Gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells treated with the methanol leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (T. indica)
ABSTRACT: The leaf extract of T. indica had been reported to posses high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. However, scientific data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial properties of the leaf extract are still lacking. In this study, the effects of the leaf extract on the expression of genes in cultured HepG2 cells were investigated using microarray technology. The leaf extract significantly regulated the expression of genes involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response. HepG2 cells were seeded and treated with an IC20 concentration of the methanol leaf extract of T. indica for 24 h. Following this, cells were trypsinized and then preciptated by centrifugation. Cells were washed with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) before total cellular RNA (tcRNA) were extracted from the cells. tcRNA from both untreated and T. indica leaf-treated HepG2 cells were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. All experiments were done in triplicate. The microarray analysis was performed on Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 S.T Array according to the manufacturer's protocol. The gene sets were then subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the Partek Genomics Suite software to determine significantly expressed genes which was set according to P value less than 0.05 and fold change difference of equal to or greater than 1.5.
Project description:The water extract of the leaf of B. racemosa had been reported to posses high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. However, scientific data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial properties of the leaf extract are still lacking. In this study, the effects of the leaf extract on the expression of genes in cultured HepG2 cells were investigated using microarray technology. The leaf extract significantly regulated the expression of genes involved with consequential impact on the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and metabolism of xenobiotics. HepG2 cells were seeded and treated with an 50 µg/ml of the water leaf extract of B. racemosa for 24 h. Following this, cells were trypsinized and then preciptated by centrifugation. Cells were washed with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) before total cellular RNA (tcRNA) were extracted from the cells. tcRNA from both untreated and B. racemosa leaf-treated HepG2 cells were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. All experiments were done in triplicate. The microarray analysis was performed on Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 S.T Array according to the manufacturer's protocol. The gene sets were then subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the Partek Genomics Suite software to determine significantly expressed genes which was set according to P value less than 0.05 and fold change difference of equal to or greater than 1.5.
Project description:The leaf extract of Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica) had been reported to possess high phenolic content and showed high antioxidant activities. In this study, the effects of the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of the T. indica on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, H2O2-induced ROS production and gene expression patterns were investigated in liver HepG2 cells. Lipid peroxidation and ROS production were inhibited and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was enhanced when the cells were treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that 207 genes were significantly regulated by at least 1.5-fold (p < 0.05) in cells treated with the antioxidant-rich leaf extract. The expression of KNG1, SERPINC1, SERPIND1, SERPINE1, FGG, FGA, MVK, DHCR24, CYP24A1, ALDH6A1, EPHX1 and LEAP2 were amongst the highly regulated. When the significantly regulated genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, "Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry, Hematological Disease" was the top biological network affected by the leaf extract, with a score of 36. The top predicted canonical pathway affected by the leaf extract was the coagulation system (P < 2.80 × 10(-6)) followed by the superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis (P < 2.17 × 10(-4)), intrinsic prothrombin pathway (P < 2.92 × 10(-4)), Immune Protection/Antimicrobial Response (P < 2.28 × 10(-3)) and xenobiotic metabolism signaling (P < 2.41 × 10(-3)). The antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica also altered the expression of proteins that are involved in the Coagulation System and the Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway (KNG1, SERPINE1, FGG), Superpathway of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (MVK), Immune protection/antimicrobial response (IFNGR1, LEAP2, ANXA3 and MX1) and Xenobiotic Metabolism Signaling (ALDH6A1, ADH6). In conclusion, the antioxidant-rich leaf extract of T. indica inhibited lipid peroxidation and ROS production, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and significantly regulated the expression of genes and proteins involved with consequential impact on the coagulation system, cholesterol biosynthesis, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and antimicrobial response.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol lowering effects of Tamarindus indica extract have been previously described. We have also shown that the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the expression of lipid-associated genes including ABCG5 and APOAI in HepG2 cells. In the present study, effects of the same extract on the release of proteins from the cells were investigated using the proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When culture media of HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the expression of seven proteins was found to be significantly different (p<0.03125). Five of the spots were subsequently identified as alpha enolase (ENO1), transthyretin (TTR), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I; two isoforms), and rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI-2). A functional network of lipid metabolism, molecular transport and small molecule biochemistry that interconnects the three latter proteins with the interactomes was identified using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the release of ENO1, ApoA-I, TTR and GDI-2 from HepG2 cells. Our results provide support on the effect of T. indica extract on cellular lipid metabolism, particularly that of cholesterol.
Project description:The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.
Project description:Herein, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a green route using the aqueous leaf extract of Morus indica L. V1. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited maximum UV-Vis absorbance at 460 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The average diameter (~54 nm) of AgNPs was measured from HR-TEM analysis. EDX spectra also supported the formation of AgNPs, and negative zeta potential value (-14 mV) suggested its stability. Moreover, a shift in the carbonyl stretching (from 1639 cm-1 to 1630 cm-1) was noted in the FT-IR spectra of leaf extract after AgNPs synthesis which confirm the role of natural products present in leaves for the conversion of silver ions to AgNPs. The four bright circular rings (111), (200), (220) and (311) observed in the selected area electron diffraction pattern are the characteristic reflections of face centered cubic crystalline silver. LC-MS/MS study revealed the presence of phytochemicals in the leaf extract which is responsible for the reduction of silver ions. MTT assay was performed to investigate the cytotoxicity of AgNPs against two human cell lines, namely HepG2 and WRL-68. The antibacterial study revealed that MIC value of the synthesized AgNPs was 80 µg/ml against Escherichia coli K12 and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96). Finally, the synthesized AgNPs at 10 µg/ml dosages showed beneficial effects on the survivability, body weights of the Bombyx mori L. larvae, pupae, cocoons and shells weights via enhancing the feed efficacy.
Project description:Tumor suppression by the extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) works via anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, demonstrated previously using cancer cell lines and live animal models. However, very little is known about the molecular targets and pathways that neem extracts and their associated compounds act through. Here, we address this using a genome-wide functional pooled shRNA screen on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines treated with crude neem leaf extracts, known for their anti-tumorigenic activity. We analyzed differences in global clonal sizes of the shRNA-infected cells cultured under no treatment and treatment with neem leaf extract conditions, assayed using next-generation sequencing. We found 225 genes affected the cancer cell growth in the shRNA-infected cells treated with neem extract. Pathway enrichment analyses of whole-genome gene expression data from cells temporally treated with neem extract revealed important roles played by the TGF-? pathway and HSF-1-related gene network. Our results indicate that neem extract affects various important molecular signaling pathways in head and neck cancer cells, some of which may be therapeutic targets for this devastating tumor.
Project description:Colonization of barley roots with the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica enhances resistance against the leaf pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). To identify genes involved in this mycorrhiza-induced systemic resistance, we used the Affymetrix Barley1 22K gene chip for leaf transcriptome analysis of P. indica-colonized and non-colonized barley plants 12, 24 and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi) with a compatible Bgh strain.
Project description:Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku, belongs to the family Sapotaceae. We found that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract has cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line in our earlier study. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells. We also aimed to unravel yet undiscovered mechanisms and identified several expressed genes whose functions in cytotoxicity activity of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells have not been well-studied. The apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities were analyzed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The associated molecular pathways were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can increase percentage of early apoptotic cells, induce the formation of ROS, upregulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduce Akt1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) transcriptional activities. Our data suggest that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can suppress the growth of HepG2 cells via modulation of ERK1/2/Akt1/JNK1 transcriptional expression.
Project description:Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.
Project description:Ecological awareness brought adequate innovations in the corrosion prevention technology in the last decade. Plant extracts are an interesting category among them, being the rich source of phytochemicals explored as corrosion inhibitors in various electrolytic media instead of toxic synthetic materials. Herein, the most ample tropical plant Mangifera indica L. leaf (MIL) extract was prepared, and its antioxidant ability has been utilized for corrosion prevention of commercial steel in 3.5 wt % NaCl environment. A rich source of polyphenol content provided excellent anticorrosive property. Corrosion prevention occurs by forming an insoluble organometallic complex between metal ions and functional groups in the antioxidants at the metal-electrolyte interface. A new simple strategy is adopted here to make bio-extract containing epoxy coating on steel. An MIL-precipitated amorphous silica hybrid is incorporated in epoxy coating. Electrochemical measurement demonstrated that the developed coating has a superlative corrosion inhibition efficiency of 99%. Thus, the present findings demonstrate a novel environmentally benign, efficient corrosion inhibitor for steel protection in saline media.