and Next Generation sequencing of primary human samples and breast cancer cell lines.
Project description:AGO3 predominantly bound 24-nt sRNAs with 5’ terminal adenine. The spectrum of AGO3-associated sRNAs was different from those bound to AGO2. By contrast, approximately 30% of AGO3-bound 24-nt sRNAs overlapped with those bound to AGO4 and over 60% of AGO3-associated 24-nt sRNA enriched loci were identical to those of AGO4. In addition, expression of AGO3 driven by AGO4 native promoter partially complemented AGO4 function and rescued DNA methylation defect in ago4-1 background. Examination of DNA methylation using bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosines in three genetic backgrounds of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:Despite the impressive efficacy of crizotinib for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer, patients invariably develop therapeutic resistance. Suppression of the IGF-1R signaling pathway may abrogate this acquired mechanism of drug resistance to crizotinib. Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reverse crizotinib resistance through inhibition of IGF-1R signaling.The present study revealed that metformin effectively increased the sensitivity of both crizotinib-sensitive and -resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells to crizotinib, as evidenced by decreased proliferation and invasion and enhanced apoptosis. Metformin reduced IGF-1R signaling activation in crizotinib-resistant cells. Furthermore, the addition of IGF-1 to crizotinib-sensitive H2228 cells induced crizotinib resistance, which was overcome by metformin.The effects of metformin to reverse crizotinib resistance were examined in vitro by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), invasion assay, ki67 incorporation assay, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot analysis, and colony-forming assay.Metformin may be used in combination with crizotinib in ALK+ NSCLC patients to overcome crizotinib resistance and prolong survival.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are present in a small subset of non-small-cell lung cancers. ALK-positivity confers sensitivity to small-molecule ALK kinase inhibitors, such as crizotinib. The integration of crizotinib into standard treatment practice in NSCLC will rest on the widespread implementation of an effective screening system for newly diagnosed patients with NSCLC which is flexible enough to incorporate new targets as treatments are developed for them. Phase I and II studies of crizotinib in ALK-positive lung cancer have demonstrated significant activity and impressive clinical benefit, which led to its early approval by USFDA in 2011. Although crizotinib induces remissions and extends the lives of patients, there have been reports of emerging resistance to Crizotinib therapy. In this review, we discuss the history, mechanism of action, uses, adverse effects, dose modifications and future challenges and opportunities for patients with ALK-positive lung cancers.
Project description:Crizotinib has been approved for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring rearrangements of the c-ROS-1 (ROS1) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genes. We report a patient with ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma who developed a crizotinib-induced mixed/cholestatic type of liver injury. The patient discontinued crizotinib after 34 days due to liver toxicity. Twenty-four days later, when transaminases and C reactive protein (CRP) were normalized, crizotinib was resumed using an oral desensitization method. The patient was successfully treated for manageable recurrence of liver injury and has been able to continue the treatment.
Project description:In 2007, a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a gene fusion leading to expression of a constitutively active anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein was identified as an oncogenic driver in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ALK rearrangements are detected in 3%-7% of patients with NSCLC and are particularly enriched in younger patients with adenocarcinoma and a never or light smoking history. Fortuitously, crizotinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor initially developed to target cMET, was able to be repurposed for ALK-rearranged (ALK+) NSCLC. Despite dramatic and durable initial responses to crizotinib; however, the vast majority of patients will develop resistance within a few years. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlie resistance to crizotinib. This review will describe the clinical activity of crizotinib, review identified mechanisms of crizotinib resistance, and end with a survey of emerging therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming crizotinib resistance.
Project description:Crizotinib is highly effective against anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive and c-ros oncogen1-positive non-small cell lung cancer. Renal dysfunction is associated with crizotinib therapy but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we report a case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive non-small cell lung cancer showing multiple cysts and dysfunction of the kidneys during crizotinib administration. We also present results demonstrating that long-term crizotinib treatment induces fibrosis and dysfunction of the kidneys by activating the tumor necrosis factor-?/nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study shows the renal detrimental effects of crizotinib, suggesting the need of careful monitoring of renal function during crizotinib therapy.