Prostate Cancer Risk SNPs in Androgen Receptor Target Sites
ABSTRACT: We profiled androgen receptor (AR) genomic targets using high-throughput sequencing of chromatin-immunoprecipitated (ChIP) DNA from TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene positive DUCaP prostate cancer cells. ChIp-seq and microarray gene expression profiling datasets were integrated with the NHGRI GWAS PCa risk SNPs catalog to identify disease susceptibility SNPs localized within functional androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs). Eighty GWAS index or linked SNPs were found to be localized in ARBSs. Among these rs11891426:T>G in the 7th intron of the melanophilin gene was found located within a novel putative auxiliary AR binding motif, which we found enriched in the neighborhood of canonical androgen responsive elements. T→G exchange attenuated the transcriptional activity of the ARBS in an AR reporter gene assay of prostate cancer cell models. It went also in line with decreased melanophilin protein level in primary prostate tumors with G allele.These results unravel a hidden link between androgen receptor and a functional PCa risk SNP, whose allele alteration affects androgen regulation of its host gene melanophilin . Genomic profile of androgen receptor binding sites of androgen or vehicle treated DUCaP cells using ChIP-seq. IgG precipiated DNAs from both treatments served as controls.
Project description:The spliced variant forms of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) have been identified recently in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines and clinical samples. Here we identified the cistrome and transcriptome landscape of AR-Vs in CRPC cell lines and determine the clinical significance of AR variants regulated gene.The AR variants binding sites can be identified in 22Rv1 cell line in the absence of androgen. Knocking down full-length AR (AR-FL) doesn't affect AR-Vs binding sites in genome-wide. A set of genes were identified to be regulated uniquely by AR-Vs, but not by AR-FL in androgen-depleted condition. Integrated analysis showed that some genes may be modulated by AR-Vs directly. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that AR variants gene signature can separate not only the benign and malignant prostate tissue, but also the localized prostate cancer and metastatic CRPC specimens. Some genes modulated uniquely by AR variants were also identified to correlate with the Gleason Pattern of prostate cancer and PSA failure. We conclude that AR spliced variants bind to DNA independent of full-length AR, and can modulate a unique set of genes which is not regulated by full-length AR in the absence of androgen. AR variants gene signature correlate with CRPC and prostate cnacer disease progress. Androgen receptor (AR) binding sites in human prostate cancer 22Rv1 cell lines were studied using ChIP-seq. ChIP enriched and input DNA were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important regulatory role during prostate cancer development. AR’s transcriptional activity is regulated by androgenic ligands, but also by post-translational modifications. To study the role of the AR SUMOylation in genuine chromatin environment, we compared androgen-regulated gene expression and AR chromatin occupancy in PC-3 prostate cancer and HEK293 cell lines stably expressing wild-type (wt) or SUMOylation site-mutated AR (AR-K386R,K520R). Our genome-wide gene expression analyses reveal that the SUMOylation modulates the AR function in a target gene and pathway selective manner. The transcripts that are differentially regulated by androgen and SUMOylation are linked to cellular movement, cell death, cellular proliferation, cellular development and cell cycle. In line with these data, SUMOylation mutant AR cells proliferate faster and are more sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, ChIP-seq analyses show that the SUMOylation modulates the chromatin occupancy of AR on many loci in a fashion that parallels with their differential androgen-regulated expression. De novo motif analyses show that other transcription factor-binding motifs are differentially enriched at the wtAR- and the AR-K386R,K520R-preferred genomic binding positions. Taken together, our data indicate that SUMOylation does not simply repress the AR activity, but it regulates AR’s interaction with the chromatin and the receptor’s target gene selection. Androgen receptor (AR) genomic binding was studied in wild-type AR (wtAR) or SUMOylation-deficient AR (AR-K2R) stably expressing cells PC-3 cells, in biological dublicates. Cells were treated 1h either with 10 nM R1881 or vehicle and inputs were used as controls.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of genomic loci, whose single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predispose to prostate cancer (PCa). However, the biological functions of these common genetic variants and the mechanisms to increase disease risk are largely unknown. We integrated chromatin-IP coupled sequencing (ChIP-seq) and microarray expression profiling in the TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangement positive DuCaP cell model with the NHGRI GWAS PCa risk SNPs catalog, in an attempt to identify disease susceptibility SNPs localized within functional androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs). Among the 48 GWAS index SNPs and 2,702 linked SNPs defined by the 1000G project 104 were found to be localized in the AR ChIP-seq peaks. Of these risk SNPs, rs11891426 T/G in the 7th intron of its host gene melanophilin (MLPH) was found located within a putative auxiliary ARE motif, which we found enriched in the neighborhood of canonical ARE motifs. Exchange of T to G attenuated the transcriptional activity of the MLPH-ARBS in a reporter gene assay. The expression of MLPH protein in tissue samples from prostate cancer patients was significantly lower in those with the G compared to the T allele. Moreover, a significant positive correlation of AR and MLPH protein expression levels was also confirmed in tissue samples. These results unravel a hidden link between AR and a functional PCa risk SNP rs11891426, whose allele alteration affects androgen regulation of its host gene MLPH. This study shows the power of integrative studies to pin down functional risk SNPs and justifies further investigations. Overall design: Prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DUCaP cells were cultured in the absence or presence of R1881, an androgen in three independent experiments. Differential gene expression was determined by comparing R1881 treated samples with the corresponding controls (EtOH treated samples).
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important regulatory role during prostate cancer development. AR’s transcriptional activity is regulated by androgenic ligands, but also by post-translational modifications. To study the role of the AR SUMOylation in genuine chromatin environment, we compared androgen-regulated gene expression and AR chromatin occupancy in PC-3 prostate cancer and HEK293 cell lines stably expressing wild-type (wt) or SUMOylation site-mutated AR (AR-K386R,K520R). Our genome-wide gene expression analyses reveal that the SUMOylation modulates the AR function in a target gene and pathway selective manner. The transcripts that are differentially regulated by androgen and SUMOylation are linked to cellular movement, cell death, cellular proliferation, cellular development and cell cycle. In line with these data, SUMOylation mutant AR cells proliferate faster and are more sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, ChIP-seq analyses show that the SUMOylation modulates the chromatin occupancy of AR on many loci in a fashion that parallels with their differential androgen-regulated expression. De novo motif analyses show that other transcription factor-binding motifs are differentially enriched at the wtAR- and the AR-K386R,K520R-preferred genomic binding positions. Taken together, our data indicate that SUMOylation does not simply repress the AR activity, but it regulates AR’s interaction with the chromatin and the receptor’s target gene selection. Androgen receptor (AR) genomic binding was studied in wild-type AR (wtAR) or SUMOylation-deficient AR (AR-K2R) stably expressing cells HEK293 cells, in biological dublicates. Cells were treated 40 min either with 10 nM R1881 or EtOH (vehicle) and input was used as control (FRT_input GSM1176703).
Project description:Aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional programs is a hallmark of human prostate cancers. At the molecular level, ligand-mediated AR activation is coordinated through spatial and temporal protein-protein interactions (PPIs) involving AR-interacting proteins, which we designate the “AR-interactome”. Despite many years of research, the ligand-sensitive protein complexes involved in ligand-mediated AR activation in prostate-tumor cells has not been clearly defined. Here, we describe the development, characterization, and utilization of a novel human LNCaP prostate-tumor cell line, N-AR, which stably expresses wild-type AR containing the streptavidin-binding peptide epitope tagged at its N-terminus (SBP-AR). A bioanalytical workflow involving streptavidin-chromatography and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry was used to identify SBP-AR and associated ligand-sensitive proteins/protein complexes functionally linked to AR activation in the cytosol of N-AR cells. Functional studies verified that ligand-sensitive streptavidin-copurified proteins encoded modulators of AR-mediated transcription, suggesting that these novel proteins were putative SBP-AR-interacting proteins in N-AR cells. This was supported by biochemical associations between recombinant SBP-AR and the ligand-sensitive COPI retrograde trafficking complex in vitro. Extensive biochemical and molecular experiments showed that the COPI-retrograde complex regulates ligand-mediated AR transcriptional activation through the mobilization of Golgi-localized ARA160 coactivator into the nuclear compartment of prostate-tumor cells. Collectively, this study provides a bioanalytical strategy to validate the AR-interactome and define novel AR-interacting proteins involved in ligand-mediated AR activation in prostate-tumor cells. Moreover, we describe a cellular system to study how compartment-specific AR-interacting proteins influence AR activation and contribute to aberrant AR-dependent transcription that underlies the majority of human prostate cancers.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) is a key player in prostate cancer development and progression. Here we applied immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry of endogenous AR in LNCaP cells to identify components of the AR transcriptional complex. In total, 66 known and novel AR interactors were identified in the presence of synthetic androgen, most of which were critical for AR-driven prostate cancer cell proliferation. A subset of AR interactors required for LNCaP proliferation were profiled using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays followed by sequencing, identifying distinct genomic subcomplexes of AR interaction partners. Interestingly, three major subgroups of genomic subcomplexes were identified, where selective gain of function for AR genomic action in tumorigenesis was found, dictated by FOXA1 and HOXB13. In summary, by combining proteomic and genomic approaches we reveal subclasses of AR transcriptional complexes, differentiating normal AR behavior from the oncogenic state. In this process, the expression of AR interactors has key roles by reprogramming the AR cistrome and interactome in a genomic location-specific manner.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the action of androgens by binding to androgen-responsive elements (AREs) and subsequently regulating target genes involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The precise locations, true nature, and functional roles of AREs in human prostate cancer are still unknown. Here we redefine AREs by motif-resolution AR chromatin immunoprecipitation-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) assay in human prostate cancer cells and tumors. Surprisingly, we find that, in addition to canonical full-length AREs and half-site-like AREs, a significant portion of the four redefined ARE categories comprises non-canonical full-length AREs. The redefined AREs in enhanced AR binding regions in prostate tumors versus paired non-malignant adjacent tissues regulate a prostate cancer-relevant gene network not only centered on AR, but more interestingly, on novel AR target genes mTOR, BIRC5 and BCL2L1 involved in prostate cancer cell growth and survival. The precise redefinition of AREs has important implications for understanding how AR contributes to prostate carcinogenesis. To examine the differential AR binding in LNCaP cells before and after androgen stimulation, ChIP-Seq of androgen receptor is performed in LNCaP cells under the two conditions. To profile histone modification status in control LNCaP cells, MNase-Seq is performed with five different antibodies specific to certain histone marks. Each experiment includes two replicates.
Project description:We report the androgen receptor recruitment to the chromatin of androgen responsive prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP-1F5 and VCaP in response to physiological androgen 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) using ChIP-sequencing. We compare the AR recruitment by DHT to that by partial agonist/antagonist cyproterone acetate (CPA), mifepristone (RU486) and bicalutamide (Bica) in LNCaP-1F5 cells. We also report the role of glucocorticoid receptor recruitment in presence of dexamethasone (Dex) in androgen responsive prostate cancer cells. The AR and GR cistrome analysis is subsequently compared with gene expression data and RNA Pol II analysis. The ChIP-seq has been performed using AR, GR, RNA Pol II antibodies. Examination of AR and GR binding sites in LNCaP-1F5 and VCaP cells in presence of DHT and Dex respectively. Further analysis of AR binding sites in LNCaP-1F5 cells treated with partial agonist/antagonists, CPA, RU486 and Bica. Additionally RNA Pol II mapping is performed in cells treated with DHT and Dex.
Project description:Reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) may drive recurrent prostate cancer in castrate patients. Ack1 tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in prostate cancer and promotes castrate resistant xenograft tumor growth and enhances androgen target gene expression and AR recruitment to enhancers. Ack1 phosphorylates AR at Tyr-267 in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study, the role of this phosphorylation site was investigated by characterizing the phosphorylation site mutant in the context of full length and truncated AR lacking the ligand-binding domain. The Y267F mutant showed decreased transactivation of reporters. Expression of wild type full length and truncated AR in LNCaP cells increased cell proliferation in androgen-depleted conditions and increased colony formation. However, the Y267F mutant of full length and truncated AR was defective in stimulating cell proliferation. The full length AR Y267F mutant was defective in nuclear translocation induced by androgen or Ack1 kinase. The truncated AR was constitutively localized to the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that it was recruited to the target enhancers without androgen. The truncated Y267F AR mutant did not exhibit constitutive nuclear localization and androgen enhancer binding activity. Expression of AR responsive genes in cells expressing truncated AR wt and AR-Y267F mutant under androgen deprived conditions was assessed by microarray gene expression analysis. The AR pathway score was increased in cells expressing truncated AR wt and decreased in cells expressing truncated AR-Y267F. These results support the concept that phosphorylation of Tyr-267 is required for AR nuclear translocation and recruitment and DNA binding and transcription of AR responsive genes. Gene expression profiling was performed using RNA samples from LNCaP cells expressing truncated AR-wt and truncated AR-Y267F growing in androgen deprived conditions. The RNA sample from vector control cells were used as reference sample. Two biological replicates were used per each cell line.
Project description:GATA2 and FOXA1 are pioneering factors for Androgen Receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. Less is known about their role in benign epithelial prostate cells. We investigated if they had the ability to induce differentiation in an undifferentiated prostatic context. Benign basal-like prostate epithelial cells 957E/hTERT-AR cells (a gift from John T. Isaacs lab, Johns Hopkins, MD, USA) were transduced with LentiORF RFP control lentiviral particles. The 957E/hTERT-AR-RFP cells were then transduced with GATA2 and FOXA1 lentiviral particles, and we called the new cell lines hTERT/AR-GATA2 and hTERT/AR-FOXA1, respectively. hTERT/AR-GATA2 is a stable selected cell line and treated with 1 nM anabolic steroids, R1881, or ethanol (ET-OH) for 48 hrs. 957E/hTERT/AR-FOXA1 is a transient cell line, because FOXA1 protein is quickly lost. Twenty four hours post transduction with FOXA1 lentivral particles, 1 nM androgen R1881 or ethanol (ET-OH) were added at time for medium exchange and further treated for 24 hours. GATA-2 and FOXA1 ability to induce differentiation was assessed.