Project description:Purpose: We aimed to identify miRNAs which are induced by the Activin/Nodal effectors, P-Smad2/3, in order to further our understanding of how P-Smad2/3 controls downstream gene expression in mouse ES cells to regulate crucial biological processes. Methods: We used a previously developed Tetracycline-On (Tet-On) system (TAG1) to manipulate the levels of P-Smad2/3 in mouse ES cells and performed an Illumina deep-sequencing screen to identify miRNAs which followed the P-Smad2/3 pathway. Results: We filtered the deep-seq data to identify a list of 28 miRNAs which showed a >1.25 fold increase in response to P-Smad2/3 induction and a >1.25 fold decrease in response to P-Smad2/3 repression. Conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive global profiling of miRNA expression in response to changes in P-Smad2/3 levels in mouse ES cells. miRNA profiles of TAG1 cells which were untreated (control), SB-431541 treated (P-Smad2/3 repressed), or Dox treated (P-Smad2/3 induced), were generated using Illumina GAII.
Project description:The Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein AGO1 associates with microRNA (miRNA) and specific classes of short-interfering RNA (siRNA). AGO1-small RNA complexes recognize target RNA transcripts through base-pairing interactions and inhibit translation of target RNAs through endonucleolytic cleavage (slicing) or non-degradative mechanisms. The PIWI domain of AGO1 contains a metal-coordinating triad [Asp-Asp-His] (DDH) that is required for slicer activity. Here, we compared the activities of wild type (DDH) and slicer active-site defective (DAH) forms of AGO1 by sequencing small RNA and target transcript RNAs that co-immunoprecipitated with hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged AGO1 proteins. We found that the population of miRNA that associated with both AGO1-DDH and AGO1-DAH proteins largely overlapped, suggesting that cleavage activity does not affect miRNA maturation. In contrast, slicer-defective AGO1-miRNA complexes associated with target RNA more effectively than did wild type AGO1-miRNA. These data indicate that slicer-defective AGO proteins can be used as an approach to capture AGO-small RNA-target RNA ternary complexes more efficiently for genome-wide analyses. AGO1-DDH (wild type) AGO1-DAH (slicer mutant) proteins were immunoprecipitated (N-terminal 3xHA) from Arabidopsis (Columbia) flower (stages 1-12) lysate. Immunoprecipitations were also done from control plants transformed with vector only. Small RNA from immunoprecipitate fractions of vector, AGO1-DDH and AGO1-DAH were sequenced.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, are posttranscriptional regulators involved in a plethora of cellular functions and have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets in various diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we sought to discover novel miR associations in synovial fibroblasts (SFs), a key cell type mediating RA pathogenesis, by performing miR expression profiling on cells isolated from the human TNF transgenic mouse model (TghuTNF or Tg197). METHODS: miR expression in SFs isolated from 8-week-old, fully diseased TghuTNF and WT littermate control mice were determined by deep sequencing of small RNAs and the arthritic profile was established by pairwise comparisons of the two groups. qRT-PCR analysis was utilised for profile validation purposes and miR quantitation in patient SFs. Dysregulated miR target genes and pathways were predicted via bioinformatic algorithms. Synovial Fibroblasts isolated from TghuTNF mice (2 x biological replicates) and control WT littermate mice (2 x biological replicates)
Project description:The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Xist is a master regulator of X-chromosome inactivation in mammalian cells. Models for how Xist and other lncRNAs function depend on thermodynamically stable secondary and higher-order structures that RNAs can form in the context of a cell. Probing accessible RNA bases can provide data to build models of RNA conformation that provide insight into RNA function, molecular evolution, and modularity. To study the structure of Xist in cells, we built upon recent advances in RNA secondary structure mapping and modeling to develop Targeted Structure-Seq, which combines chemical probing of RNA structure in cells with target-specific massively parallel sequencing. By enriching for signals from the RNA of interest, Targeted Structure-Seq achieves high coverage of the target RNA with relatively few sequencing reads, thus providing a targeted and scalable approach to analyze RNA conformation in cells. We use this approach to probe the full-length Xist lncRNA to develop new models for functional elements within Xist, including the repeat A element in the 5'-end of Xist. This analysis also identified new structural elements in Xist that are evolutionarily conserved, including a new element proximal to the C repeats that is important for Xist function. Examination of dimethylsufate reactivity of Xist lncRNA and 18S rRNA in cells using targeted reverse transcription to determine reactivity, and comparisons with untreated control samples.
Project description:miR-132 and miR-212 are structurally-related microRNAs that have been found to exert powerful modulatory effects within the central nervous system (CNS). Notably, these microRNAs are tandomly processed from the same non-coding transcript, and share a common seed sequence: thus it has been difficult to assess the distinct contribution of each microRNA to gene expression within the CNS. Here, we employed a combination of conditional knockout and transgenic mouse models to examine the contribution of the miR-132/212 gene locus to learning and memory, and then to assess the distinct effects that each microRNA has on hippocampal gene expression. Using a conditional deletion approach, we show that miR-132/212 double knockout mice exhibit significant cognitive deficits in spatial memory, recognition memory, and in tests of novel object recognition. Next, we utilized transgenic miR-132 and miR-212 overexpression mouse lines and the miR-132/212 double knockout line explore the distinct effects of these two miRNAs on the transcriptional profile of the hippocampus. Illumina sequencing revealed that miR-132/212 deletion increased the expression of 1,138 genes; Venn analysis showed that 96 of these genes were also downregulated in mice overexpressing miR-132. Of the 58 genes that were decreased in animals overexpressing miR-212, only four of them were also increased in the knockout line. Functional gene ontology analysis of downregulated genes revealed significant enrichment of genes related to synaptic transmission, neuronal proliferation, and morphogenesis, processes known for their roles in learning, and memory formation. These data, coupled with previous studies, firmly establish a role for the miR-132/212 gene locus as a key regulator of cognitive capacity. Further, although miR-132 and miR-212 share a seed sequence, these data indicate that these miRNAs do not exhibit strongly overlapping mRNA targeting profiles, thus indicating that, these two genes may function in a complex, non-redundant manner to shape the transcriptional profile of the CNS. The dysregulation of miR-132/212 expression could contribute to signaling mechanisms that are involved in an array of cognitive disorders Hippocampal mRNA was isolated from CaMKII-Cre::miR-132/212f/f, tTA::miR132, and tTA::miR212 animals, as well as their respective nontransgenic controls. cDNA from six animals was pooled into three independent biological replicates for each. Libraries were prepared according to the Illumina TruSeqTM Sample Preparation Guide and sequenced using an Illumina Genome Analyzer II. Sequences were aligned to the UCSC mm9 reference genome using Bowtie v0.12.7 and custom R scripts. The sequence data have been submitted to the NCBI Short Read Archive with accession number in progress. Relative abundance was measured in Fragments Per Kilobase of exon per Million fragments mapped using Cufflinks v1.2.
Project description:Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening condition that can give rise to a number of neurological disorders, including learning deficits, depression, and epilepsy. Many of the effects of SE appear to be mediated by alterations in gene expression. To gain deeper insight into how SE affects the transcriptome, we employed the pilocarpine SE model in mice and Illumina-based high-throughput sequencing to characterize alterations in gene expression from the induction of SE, to the development of spontaneous seizure activity. While some genes were upregulated over the entire course of the pathological progression, each of the three sequenced time points (12-hour, 10-days and 6-weeks post-SE) had a largely unique transcriptional profile. Hence, genes that regulate synaptic physiology and transcription were most prominently altered at 12-hours post-SE; at 10-days post-SE, marked changes in metabolic and homeostatic gene expression were detected; at 6-weeks, substantial changes in the expression of cell excitability and morphogenesis genes were detected. At the level of cell signaling, KEGG analysis revealed dynamic changes within the MAPK pathways, as well as in CREB-associated gene expression. Notably, the inducible expression of several noncoding transcripts was also detected. These findings offer potential new insights into the cellular events that shape SE-evoked pathology. cDNA from two animals was pooled into two independent biological replicates for each timepoint (ie. two sets of two animals per experimental group: control, 12 hours, 10 days, 6 weeks). Samples were sequenced using a Genome Analyzer II (GAII) at a concentration of 10pM in each lane. Base-calling was conducted with the standard Illumina Analysis Pipeline 1.0 (Firescrest-Bustard). Eight FASTQ sequence files (sequencing reads plus quality information) were generated and mapped to the mouse genome (UCSC mm9) using the Bowtie algorithm with default settings. A C++ program was used to count the number of uniquely mapped reads within exons of Ref-Seq genes (UCSC Genome Browser mm9 annotation).
Project description:Drosophila Insulator proteins mediate long-range chromosomal interactions. ChIP-seq revealed that binding of insulator proteins to some specific DNA sites was regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in S2 cells. Three insulator sites regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation were used as baits to map their distant interacting sites using 4C assay in control S2 cells. Mapping the chromosomal interactions of three specific insulator binding sites with 4C assay in control S2 cells.
Project description:Genomewide DNA methylation profiles, generated by MeDIP-seq, for 8.5dpc wildtype and Dnmt3l-/+ mouse embryos were compared to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that depend on the activity of the de novo DNA methyltransferase cofactor Dnmt3l in the oocyte. These DMRs were further characterised by their methylation state in mature mouse sperm and in the livers of inter-subspecies newborn mice. Maternal ICRs were identified by hypomethylation in Dnmt3l-/+ embryos as well as sperm, and maternal allele-specific methylation in liver. MeDIP-seq for two pools of wildtype and two pools of Dnmt3l-/+ mouse 8.5dpc embryos, the sperm of three sires, and 12 pools of three different embryonic livers each. Sliding window read count comparison between wildtype and Dnmt3l-/+ embryos, and between wildtype embryos and sperm samples. Read count comparison between the parental alleles at known SNP sites in inter-subspecies liver data.
Project description:Protein-RNA interactions are integral components of nearly every aspect of biology including regulation of gene expression, assembly of cellular architectures, and pathogenesis of human diseases. However, studies in the past few decades have only uncovered a small fraction of the vast landscape of the protein-RNA interactome in any organism, and even less is known about the dynamics of protein-RNA interactions under changing developmental and environmental conditions. Here, we describe the gPAR-CLIP (global photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunopurification) approach for capturing regions of the transcriptome bound by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in budding yeast. We report over 13,000 RBP crosslinking sites in untranslated regions (UTR) covering 72% of protein-coding transcripts encoded in the genome, confirming 3’ UTRs as major sites for RBP interaction. Comparative genomic analyses reveal that RBP crosslinking sites are highly conserved, and RNA folding predictions indicate that secondary structural elements are constrained by protein binding and may serve as generalizable modes of RNA recognition. Finally, 38% of 3’ UTR crosslinking sites show changes in RBP occupancy upon glucose or nitrogen deprivation, with major impacts on metabolic pathways as well as mitochondrial and ribosomal gene expression. Our study offers an unprecedented view of the pervasiveness and dynamics of protein-RNA interactions in vivo. Duplicate gPAR-CLIP and mRNA-seq libraries were sequenced from yeast strains for each of three conditions: log-phase growth, growth after 2 hour glucose starvation, and growth after 2 hour nitrogen starvation. Additional duplicate mRNA-seq libraries were sequenced from yeast strains grown in the absence of 4-thiouracil. gPAR-CLIP libraries were used to determine regions of mRNA bound by proteins. mRNA-seq libraries served as controls for mRNA abundance. A Puf3p PAR-CLIP library was sequenced to determine how well gPAR-CLIP captured the binding signatures of a single RNA-binding protein.
Project description:Protein binding is essential to the transport, decay and regulation of almost all RNA molecules. However, the structural preference of protein binding on RNAs and their cellelar functions and dynamics upon changing environmental condictions are poorly understood. Here, we integrated various high-throughput data and introduced a computational framework to describe the global interactions between RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and structured RNAs in yeast at single-nucleotide resolution. We found that on average, in terms of percent total lengths, ~15% of mRNA untranslated regions (UTRs), ~37% of canonical ncRNAs and ~11% of long ncRNA (lncRNAs) are bound by proteins. The RBP binding sites, in general, tend to occur at single-stranded loops, with evolutionarily conserved signatures, and often facilitate a specific RNA structure conformation in vivo. We found that four nucleotide modifications of tRNA are significantly associated with RBP binding. We also identified various structural motifs bound by RBPs in the UTRs of mRNAs, associated with localization, degradation and stress responces. Moreover, we identified >200 novel lncRNAs bound by RBPs, and about half of them contain conserved secondary structures. We present the first ensemble pattern of RBP binding sites in the structured noncoding regions of a eukaryotic genome, emphasizing their structural context and cellular functions. Duplicate gPAR-CLIP libraries were sequenced from yeast strains for each of three conditions: log-phase growth, growth after 2 hour glucose starvation, and growth after 2 hour nitrogen starvation. polyA RNAs were isolated for all conditions. Total RNA were isolated from log phase growth conditions. Sucrose gradient fractionation was performed: some RNAs were isolated from the "light" fraction (lighter than 40S ribosome) and some from the "heavy" fraction. gPAR-CLIP libraries were used to determine regions of RNA bound by proteins.