LIN28A modulates splicing and gene expression programs in breast cancer cells [RNA-Seq]
ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to identify LIN28 downstream gene targets in breast cancer cells. We use a subclone of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, MCF-7M as our model system. Methods: mRNA profiles from MCF-7M breast cancer cells treated with siRNA against non-targeting control (NT), LIN28, hnRNP A1, LIN28 and hnRNPA1 (LIN28A1) for 72 hrs were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were analyzed at the transcript isoform level with two methods: Burrows–Wheeler Aligner (BWA) followed by ANOVA (ANOVA) and TopHat followed by Cufflinks. qRT–PCR validation was performed using TaqMan and SYBR Green assays Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped over 200 million sequence reads per sample to the human genome (build h19). Each of the four groups had two biological replicates. We developed a custom method to identify alternative splicing events and identified 111 genes with significant (FDR<0.05) differential splicing for LIN28 depleted cells compared to non-targeting siRNA control, as well as 249 and 182 genes for hnRNP A1 and LIN28A1 respectively. RNA-seq data were validated with by qRT–PCR analysis of a subset of genes. Conclusions: Results reveal that LIN28 regulates alternative splicing and steady state mRNA expression of genes implicated in aspects of breast cancer biology. Notably, cells lacking LIN28 undergo significant isoform switching of the ENAH gene, resulting in a decrease in the expression of ENAH exon 11a isoform. Expression of ENAH isoform 11a has been shown to be elevated in breast cancers that express HER2. mRNA profiles of MCF-7M cells treated with siRNA for NT control, LIN28, hnRNP A1, and LIN28 plus hnRNP A1 (A1) (LIN28A1) were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000
Project description:LIN28 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein with critical functions in developmental timing and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LIN28's oncogenic properties are yet to be described. RNA-protein immunoprecipitation coupled with genome-wide sequencing (RIP-Seq) analysis revealed significant LIN28 binding within 843 mRNAs in breast cancer cells. Many of the LIN28-bound mRNAs are implicated in the regulation of RNA and cell metabolism. We identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), a protein with multiple roles in mRNA metabolism, as a LIN28-interacting partner. Subsequently, we used a custom computational method to identify differentially spliced gene isoforms in LIN28 and hnRNP A1 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells. The results reveal that these proteins regulate alternative splicing and steady-state mRNA expression of genes implicated in aspects of breast cancer biology. Notably, cells lacking LIN28 undergo significant isoform switching of the ENAH gene, resulting in a decrease in the expression of the ENAH exon 11a isoform. The expression of ENAH isoform 11a has been shown to be elevated in breast cancers that express HER2. Intriguingly, analysis of publicly available array data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that LIN28 expression in the HER2 subtype is significantly different from that in other breast cancer subtypes. Collectively, our data suggest that LIN28 may regulate splicing and gene expression programs that drive breast cancer subtype phenotypes.
Project description:The goals of this study were to identify LIN28 downstream gene targets in breast cancer cells. We use a subclone of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, MCF-7M as our model system. Methods: mRNA-protein complexes (mRNP) lysates were prepared from MCF-7M cells and incubated with Protein-A Sepharose beads (Sigma-Aldrich) and either LIN28 (Abcam) or control normal rabbit serum IgG antibodies. LIN28 interacting mRNAs were identified by whole genome sequencing. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped approximately 13 million sequence reads for LIN28-IP and CTL- IP (IgG), respectively to the to the human genome (build h19). Conclusions: mRNA were significantly bound by LIN28 if LIN28 RIP had 2.5 fold increase in normalized reads compared to IgG. We found that LIN28 was predominantly bound at coding exons and 3'UTRs, 38% & 45% respectively, in the 843 mRNAs within MCF-7M genome. Overall design: LIN28 mRNA enriched regions identified from LIN28/RNA complexes prepared from MCF-7M cells.
Project description:Rac1b is an alternatively spliced isoform of the small GTPase Rac1 that includes the 57-nucleotide exon 3b. Rac1b was originally identified through its over-expression in breast and colorectal cancer cells, and has subsequently been implicated as a key player in a number of different oncogenic signaling pathways, including tumorigenic transformation of mammary epithelial cells exposed to matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3). Although many of the cellular consequences of Rac1b activity have been recently described, the molecular mechanism by which MMP-3 treatment leads to Rac1b induction has not been defined. Here we use proteomic methods to identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 as a factor involved in Rac1 splicing regulation. We find that hnRNP A1 binds to Rac1 exon 3b in mouse mammary epithelial cells, repressing its inclusion into mature mRNA. We also find that exposure of cells to MMP-3 leads to release of hnRNP A1 from exon 3b and the consequent generation of Rac1b. Finally, we analyze normal breast tissue and breast cancer biopsies, and identify an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP A1 and Rac1b, suggesting the existence of this regulatory axis in vivo. These results provide new insights on how extracellular signals regulate alternative splicing, contributing to cellular transformation and development of breast cancer.
Project description:Extracellular signals have been shown to impact on alternative pre-mRNA splicing; however, the molecular mechanisms and biological significance of signal-induced splicing regulation remain largely unknown. Here, we report that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces splicing changes through ubiquitylation of a well-known splicing regulator, hnRNP A1. EGF signaling upregulates an E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase adaptor, SPRY domain-containing SOCS box protein 1 (SPSB1), which recruits Elongin B/C-Cullin complexes to conjugate lysine 29-linked polyUb chains onto hnRNP A1. Importantly, SPSB1 and ubiquitylation of hnRNP A1 have a critical role in EGF-driven cell migration. Mechanistically, EGF-induced ubiquitylation of hnRNP A1 together with the activation of SR protein kinases (SRPKs) results in the upregulation of a Rac1 splicing isoform, Rac1b, to promote cell motility. These findings unravel a novel crosstalk between protein ubiquitylation and alternative splicing in EGF/EGF receptor signaling, and identify a new EGF/SPSB1/hnRNP A1/Rac1 axis in modulating cell migration, which may have important implications for cancer treatment.
Project description:Human mena (hMENA), a member of the actin cytoskeleton regulators Ena/VASP, is overexpressed in high-risk preneoplastic lesions and in primary breast tumors and has been identified as playing a role in invasiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancers that express HER2. Here we identify a unique isoform, hMENAΔv6, derived from the hMENA alternative splicing program. In an isogenic model of human breast cancer progression, we show that hMENA(11a) is expressed in premalignant cells, whereas hMENAΔv6 expression is restricted to invasive cancer cells. "Reversion" of the malignant phenotype leads to concurrent down-regulation of all hMENA isoforms. In breast cancer cell lines, isoform-specific hMENA overexpression or knockdown revealed that in the absence of hMENA(11a), overexpression of hMENAΔv6 increased cell invasion, whereas overexpression of hMENA(11a) reduced the migratory and invasive ability of these cells. hMENA(11a) splicing was shown to be dependent on the epithelial regulator of splicing 1 (ESRP1), and forced expression of ESRP1 in invasive mesenchymal breast cancer cells caused a phenotypic switch reminiscent of a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) characterized by changes in the cytoskeletal architecture, reexpression of hMENA(11a), and a reduction in cell invasion. hMENA-positive primary breast tumors, which are hMENA(11a)-negative, are more frequently E-cadherin low in comparison with tumors expressing hMENA(11a). These data suggest that polarized and growth-arrested cellular architecture correlates with absence of alternative hMENA isoform expression, and that the hMENA splicing program is relevant to malignant progression in invasive disease.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic program used by cancer cells to acquire invasive capabilities becoming metastatic. ?Ron, a constitutively active isoform of the Ron tyrosine kinase receptor, arises from skipping of Ron exon 11 and provided the first example of an alternative splicing variant causatively linked to the activation of tumor EMT. Splicing of exon 11 is controlled by two adjacent regulatory elements, a silencer and an enhancer of splicing located in exon 12. The alternative splicing factor and oncoprotein SRSF1 directly binds to the enhancer, induces the production of ?Ron and activates EMT leading to cell locomotion. Interestingly, we now find an important role for hnRNP A1 in controlling the activity of the Ron silencer. HnRNP A1 is able to antagonize the binding of SRSF1 and prevent exon skipping. Notably, hnRNP A1, by inhibiting the production of ?Ron, activates the reversal program, namely the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, which instead occurs at the final metastasis sites. Also, hnRNP A1 affects Ron splicing by regulating the expression level of hnRNP A2/B1, which similarly to SRSF1 can promote ?Ron production. These results shed light on how splicing regulation contributes to the tumor progression and provide potential targets to develop anticancer therapies.
Project description:Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is one of the most abundant RNA binding proteins. hnRNP A1 is localized prevalently in the nucleus but it can relocate to the cytoplasm in response to specific stimuli shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. The cellular localization of this protein is regulated by a short C-terminus motif (M9) and other less defined sequences. The RNA binding specificity of this protein is dependent on multiple RNA binding domains (RBDs), which regulate its role in RNA processing and expression. hnRNP A1 plays multiple roles in gene expression by regulating the biogenesis and translation of messengers RNAs, the processing of miRNAs, affecting transcription and controlling telomere maintenance. The multiple functions of this protein correlate with diverse roles in genetic disease, cancer and the replication of viral pathogens. Utilizing a tagged hnRNP A1 deletion library we have shown that the three hnRNP A1 RBDs contribute to the prevalent nuclear distribution of the protein. Our data also indicate that a truncated form of the protein, lacking one of the RBDs, the RGG-box, can regulate splicing of a splicing reporter minigene and down-regulate replication of the HIV-1 virus with efficiency comparable to the wild-type protein. This functional hnRNP A1 deletion mutant is similar to a predicted hnRNP A1 isoform, which had not been previously experimentally characterized.
Project description:APOL1 risk alleles G1 or G2 are associated with a kidney disease phenotype exclusively in people of recent African ancestry. Here we show that exon 4 encoding a part of the APOL1 signal peptide is constitutively spliced in major APOL1 transcripts expressed in kidney glomerular and tubular cells. We demonstrate that constitutive splicing of exon 4 results from a suboptimal hnRNP A1 binding motif found in exon 4. Accordingly, a robust binding of hnRNP A1 protein to a consensus hnRNP A1 cis-acting element in exon 4 results in almost complete exclusion of exon 4 from the APOL1 minigene transcripts. Blocking the 5' splice site at the exon 4/intron boundary with a specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotide excludes exon 4 from the splicing pattern of endogenous APOL1 transcripts. These transcripts are fully functional and produce APOL1 protein isoform that is not normally detectable in podocytes. Together with our previous data showing no cytotoxicity of overexpressed APOL1 isoform lacking exon 4, we propose that morpholino-induced APOL1 isoform switch may provide a new tool to identify in vivo molecular mechanism(s) by which risk alleles promote or mediate the kidney disease phenotype.
Project description:The pluripotency-promoting proteins Lin28a and Lin28b act as post-transcriptional repressors of let-7 miRNA biogenesis in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. The levels of mature let-7a differ substantially in cells lacking Lin28 expression, indicating the existence of additional mechanism(s) of post-transcriptional regulation. Here, we present evidence supporting a role for heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) as a negative regulator of let-7a. HnRNP A1 binds the conserved terminal loop of pri-let-7a-1 and inhibits its processing by Drosha. Levels of mature let-7a negatively correlate with hnRNP A1 levels in somatic cell lines. Furthermore, hnRNP A1 depletion increased pri-let-7a-1 processing by cell extracts, whereas its ectopic expression decreased let-7a production in vivo. Finally, hnRNP A1 binding to let-7a interferes with the binding of KSRP, which is known to promote let-7a biogenesis. We propose that hnRNP A1 and KSRP have antagonistic roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of let-7a expression.
Project description:The expression and role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) controlling mRNA translation during tumor progression remains largely uncharacterized. Analysis by immunohistochemistry of the expression of hnRNP A1, hnRNPH, RBM9/FOX2, SRSF1/ASF/SF2, SRSF2/SC35, SRSF3/SRp20, SRSF7/9G8 in breast tumors shows that the expression of hnRNP A1, but not the other tested RBPs, is associated with metastatic relapse. Strikingly, hnRNP A1, a nuclear splicing regulator, is also present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells of a subset of patients displaying exceedingly worse prognosis. Expression of a cytoplasmic mutant of hnRNP A1 leads to increased translation of the mRNA encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor RON/MTS1R, known for its function in tumor dissemination, and increases cell migration in vitro. hnRNP A1 directly binds to the 5' untranslated region of the RON mRNA and activates its translation through G-quadruplex RNA secondary structures. The correlation between hnRNP A1 and RON tumoral expression suggests that these findings hold clinical relevance.