Circulating miRNA signature in bile of pateints with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) vs cholangiocarcinoma (CC)
ABSTRACT: RNA was isolated from bile of pateints with PAS or CC and global microRNA profiling was done using miRNome microRNA Profiler QuantiMir Human PCR Array (#RA660A-1, version 15; BioCat, Heidelberg, Germany) Three arrays were performed for the PSC group with pooled RNA from n = 5 patients each and two arrays for the CC group with pools of RNA from n = 4 patients each
Project description:RNA was isolated from serum of pateints with PAS, CC and healthy controls. Global microRNA profiling was done using miRNome microRNA Profiler QuantiMir Human PCR Array (#RA660A-1, version 15; BioCat, Heidelberg, Germany) miRNA arrays were performed on pooled RNA samples from six patients for PSC and CC each and a comparison was performed to healthy control patients. MiRNAs with Ct value above 32 were discarded.
Project description:Background. Abcb4 (-/-) mice secrete phosphatidylcholine-deficient bile and develop sclerosing cholangitis (SC). The cholangitis involves differential hepatic transcription of genes whose products govern inflammation, activation of hepatic stellate cells and fibrosis. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that several genes involved in regulation of tissue inflammation and fibrosis display transcription rates that reflect SC disease activity. Methods. Abcb4 (-/-) mice fed cholic acid (CA) display high SC activity and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) fed mice display low SC activity. Differential hepatic transcription of genes was accordingly measured in abcb4 (-/-) mice maintained on CA- and UDCA-supplemented diets using cDNA microarrays. Abcb4 (+/+) mice served as controls. The differential transcription of selected genes was verified by real time polymerase chain reaction. Liver tissue pathology was quantified by histopathology scoring and immunohistochemistry to visualize bile duct cells and activated hepatic stellate cells. Results. Differential transcription of Ccl2, Ccl20, Cxcl10, Nfκb1, Nfκb2, Tgfβ1, Tgfβ2, Sparc, Ctgf, Lgals3, Elf3, Spp1, Pdgfa, Pdgfrb, Col1a1, Col1a2 and Col4a1 genes paralleled the differing SC activities of cholic acid- and UDCA-fed abcb4 (-/-) mice. Histopathology scores and immunohistochemistry showed greatly enhanced activation of hepatic stellate cells during high SC activity due to CA feeding. Conclusion. Differential transcription of several genes relating to tissue inflammation and hepatic stellate cell activation parallels SC activity in abcb4 (-/-) mice. Data on their differential transcription may be used to gauge SC disease activity. Overall design: To achieve different degrees of disease activity we have fed the mice with either cholic acid (CA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for 9 weeks to increase and decrease disease activity, respectively. Each group uses wild type mice as controls. 5 different mice (livers) in each group was harvested. In 3 hybridizations wild-type livers were marked with Cy3, in 2 hybridizations wild-type livers were marked with Cy5. In addition to these 5 hybridizations one dye swap was performed from a randomly selected liver from the 5 and wild-type marked with Cy5. Thus, a total of 6 hybridizations was used as input for data-processing in each of the two groups. No pooling was done.
Project description:Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common intractable form of epilepsy in adults and status epilepticus (SE) is the most severe form of seizure that can be non-convulsive and is then difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis of both conditions is principally based on clinical examination and history, often depending on EEG and imaging. A molecular biomarker of these two conditions would be transformational in supporting both diagnoses.Cerebrospinal fluid offers an alternative source of microRNA biomarkers with the advantage of being in closer contact with the target tissue and sites of pathology. The present study indicates cerebrospinal fluid may contain microRNA biomarkers of TLE and SE and offers insights into trafficking mechanisms of biofluid microRNAs that may further enhance diagnostic value. Overall design: microRNA expression in the CSF of 15 patients with headache, 15 pateints with TLE and 15 pateints with SE was measured by TaqMan OpenArray Human MicroRNA Panel.
Project description:Background and aims: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is the main mediator of interleukin-6 type cytokine signaling required for hepatocyte proliferation and hepatoprotection but its role in sclerosing cholangitis and other cholestatic liver diseases remains unresolved. Methods: We investigated the role of Stat3 in inflammation-induced cholestatic liver injury and used mice lacking the multidrug resistance gene 2 (mdr2-/-) as a model for SC. Results: We demonstrate that conditional inactivation of stat3 in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (stat3 delta hc) of mdr2-/- mice strongly aggravated bile acid-induced liver injury and fibrosis. A similar phenotype was observed in mdr2-/- mice lacking IL-6 production. Biochemical and molecular characterization suggested that Stat3 exerts hepatoprotective functions in both, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Loss of Stat3 in cholangiocytes led to increased expression of TNFα which might reduce the barrier function of bile ducts. Loss of Stat3 in hepatocytes led to upregulation of bile acid biosynthesis genes and downregulation of hepatoprotective epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathways. Consistently, stat3deltahc mice were more sensitive to cholic acid-induced liver damage than control mice. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Stat3 prevents cholestasis and liver damage in sclerosing cholangitis via regulation of pivotal functions in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Affymetrix microarray analyses was performed to identify metabolic and molecular pathways in stat3Dhc mdr2-/- mice that lead to cholestasis and bile acid-induced liver injury. To avoid false positive results that are due to differential cellular composition, we defined the onset of fibrosis and expression of fibrogenic factors in stat3Dhc mdr2-/- mice.
Project description:Newborn Balb/c mice were injected with 1.5x10^6 fluorescent-forming units (ffu) of Rhesus rotavirus type-A or 0.9% NaCl (normal saline) intraperitoneally within 24 hours of birth to induce experimental model of biliary atresia. The extrahepatic bile ducts including gallbladder were microdissected en bloc at 3, 7 and 14 days after rhesus rotavirus or saline injection. TaqMan® Array Rodent MicroRNA Card v2.0 (A and B) were used to screen microRNAs whose expression was differently regulated after rhusus rotavirus injection compare to the normal saline controls. microRNA expression profiling. Each experimental conditon has 3 sets samples . Two to six extrahepatic bileducts were pooled prior to total RNA isolation depending on the size to ensure adequate RNA quantities to perform experiments quantifying microRNA expression.
Project description:Endothelial cells from normal or cirrhotic CD1 mice were screened for changes in microRNA expression using an Affymetrix array. Total RNA (including microRNA) was extracted from whole liver tissue of CD1 mice, and microRNA expression was assessed using an Affymetrix array. N=1 for each condition (cirrhosis induced by bile duct ligation, control).
Project description:Background and aims: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is the main mediator of interleukin-6 type cytokine signaling required for hepatocyte proliferation and hepatoprotection but its role in sclerosing cholangitis (SC) and other cholestatic liver diseases remains unresolved. Methods: We investigated the role of Stat3 in inflammation-induced cholestatic liver injury and used mice lacking the multidrug resistance gene 2 (mdr2-/-) as a model for SC. Results: We demonstrate that conditional inactivation of stat3 in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (stat3Δhc) of mdr2-/- mice strongly aggravated bile acid-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Similarly, stat3Δhc mice are more sensitive to cholic acid feeding than control mice. Global gene expression analysis demonstrated that hepatoprotective signals via epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 are affected upon loss of Stat3. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Stat3 protects cholangiocytes and hepatocytes from bile acid-induced damage thereby preventing liver fibrosis in cholestatic diseases. Overall design: Affymetrix microarray analyses was performed to identify metabolic and molecular pathways in stat3Δhc mdr2-/- mice that lead to cholestasis and bile acid-induced liver injury. To avoid false positive results that are due to differential cellular composition, we defined the onset of fibrosis and expression of fibrogenic factors in stat3Δhc mdr2-/- mice.
Project description:We report the effect of a potent pharmacological inhibition of ASBT in mdr2 -/- mice, compared to genetic and treatment controls using RNA-sequencing. Through quantification of mRNA in liver samples, we found significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic gene signatures in mdr2-/- mice. Additionally, we report downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes invovled in leukocyte recruitment. Mdr2 knockout mice (female, 30 day old) were fed high fat-chow diet containing a potent inhibitor of ASBT for 14 days. Genotypic and dietary controls were included. RNA-sequencing was performed on liver samples taken from the caudate lobe.
Project description:Two shRNAs were placed into expression vectors harboring mir30 microRNA scaffold and an optimized scaffold where the artificial restriction sights in mir30 have been removed. After infection and selection shRNA processing was assessed by small-RNA cloning. For both shRNAs, placement into the optimized scaffold resulted in a ~two-fold increase in processing (based on smallRNA levels). Purpose: Others have reported that the EcoRI site that was introduced to the mir30 scaffold results in decreased smallRNA processing and hence reduced target knockdown. We've developed an alternative scaffold (termed ultramir) where this site is removed. smallRNA cloning was used to determine if the movement of this sight resulted in an increase in shRNA processing. Method: Two shRNAs (one targeting Renilla Luciferase and one targeting Human RPA3) were cloned into the original mir30 cassette the ultramir cassette. Each of the 4 constructs were infected in duplicate at single copy into cells and the cells seltected unitil infection percentages reached >90% (the shRenilla hairpin was infected into HEK293T cells and the shRPA3 construts into the Gallus gallus cell line ERC. After selection smallRNA cloning was perfromed and the amount of smallRNAs corrresponding to the two shRNAs compared to the endogenous microRNA populatlon. Results: smallRNA levels of the two shRNAs doubled relative to the microRNA population when they were placed into the ultramir scaffold.