Response of human corneal epithelial cells to the secretomes of wild-type Serratia marcescens and an eepR mutant strain
ABSTRACT: The bacterium Serratia marcescens is a common contaminant of contact lens cases and lenses. Serratamolide is one of the secreted hemolytic/cytotoxic factors which contribute to the virulence of this opportunistic pathogen (PMID 22615766). A newly identified transcription factor (eepR) is essential for serratamolide production (PMID 25897029). In the present study, we used immortalized human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells (PMID 12766048) as targets for the secreted products of either wild-type (WT) S. marcescens or an isogenic eepR mutant. Microarray data showed that at sub - cytotoxic levels, the secretome of WT bacteria stimulated a > 2-fold response in 712 unique characterized genes. Analysis showed that immune/inflammatory response pathways are significantly enriched in these genes. The scaled response of eepR, ((eepR - control)/(WT – control)), was < 0.5 for 418 of these 712 genes (59%). Pathway analysis of these 2-fold attenuated genes confirmed that they too represented immune/inflammatory responses. These data demonstrate that the serratamolide-deficient eepR mutant evokes a much weaker immune/inflammatory response from a clinically relevant cellular target than does the wild-type bacterium. A common batch of HCLE cells was used. Independent preparations of Serratia marcescens secretomes were made for each experiment.
Project description:In order to identify changes in the global mRNA transcriptome caused by deletion of the RNA-binding protein Hfq in Serratia marcescens, total mRNA was isolated from wild type Serratia marcescens Db10 and an otherwise isogenic strain carrying an in-frame deletion of the hfq gene (SMDB11_4482) and analysed by RNAseq. Four independent biological replicates were sequenced for each strain using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The data was used to identify the nature and extent of changes in transcript level between the two strains and to inform on the role of Hfq in virulence of Serratia marcescens, an opportunist bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative bacterium and often causes nosocomial infections. There have been few studies of the virulence factors of this bacterium. The only S. marcescens hemolytic and cytotoxic factor reported, thus far, is the hemolysin ShlA.An S. marcescens shlAB deletion mutant was constructed and shown to have no contact hemolytic activity. However, the deletion mutant retained hemolytic activity on human blood agar plates, indicating the presence of another S. marcescens hemolytic factor. Functional cloning of S. marcescens identified a phospholipase A (PhlA) with hemolytic activity on human blood agar plates. A phlAB deletion mutant lost hemolytic activity on human blood agar plates. Purified recombinant PhlA hydrolyzed several types of phospholipids and exhibited phospholipase A1 (PLA1), but not phospholipase A2 (PLA2), activity. The cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of PhlA both required phospholipids as substrates.We have shown that the S. marcescens phlA gene produces hemolysis on human blood agar plates. PhlA induces destabilization of target cell membranes in the presence of phospholipids. Our results indicated that the lysophospholipids produced by PhlA affected cell membranes resulting in hemolysis and cell death.
Project description:Association of bacteria with fungi is a major area of research in infection biology, however, very few strains of bacteria have been reported that can invade and reside within fungal hyphae. Here, we report the characterization of an endofungal bacterium Serratia marcescens D1 from Mucor irregularis SS7 hyphae. Upon re-inoculation, colonization of the endobacterium S. marcescens D1 in the hyphae of Mucor irregularis SS7 was demonstrated using stereo microscopy. However, S. marcescens D1 failed to invade into the hyphae of the tested Ascomycetes (except Fusarium oxysporum) and Basidiomycetes. Remarkably, Serratia marcescens D1 could invade and spread over the culture of F. oxysporum that resulted in mycelial death. Prodigiosin, the red pigment produced by the Serratia marcescens D1, helps the bacterium to invade fungal hyphae as revealed by the increasing permeability in fungal cell membrane. On the other hand, genes encoding the type VI secretion system (T6SS) assembly protein TssJ and an outer membrane associated murein lipoprotein also showed significant up-regulation during the interaction process, suggesting the involvement of T6SS in the invasion process.
Project description:Serratia marcescens WW4 is a biofilm-forming bacterium isolated from paper machine aggregates. Under conditions of phosphate limitation, this bacterium exhibits intergeneric inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, the complete genome sequence of S. marcescens WW4, which consists of one circular chromosome (5,241,455 bp) and one plasmid (pSmWW4; 3,248 bp), was determined.
Project description:A 16-year-old female Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) died two days after recognition of conjunctivitis in the right eye, anorexia and depression. Gross necropsy revealed a thick pseudomembrane under the eyelid and hydropericardium. Histopathological examination revealed hepatocellular necrosis, sinusoidal and vascular congestion and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Infiltration by inflammatory cells was noted in the epicardium. The lungs had mild interstitial pneumonia with the extensive congestion within the capillaries of the air sacs. Tubular interstitial congestion and necrosis was noted in the kidneys. Bacterial culture and nucleotide sequencing of the inflammatory specimens identified the causative agent as Serratia marcescens, an uncommon bacterium in birds. In summary, this study describes the sudden death of an Indian peafowl due to S. marcescens infection, which is rarely seen in animals.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is an environmental bacterium that is commonly associated with outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Investigations of S. marcescens outbreaks require efficient recovery and typing of clinical and environmental isolates. In this study, we investigated how the use of next-generation sequencing applications, such as bacterial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and bacterial community profiling, could improve S. marcescens outbreak investigations. Phylogenomic links and potential antibiotic resistance genes and plasmids in S. marcescens isolates were investigated using WGS, while bacterial communities and relative abundances of Serratia in environmental samples were assessed using sequencing of bacterial phylogenetic marker genes (16S rRNA and gyrB genes). Typing results obtained using WGS for the 10 S. marcescens isolates recovered during a NICU outbreak investigation were highly consistent with those obtained using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the current standard typing method for this bacterium. WGS also allowed the identification of genes associated with antibiotic resistance in all isolates, while no plasmids were detected. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes both showed greater relative abundances of Serratia at environmental sampling sites that were in close contact with infected babies. Much lower relative abundances of Serratia were observed following disinfection of a room, indicating that the protocol used was efficient. Variations in the bacterial community composition and structure following room disinfection and among sampling sites were also identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Together, results from this study highlight the potential for next-generation sequencing tools to improve and to facilitate outbreak investigations.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium causally linked to acroporid serratiosis, a form of white pox disease implicated in the decline of elkhorn corals. We report draft genomes of 38 S. marcescens isolates collected from host and nonhost sources. The availability of these genomes will aid future analyses of acroporid serratiosis.
Project description:The physiology of a newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae Isolate (SCBI), which is both a nematode mutualist and an insect pathogen, was investigated and compared to that of Serratia marcescens Db11, a broad-host-range pathogen. The two Serratia strains had comparable levels of virulence for Manduca sexta and similar cytotoxic activity patterns, but motility and lipase and hemolytic activities differed significantly between them.
Project description:Global loss of honey bee colonies is threatening the human food supply. Diverse pathogens reduce honey bee hardiness needed to sustain colonies, especially in winter. We isolated a free-living Gram negative bacillus from hemolymph of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) found separated from winter clusters. In some hives, greater than 90% of the dying bees detached from the winter cluster were found to contain this bacterium in their hemolymph. Throughout the year, the same organism was rarely found in bees engaged in normal hive activities, but was detected in about half of Varroa destructor mites obtained from colonies that housed the septic bees. Flow cytometry of hemolymph from septic bees showed a significant reduction of plasmatocytes and other types of hemocytes. Interpretation of the16S rRNA sequence of the bacterium indicated that it belongs to the Serratia genus of Gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria, which has not previously been implicated as a pathogen of adult honey bees. Complete genome sequence analysis of the bacterium supported its classification as a novel strain of Serratia marcescens, which was designated as S. marcescens strain sicaria (Ss1). When compared with other strains of S. marcescens, Ss1 demonstrated several phenotypic and genetic differences, including 65 genes not previously found in other Serratia genomes. Some of the unique genes we identified in Ss1 were related to those from bacterial insect pathogens and commensals. Recovery of this organism extends a complex pathosphere of agents which may contribute to failure of honey bee colonies.
Project description:Serratia marcescens, a gram-negative bacterium, found in a wide range of ecological niches can produce several high-value products, including prodigiosin, althiomycin, and serratamolide. Among them, prodigiosin has attracted attention due to its immunosuppressive, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind prodigiosin synthesis in Serratia marcescens remains limited. Here, a transposon mutant library was constructed to identify the genes related to prodigiosin synthesis, and BVG90_02415 gene encoding a peptidoglycan synthesizing enzyme D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase DacA was found to negatively regulates prodigiosin synthesis. Quantitative measurements revealed that disruption of dacA increased prodigiosin production 1.46-fold that of the wild-type strain JNB5-1 in fermentation medium. By comparing differences in cell growth, pigA gene expression level, cell morphology, membrane permeability, and intracellular prodigiosin concentration between wild-type strain JNB5-1 and dacA mutant SK4-72, results revealed that the mechanism for hyper-producing of prodigiosin by the dacA mutant was probably that dacA disruption enhanced prodigiosin leakage, which in turn alleviated feedback inhibition of prodigiosin and increased expression of pig gene cluster. Collectively, this work provides a novel insight into regulatory mechanisms of prodigiosin synthesis and uncovers new roles of DacA protein in regulating cell growth, cell morphology, and membrane permeability in Serratia marcescens. Finally, this study offers a new strategy for improving production of high-value compounds in Serratia marcescens.