ATAC-sequencing in control and Stag2 knockdown cells
ABSTRACT: We performed ATAC-sequencing in LSK cells (Lin(neg)/c-Kit(+)/Sca-1(+)) from shRNA mice carrying an shRNA for either Renilla or Stag2. ATAC-sequencing control (Renilla) and Stag2 knockdown cells.
Project description:We performed RNA-sequencing in LSK cells (Lin(neg)/c-Kit(+)/Sca-1(+)) from shRNA mice carrying an shRNA for Renilla, Smc1a or Stag2. RNA-sequencing control (Renilla) and cohesin (Smc1a and Stag2) knockdown cells.
Project description:We characterize a novel human cohesinopathy originated from a familial germline mutation of the gene encoding the cohesin subunit STAG2, which we propose to call STAG2-related X-linked Intellectual Deficiency. Five individuals carry a STAG2 p.Ser327Asn (c.980?G?>?A) variant that perfectly cosegregates with a phenotype of syndromic mental retardation in a characteristic X-linked recessive pattern. Although patient-derived cells did not show overt sister-chromatid cohesion defects, they exhibited altered cell cycle profiles and gene expression patterns that were consistent with cohesin deficiency. The protein level of STAG2 in patient cells was normal. Interestingly, STAG2 S327 is located at a conserved site crucial for binding to SCC1 and cohesin regulators. When expressed in human cells, the STAG2 p.Ser327Asn mutant is defective in binding to SCC1 and other cohesin subunits and regulators. Thus, decreased amount of intact cohesin likely underlies the phenotypes of STAG2-SXLID. Intriguingly, recombinant STAG2 p.Ser327Asn binds normally to SCC1, WAPL, and SGO1 in vitro, suggesting the existence of unknown in vivo mechanisms that regulate the interaction between STAG2 and SCC1.
Project description:Mutations in the STAG2 gene are present in ?20% of tumors from different tissues of origin. STAG2 encodes a subunit of the cohesin complex, and tumors with loss-of-function mutations are usually aneuploid and display elevated frequencies of lagging chromosomes during anaphase. Lagging chromosomes are a hallmark of chromosomal instability (CIN) arising from persistent errors in kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) attachment. To determine whether the loss of STAG2 increases the rate of formation of kMT attachment errors or decreases the rate of their correction, we examined mitosis in STAG2-deficient cells. STAG2 depletion does not impair bipolar spindle formation or delay mitotic progression. Instead, loss of STAG2 permits excessive centromere stretch along with hyperstabilization of kMT attachments. STAG2-deficient cells display mislocalization of Bub1 kinase, Bub3 and the chromosome passenger complex. Importantly, strategically destabilizing kMT attachments in tumor cells harboring STAG2 mutations by overexpression of the microtubule-destabilizing enzymes MCAK (also known as KIF2C) and Kif2B decreased the rate of lagging chromosomes and reduced the rate of chromosome missegregation. These data demonstrate that STAG2 promotes the correction of kMT attachment errors to ensure faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal cancer characterized by complex aberrant genomes. A fundamental goal of current studies is to identify those somatic events arising in the variable landscape of PDA genomes that can be exploited for improved clinical outcomes. METHODS: We used DNA content flow sorting to identify and purify tumor nuclei of PDA samples from 50 patients. The genome of each sorted sample was profiled by oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization and targeted resequencing of STAG2. Transposon insertions within STAG2 in a KRAS (G12D)-driven genetically engineered mouse model of PDA were screened by RT-PCR. We then used a tissue microarray to survey STAG2 protein expression levels in 344 human PDA tumor samples and adjacent tissues. Univariate Kaplan Meier analysis and multivariate Cox Regression analysis were used to assess the association of STAG2 expression relative to overall survival and response to adjuvant therapy. Finally, RNAi-based assays with PDA cell lines were used to assess the potential therapeutic consequence of STAG2 expression in response to 18 therapeutic agents. RESULTS: STAG2 is targeted by somatic aberrations in a subset (4%) of human PDAs. Transposon-mediated disruption of STAG2 in a KRAS (G12D) genetically engineered mouse model promotes the development of PDA and its progression to metastatic disease. There was a statistically significant loss of STAG2 protein expression in human tumor tissue (Wilcoxon-Rank test) with complete absence of STAG2 staining observed in 15 (4.3%) patients. In univariate Kaplan Meier analysis nearly complete STAG2 positive staining (>95% of nuclei positive) was associated with a median survival benefit of 6.41 months (P?=?0.031). The survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was only seen in patients with a STAG2 staining of less than 95% (median survival benefit 7.65 months; P?=?0.028). Multivariate Cox Regression analysis showed that STAG2 is an independent prognostic factor for survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Finally, we show that RNAi-mediated knockdown of STAG2 selectively sensitizes human PDA cell lines to platinum-based therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these iterative findings we propose that STAG2 is a clinically significant tumor suppressor in PDA.
Project description:Here we report the discovery of truncating mutations of the gene encoding the cohesin subunit STAG2, which regulates sister chromatid cohesion and segregation, in 36% of papillary non-invasive urothelial carcinomas and 16% of invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. Our studies suggest that STAG2 has a role in controlling chromosome number but not the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. These findings identify STAG2 as one of the most commonly mutated genes in bladder cancer.
Project description:The cohesin subunit STAG2 has emerged as a recurrently inactivated tumor suppressor in human cancers. Using candidate approaches, recent studies have revealed a synthetic lethal interaction between STAG2 and its paralog STAG1 To systematically probe genetic vulnerabilities in the absence of STAG2, we have performed genome-wide CRISPR screens in isogenic cell lines and identified STAG1 as the most prominent and selective dependency of STAG2-deficient cells. Using an inducible degron system, we show that chemical genetic degradation of STAG1 protein results in the loss of sister chromatid cohesion and rapid cell death in STAG2-deficient cells, while sparing STAG2-wild-type cells. Biochemical assays and X-ray crystallography identify STAG1 regions that interact with the RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. STAG1 mutations that abrogate this interaction selectively compromise the viability of STAG2-deficient cells. Our work highlights the degradation of STAG1 and inhibition of its interaction with RAD21 as promising therapeutic strategies. These findings lay the groundwork for the development of STAG1-directed small molecules to exploit synthetic lethality in STAG2-mutated tumors.
Project description:Recent data have identified STAG2, a core subunit of the multifunctional cohesin complex, as a highly recurrently mutated gene in several types of cancer. We sought to identify a therapeutic strategy to selectively target cancer cells harboring inactivating mutations of STAG2 using two independent pairs of isogenic glioblastoma cell lines containing either an endogenous mutant STAG2 allele or a wild-type STAG2 allele restored by homologous recombination. We find that mutations in STAG2 are associated with significantly increased sensitivity to inhibitors of the DNA repair enzyme PARP. STAG2-mutated, PARP-inhibited cells accumulated in G2 phase and had a higher percentage of micronuclei, fragmented nuclei, and chromatin bridges compared with wild-type STAG2 cells. We also observed more 53BP1 foci in STAG2-mutated glioblastoma cells, suggesting that these cells have defects in DNA repair. Furthermore, cells with mutations in STAG2 were more sensitive than cells with wild-type STAG2 when PARP inhibitors were used in combination with DNA-damaging agents. These data suggest that PARP is a potential target for tumors harboring inactivating mutations in STAG2, and strongly recommend that STAG2 status be determined and correlated with therapeutic response to PARP inhibitors, both prospectively and retrospectively, in clinical trials.
Project description:Most cancer cells are characterized by aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. We have identified a clue to the mechanistic origins of aneuploidy through integrative genomic analyses of human tumors. A diverse range of tumor types were found to harbor deletions or inactivating mutations of STAG2, a gene encoding a subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division. Because STAG2 is on the X chromosome, its inactivation requires only a single mutational event. Studying a near-diploid human cell line with a stable karyotype, we found that targeted inactivation of STAG2 led to chromatid cohesion defects and aneuploidy, whereas in two aneuploid human glioblastoma cell lines, targeted correction of the endogenous mutant alleles of STAG2 led to enhanced chromosomal stability. Thus, genetic disruption of cohesin is a cause of aneuploidy in human cancer.
Project description:Similar to their adult counterparts, the prognosis for pediatric patients with high-grade gliomas remains poor. At time of recurrence, treatment options are limited and remain without consensus. This report describes the genetic findings, obtained from whole-exome sequencing of a pediatric patient with glioblastoma who underwent multiple surgical resections and treatment with standard chemoradiation, as well as a novel recombinant poliovirus vaccine therapy. Strikingly, despite the variety of treatments, there was persistence of a tumor clone, characterized by a deleterious STAG2 mutation, whose deficiency in preclinical studies can cause aneuploidy and aberrant mitotic progression, but remains understudied in the clinical setting. There was near elimination of an EGFR mutated and amplified tumor clone after gross total resection, standard chemoradiation, and poliovirus therapy, followed by the emergence of a persistently STAG2 mutated clone, with rare mutations in PTPN11 and BRAF, the latter composed of a novel deleterious mutation previously not reported in pediatric glioblastoma (p.D594G). This was accompanied by a mutation signature shift towards one characterized by increased DNA damage repair defects, consistent with the known underlying STAG2 deficiency. As such, this case represents a novel report following the clinical and genetic progression of a STAG2 mutated glioblastoma, including treatment with a novel and emerging immunotherapy. Although STAG2 deficiency comprises only a small subset of gliomas, this case adds clinical evidence to existing preclinical data supporting a role for STAG2 mutations in gliomagenesis and resistance to standard therapies.
Project description:Cohesin is a multi-protein complex that tethers sister chromatids during mitosis and mediates DNA repair, genome compartmentalisation and regulation of gene expression. Cohesin subunits frequently acquire cancer loss-of-function alterations and act as tumour suppressors in several tumour types. This has led to increased interest in cohesin as potential target in anti-cancer therapy. Here we show that the loss-of-function of STAG2, a core component of cohesin and an emerging tumour suppressor, leads to synthetic dependency of mutated cancer cells on its paralog STAG1. STAG1 and STAG2 share high sequence identity, encode mutually exclusive cohesin subunits and retain partially overlapping functions. We inhibited STAG1 and STAG2 in several cancer cell lines where the two genes have variable mutation and copy number status. In all cases, we observed that the simultaneous blocking of STAG1 and STAG2 significantly reduces cell proliferation. We further confirmed the synthetic lethal interaction developing a vector-free CRISPR system to induce STAG1/STAG2 double gene knockout. We provide strong evidence that STAG1 is a promising therapeutic target in cancers with inactivating alterations of STAG2.