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Omics score: 300
Regulatory T cells from colonic lamina propria [RNA-Seq]
ABSTRACT: The colonic lamina propria contains a distinct population of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) that modulate responses to commensal microbes. Analysis of gene expression revealed that the transcriptome of colonic Tregs is distinct from splenic and other tissue Tregs. Rorγ and Helios in colonic Tregs mark distinct populations: Rorγ+Helios- or Rorγ-Helios+ Tregs. We uncovered an unanticipated role for Rorγ, a transcription factor generally considered to be antagonistic to Foxp3. Rorγ in colonic Tregs accounts for a small but specific part of the colon-specific Treg signature. Nrp1- Tregs were sorted from Foxp3-cre.Rorcfl/fl mice, which have a Treg-selective deletion of Rorc, or paired WT littermates. For low-input RNAseq, 1,000 TCRb+CD4+YFP(Foxp3)+Nrp1- cells were double-sorted into Trizol, RNA extracted and reverse-transcribed using ArrayScript (Ambion). To reduce variability at least three replicates were generated.
Project description:We report age-related gene expression of Treg cells isolated from injured muscle and spleen. Male C57BL/6 Foxp3-GFP reporter mice were injured intramuscularly with cardiotoxin. Tregs were sorted directly into Trizol from injured muscle and spleen 4 days post-injury. Gene expression profiling of muscle and splenic Tregs from 2- vs >6-month old mice (biological duplicate for each).
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells are characterized by the expression of CD4, CD25 and the intracellular Foxp3. However, these markers do not indicate whether Treg cells are thymic derived Treg (tTreg) cells or peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells. Recently, Helios and Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) has been reported as potential markers for tTreg cells. Herein, we used flow cytometry to examine the proportion of CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) Treg cells expressing Helios, Nrp1 and Foxp3 in thymus, pancreatic draining lymph nodes (PDLNs) and spleen of CD-1 mice, and thymus of NOD and C57BL/6 mice. The frequency of Helios(+) cells was higher than that of Nrp1(+) cells in CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in thymus. Interestingly, the proportion of IL-10(+), Ebi3(+)and CTLA-4(+) cells was higher in Helios(+) than Nrp1(+) tTreg cells. The anti-apoptotic activity of Helios(+) tTreg cells was higher in thymus compared to Nrp1(+) tTreg cells. Nrp1 seems to be expressed at a later developmental stage compared to Helios and Foxp3. Furthermore, the expression of Nrp1 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells of younger mice did not increase after stimulating them in vitro with anti-CD3 and -CD28. Thus, under these conditions, Helios could be considered a more reliable marker for distinguishing tTreg cells from pTreg cells than Nrp1.
Project description:The colonic lamina propria contains a distinct population of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) that modulate responses to commensal microbes. Analysis of gene expression revealed that the transcriptome of colonic Tregs is distinct from splenic and other tissue Tregs. Rorγ and Helios in colonic Tregs mark distinct populations: Rorγ+Helios- or Rorγ-Helios+ Tregs. We uncovered an unanticipated role for Rorγ, a transcription factor generally considered to be antagonistic to Foxp3. Rorγ in colonic Tregs accounts for a small but specific part of the colon-specific Treg signature. (1) Total colonic and splenic Foxp3+ Treg comparison: Lymphocytes were isolated from colonic lamina propria and spleens of Foxp3-ires-GFP mice, where GFP reports Foxp3 expression. TCRb+CD4+GFP+ cells were double sorted into Trizol. (2) Colonic Rorγ+ and Rorγ- Treg comparison: Foxp3-ires-Thy1.1 reporter mice were crossed to Rorc-GFP reporter mice to generate mice that report both Foxp3 and Rorγ expression. Rorγ+Foxp3+ Tregs (TCRb+CD4+Thy1.1+GFP+) and Rorγ-Foxp3+ Tregs (TCRb+CD4+Thy1.1+GFP-) from colonic lamina propria were double sorted into Trizol.To reduce variability and increase cell number, cells from multiple mice were pooled for sorting and at least three replicates were generated for all groups. RNA from 1.5-3.0 x104 cells was amplified, labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays.
Project description:Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain self-tolerance and adoptive therapy, and using Foxp3(+) Tregs has been proposed as treatment for autoimmune diseases. The clinical use of Tregs will require large numbers of cells and methods for in vitro expansion of Tregs are being developed. Foxp3(+) Tregs can be divided into 2 subpopulations based on expression of the transcription factor, Helios. Foxp3(+)Helios(+) Tregs (70%) are thymic-derived, whereas Foxp3(+)Helios(-) Tregs (30%) are induced in the periphery. Foxp3(+)Helios(+) Tregs differ from Foxp3(+)Helios(-) Tregs in terms of epigenetic changes at the Foxp3 locus, their capacity to produce effector cytokines, and their stability of Foxp3 expression on days to weeks of expansion in vitro. Addition of a 25 mer DNA oligonucleotide of random composition for a short period during the expansion of Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro results in prolonged stabilization of the Foxp3(+)Helios(+) subpopulation and yields an optimal population for use in cellular biotherapy.
Project description:FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for preventing intestinal inflammation. However, FOXP3+ T cells are paradoxically increased in the intestines of patients with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We determined whether these FOXP3+ cells in IBD patients share or lack the phenotype of such cells from patients without IBD.We quantified and characterized FOXP3+ Treg populations, as well as FOXP3- CD4+ T cells, in the lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) of intestine surgically resected from patients with and without IBD, and in the blood of controls or Crohn's patients with or without disease activity.In all samples, a similar fraction of FOXP3+ cells expressed the "natural" Treg (nTreg) marker Helios, suggesting that, in IBD, these cells are not entirely "induced" Tregs (iTregs) derived from activated effector T cells. Helios+ and Helios- FOXP3+ T cells demonstrated similar expression of maturation markers, activation markers, and inhibitory molecules between IBD patients and controls, while FOXP3- cells paradoxically expressed more of the inhibitory receptors CD39, CTLA4, and PD-1 in inflamed mucosa. Greater expression of activation markers was also seen in both Helios+ and Helios- Tregs, relative to FOXP3- cells, in both IBD patients and controls, indicating that Tregs are effectively activated by antigen in IBD.Extensive immunophenotyping revealed that Helios+ and Helios- mucosal Tregs exist at a similar frequency, and have a similar expression of inhibitory molecules and activation markers in patients with IBD as in healthy controls.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are functionally suppressive CD4 T cells, critical for establishing peripheral tolerance and controlling inflammatory responses. Previous reports of Tregs during chronic HIV disease have conflicting results with higher or lower levels compared with controls. Identifying true Tregs with suppressive activity proves challenging during HIV infection, as traditional Treg markers, CD25 and FOXP3, may transiently upregulate expression as a result of immune activation (IA). Helios is an Ikaros family transcription factor that marks natural Tregs with suppressive activity and does not upregulate expression after activation. Coexpression of FOXP3 and Helios has been suggested as a highly specific marker of "bona fide" Tregs. We evaluated Treg subsets by FOXP3 coexpressed with either CD25 or Helios and their association with HIV disease progression in perinatally infected HIV-positive children. Identifying Tregs by FOXP3 coexpression with Helios rather than CD25 revealed markedly higher Treg frequencies, particularly in HIV+ children. Regardless of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected children had a selective expansion of memory FOXP3+Helios+ Tregs. The rise in memory Tregs correlated with declining HIV clinical status, indicated by falling CD4 percentages and CD4:CD8 ratios and increasing HIV plasma viremia and IA. In addition, untreated HIV+ children exhibited an imbalance between the levels of Tregs and activated T cells. Finally, memory Tregs expressed IA markers CD38 and Ki67 and exhaustion marker, PD-1, that tightly correlated with a similar phenotype in memory CD4 T cells. Overall, HIV-infected children had significant disruptions of memory Tregs that associated with advancing HIV disease.
Project description:The transcription factor c-Rel has been shown to be crucial for development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Recent studies have reported that the expression of transcription factor Helios in Foxp3+ Tregs correlates with thymic origin of these cells (tTregs). Notably, we found that only the Helios+Foxp3+ Treg cell population was substantially reduced in c-Rel deficient mice. In contrast to a defective tTreg development, we observed an expansion of mucosal Tregs during the induction of acute colitis in rel-/- mice. Furthermore, we found a preferential accumulation of Helios-Foxp3+ Tregs in aged c-Rel deficient mice. This unexpected finding, together with the observation that naïve CD4+ T cells convert into Tregs in vitro in the absence of c-Rel and presence of IL-2, provide an evidence that extra-thymic generation of induced and peripheral Tregs (iTregs and pTregs) is independent of c-Rel. Moreover, the treatment with IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb (JES6-1) resulted in a widespread increase of Helios+Foxp3+ Tregs in both wild-type (WT) and rel-/- mice. These data suggest that exogenous IL-2 administration compensates for defective IL-2 production and reduced tTreg numbers in c-Rel deficient mice. Our findings reveal that c-Rel is essential for the generation of tTregs but not for that of pTregs and iTregs.
Project description:Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in control of autoimmunity and pathological immune responses. Helios, the Ikarus family transcription factor, binds to the Foxp3 promoter, stabilizing its expression, and is expressed in 70% of peripheral Tregs of healthy individuals. This frequency is altered during malignancy, infection, and autoimmunity, although the mechanisms that control proliferation and relative numbers of Helios(+/-) Tregs remain largely unknown. Using a T-cell-monocyte in vitro stimulation assay, we now show that proliferation of Helios(+) Tregs is inhibited by CD16(+) monocyte subset. Antibody blocking with anti-interleukin (IL)-12 reversed this inhibition, whereas addition of IL-12 suppressed Helios(+) Treg expansion, indicating that CD16(+) monocyte control of Helios(+) Treg numbers is mediated through IL-12. In contrast, proliferation of Helios(-) Tregs, which express higher levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRII), was suppressed by TNF-?, whereas anti-TNF-? and anti-TNFRII reversed the inhibition. CD16(-) monocyte subset was mainly responsible for TNF-?-mediated control of Helios(-) Treg expansion. Altogether, these data suggest a differential role for monocyte subsets in control of Helios(+/-) Treg development that is mediated by distinct inflammatory cytokines. These data may have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis as well as control of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Project description:A subpopulation (60-70%) of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in both mouse and man expresses the transcription factor Helios, but its role in Treg function is still unknown. We generated Treg-specific Helios-deficient mice to examine the function of Helios in Tregs. We show that the selective deletion of Helios in Tregs leads to slow, progressive systemic immune activation, hypergammaglobulinemia, and enhanced germinal center formation in the absence of organ-specific autoimmunity. Helios-deficient Treg suppressor function was normal in vitro, as well as in an in vivo inflammatory bowel disease model. However, Helios-deficient Tregs failed to control the expansion of pathogenic T cells derived from scurfy mice, failed to mediate T follicular regulatory cell function, and failed to control both T follicular helper cell and Th1 effector cell responses. In competitive settings, Helios-deficient Tregs, particularly effector Tregs, were at a disadvantage, indicating that Helios regulates effector Treg fitness. Thus, we demonstrate that Helios controls certain aspects of Treg-suppressive function, differentiation, and survival.
Project description:The transcription factor Helios is expressed in a large subset of Foxp3+ Tregs. We previously proposed that Helios is a marker of thymic derived Treg (tTreg), while Helios- Treg were induced from Foxp3- T conventional (Tconv) cells in the periphery (pTreg). To compare the two Treg subpopulations, we generated Helios-GFP reporter mice and crossed them to Foxp3-RFP reporter mice. The Helios+ Treg population expressed a more activated phenotype, had a slightly higher suppressive capacity in vitro and expressed a more highly demethylated TSDR but were equivalent in their ability to suppress inflammatory bowel disease in vivo. However, Helios+ Treg more effectively inhibited the proliferation of activated, autoreactive splenocytes from scurfy mice. When Helios+ and Helios- Treg were transferred to lymphoreplete mice, both populations maintained comparable Foxp3 expression, but Foxp3 expression was less stable in Helios- Treg when transferred to lymphopenic mice. Gene expression profiling demonstrated a large number of differentially expressed genes and showed that Helios- Treg expressed certain genes normally expressed in CD4+ Foxp3- T cells. TCR repertoire analysis indicated very little overlap between Helios+ and Helios- Treg. Thus, Helios+ and Helios- Treg subpopulations are phenotypically and functionally distinct and express dissimilar TCR repertoires.