The NuRD chromatin remodelling complex regulates brain cortical development
ABSTRACT: Dynamic changes of histone epigenetic modifications and chromatin structure represent an universal mechanism by which cells adapt their transcriptional response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. During neuronal development, extensive chromatin remodeling takes place allowing the transition of pluripotent cells into differentiated neurons. Here we report that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex NuRD, which couples ATP-dependent nucleosome sliding with histone deacetylase activity, is a major remodeling complex in embryonic brain and plays an instructive role during mouse neuronal development. Importantly, the ATPase subunits of NuRD complex CHD3, CHD4 and CHD5 undergo a functional switch, thereby regulating distinct aspects of neuronal differentiation and migration in a sequential and mostly non-overlapping manner. We conclude that the recruitment of NuRD complexes containing specific CHDs to gene promoters and enhancers plays an instructive role in brain development. Gene expression analysis was performed in the mouse embryonic cortex at three developmental stages: E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5 using total RNA obtained from four embryos for each time point.
Project description:Histone modifications and chromatin remodeling represent universal mechanisms by which cells adapt their transcriptional response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. Extensive chromatin remodeling takes place during neuronal development, allowing the transition of pluripotent cells into differentiated neurons. Here, we report that the NuRD complex, which couples ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling with histone deacetylase activity, regulates mouse brain development. Subunit exchange of CHDs, the core ATPase subunits of the NuRD complex, is required for distinct aspects of cortical development. Whereas CHD4 promotes the early proliferation of progenitors, CHD5 facilitates neuronal migration and CHD3 ensures proper layer specification. Inhibition of each CHD leads to defects of neuronal differentiation and migration, which cannot be rescued by expressing heterologous CHDs. Finally, we demonstrate that NuRD complexes containing specific CHDs are recruited to regulatory elements and modulate the expression of genes essential for brain development.
Project description:PICKLE plays a critical role in repression of genes that regulate development identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. PICKLE codes for a putative ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler that exhibits sequence similarity to members of subfamily II of animal CHD remodelers, which includes remodelers such as CHD3/Mi-2 that also restrict expression of developmental regulators. Whereas animal CHD3 remodelers are a component of the Mi-2/NuRD complex that promotes histone deacetylation, PICKLE promotes trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 suggesting that it acts via a distinct epigenetic pathway. Here, we examine whether PICKLE is also a member of a multisubunit complex and characterize the biochemical properties of recombinant PICKLE protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that PICKLE-related proteins in plants share a common ancestor with members of subfamily II of animal CHD remodelers. Biochemical characterization of PICKLE in planta, however, reveals that PICKLE primarily exists as a monomer. Recombinant PICKLE protein is an ATPase that is stimulated by ssDNA and mononucleosomes and binds to both naked DNA and mononucleosomes. Furthermore, recombinant PICKLE exhibits ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity. These studies demonstrate that subfamily II CHD proteins in plants, such as PICKLE, retain ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity but act through a mechanism that does not involve the ubiquitous Mi-2/NuRD complex.
Project description:Chromatin remodeling is required for genome function and is facilitated by ATP-dependent complexes, such as nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD). Among its core components is the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3 (CHD3) whose functional significance is not well established. Here, we show that CHD3 co-localizes with the other NuRD subunits, including HDAC1, near the H3K9ac-enriched promoters of the NuRD target genes. The tandem PHD fingers of CHD3 bind histone H3 tails and posttranslational modifications that increase hydrophobicity of H3K9-methylation or acetylation (H3K9me3 or H3K9ac)-enhance this interaction. Binding of CHD3 PHDs promotes H3K9Cme3-nucleosome unwrapping in vitro and perturbs the pericentric heterochromatin structure in vivo. Methylation or acetylation of H3K9 uniquely alleviates the intra-nucleosomal interaction of histone H3 tails, increasing H3K9 accessibility. Collectively, our data suggest that the targeting of covalently modified H3K9 by CHD3 might be essential in diverse functions of NuRD.
Project description:CHD5 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and is a tumor suppressor gene. However, little is known about the role of CHD5 other than it is homologous to chromatin remodeling ATPases. We found CHD5 mRNA was restricted to the brain; by contrast, most remodeling ATPases were broadly expressed. CHD5 protein isolated from mouse brain was associated with HDAC2, p66ß, MTA3 and RbAp46 in a megadalton complex. CHD5 protein was detected in several rat brain regions and appeared to be enriched in neurons. CHD5 protein was predominantly nuclear in primary rat neurons and brain sections. Microarray analysis revealed genes that were upregulated and downregulated when CHD5 was depleted from primary neurons. CHD5 depletion altered expression of neuronal genes, transcription factors, and brain-specific subunits of the SWI/SNF remodeling enzyme. Expression of gene sets linked to aging and Alzheimer's disease were strongly altered by CHD5 depletion from primary neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed CHD5 bound to these genes, suggesting the regulation was direct. Together, these results indicate that CHD5 protein is found in a NuRD-like multi-protein complex. CHD5 expression is restricted to the brain, unlike the closely related family members CHD3 and CHD4. CHD5 regulates expression of neuronal genes, cell cycle genes and remodeling genes. CHD5 is linked to regulation of genes implicated in aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:Pericentrin is an integral centrosomal component that anchors regulatory and structural molecules to centrosomes. In a yeast two-hybrid screen with pericentrin we identified chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4/Mi2beta). CHD4 is part of the multiprotein nucleosome remodeling deacetylase (NuRD) complex. We show that many NuRD components interacted with pericentrin by coimmunoprecipitation and that they localized to centrosomes and midbodies. Overexpression of the pericentrin-binding domain of CHD4 or another family member (CHD3) dissociated pericentrin from centrosomes. Depletion of CHD3, but not CHD4, by RNA interference dissociated pericentrin and gamma-tubulin from centrosomes. Microtubule nucleation/organization, cell morphology, and nuclear centration were disrupted in CHD3-depleted cells. Spindles were disorganized, the majority showing a prometaphase-like configuration. Time-lapse imaging revealed mitotic failure before chromosome segregation and cytokinesis failure. We conclude that pericentrin forms complexes with CHD3 and CHD4, but a distinct CHD3-pericentrin complex is required for centrosomal anchoring of pericentrin/gamma-tubulin and for centrosome integrity.
Project description:ATP-dependent NuRD repressor complexes involve combinatorial assembly of its subunits. However, the mechanism of gene transcription by MTA1/NuRD remains enigmatic. Here we report that MTA1 methylation by G9a methytransferase and demethylation by LSD1 determines the nucleosome remodeling and transcriptional outcome. Contrary to the current static repressor model of the NuRD complex, we discovered that MTA1 association with nucleosomes and corepressor/coactivator complexes is dynamic. While methylated MTA1 is required for the NuRD repressor complex, demethylated MTA1 recognizes the bivalent histone H3K4-AcK9 mark and recruits coactivator NURF-trithorax remodeling complex in a signaling-dependent manner. MTA1's lysine 532 methylation represents a molecular switch as methylated and demethylated MTA1 nucleate NuRD or NURF complexes with opposite functions in a cyclical manner. In addition, MTA1 possesses an inherent histone amplifier activity with an instructive role in impacting the epigenetic landscape, providing a new perspective to the molecular governance of dual coregulator functions of a master coregulator.
Project description:Dynamic changes in chromatin structure play an important role in transcription regulation. Recent studies have revealed two mechanisms that alter chromatin structure. One involves ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and the other involves acetylation of the core histone tails. We have previously purified and characterized a multi-subunit protein complex, NuRD, which possesses both nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. Despite extensive biochemical characterization of the complex, little is known about the functions of its individual components. In this study, we focused on Mi2, a component of the NuRD complex. We found that, similar to the native NuRD complex, recombinant Mi2 is a DNA-dependent, nucleosome-stimulated ATPase. Kinetic analysis of the ATP hydrolysis reaction indicated that the differential stimulation of the Mi2 ATPase by DNA and nucleosomes were primarily due to their differential effects on the turnover number of the reaction. Furthermore, we demonstrated that recombinant Mi2 is an efficient nucleosome remodeling factor when compared to that of the native NuRD complex. Our results define the biochemical function of Mi2 and set the stage for understanding the mechanism of nucleosome remodeling in a defined reconstituted system.
Project description:One of the first events to occur upon DNA damage is the local opening of the compact chromatin architecture, facilitating access of repair proteins to DNA lesions. This early relaxation is triggered by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP1 in addition to ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. CHD4 recruits to DNA breaks in a PAR-dependent manner, although it lacks any recognizable PAR-binding domain, and has the ability to relax chromatin structure. However, its role in chromatin relaxation at the site of DNA damage has not been explored. Using a live cell fluorescence three-hybrid assay, we demonstrate that the recruitment of CHD4 to DNA damage, while being poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent, is not through binding poly(ADP-ribose). Additionally, we show that CHD3 is recruited to DNA breaks in the same manner as CHD4 and that both CHD3 and CHD4 play active roles in chromatin remodeling at DNA breaks. Together, our findings reveal a two-step mechanism for DNA damage induced chromatin relaxation in which PARP1 and the PAR-binding remodeler activities of Alc1/CHD1L induce an initial chromatin relaxation phase that promotes the subsequent recruitment of CHD3 and CHD4 via binding to DNA for further chromatin remodeling at DNA breaks.
Project description:rRNA genes (rDNA) exist in two distinct epigenetic states, active promoters being unmethylated and marked by euchromatic histone modifications, whereas silent ones are methylated and exhibit heterochromatic features. Here we show that the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex establishes a specific chromatin structure at rRNA genes that are poised for transcription activation. The promoter of poised rRNA genes is unmethylated, associated with components of the preinitiation complex, marked by bivalent histone modifications and covered by a nucleosome in the "off" position, which is refractory to transcription initiation. Repression of rDNA transcription in growth-arrested and differentiated cells correlates with elevated association of NuRD and increased levels of poised rRNA genes. Reactivation of transcription requires resetting the promoter-bound nucleosome into the "on" position by the DNA-dependent ATPase CSB (Cockayne syndrome protein B). The results uncover a unique mechanism by which ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes with opposing activities establish a specific chromatin state and regulate transcription.
Project description:The Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex is essential for embryonic development and pluripotent stem cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated whether NuRD is also involved in the reverse biological process of induction of pluripotency in neural stem cells. By knocking out MBD3, an essential scaffold subunit of the NuRD complex, at different time points in reprogramming, we found that efficient formation of reprogramming intermediates and induced pluripotent stem cells from neural stem cells requires NuRD activity. We also show that reprogramming of epiblast-derived stem cells to naive pluripotency requires NuRD complex function and that increased MBD3/NuRD levels can enhance reprogramming efficiency when coexpressed with the reprogramming factor NANOG. Our results therefore show that the MBD3/NuRD complex plays a key role in reprogramming in certain contexts and that a chromatin complex required for cell differentiation can also promote reversion back to a naive pluripotent cell state.