Chromatin Remodeler CHD7 mutated in CHARGE Syndrome Interacts with Sox10 to Regulate Timing of CNS Myelination and Remyelination [RNA-seq]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in CHD7, encoding ATP-dependent chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7, in CHARGE syndrome leads to multiple congenital anomalies including growth retardation, craniofacial malformations and neurological dysfunction. Currently, mechanisms underlying the CNS phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Chd7 is a direct transcriptional target of oligodendrogenesis-promoting factors Olig2 and Brg1 and required for proper timing of CNS myelination and remyelination. Genome-occupancy analyses coupled with transcriptome profiling reveal that Chd7 cooperates with Sox10 to target the enhancers of key myelinogenic genes, and identify novel Chd7 target. 4 RNA-Seq samples from P8 spinal cords of Ctrl and Chd7 cKO mice (duplicatess, Ctrl and cKO)
Project description:Mutations in CHD7, encoding ATP-dependent chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7, in CHARGE syndrome leads to multiple congenital anomalies including growth retardation, craniofacial malformations and neurological dysfunction. Currently, mechanisms underlying the CNS phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Chd7 is a direct transcriptional target of oligodendrogenesis-promoting factors Olig2 and Brg1 and required for proper timing of CNS myelination and remyelination. Genome-occupancy analyses coupled with transcriptome profiling reveal that Chd7 cooperates with Sox10 to target the enhancers of key myelinogenic genes, and identify novel Chd7 target. Examination of Chd7 and Sox10 genomewide occupancy in differentiating oligodendrocytes
Project description:Mutations in CHD7, encoding ATP-dependent chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7, in CHARGE syndrome lead to multiple congenital anomalies, including craniofacial malformations, neurological dysfunction and growth delay. Mechanisms underlying the CNS phenotypes remain poorly understood. We found that Chd7 is a direct transcriptional target of oligodendrogenesis-promoting factors Olig2 and Smarca4/Brg1 and is required for proper onset of CNS myelination and remyelination. Genome-occupancy analyses in mice, coupled with transcriptome profiling, revealed that Chd7 interacted with Sox10 and targeted the enhancers of key myelinogenic genes. These analyses identified previously unknown Chd7 targets, including bone formation regulators Osterix (also known as Sp7) and Creb3l2, which are also critical for oligodendrocyte maturation. Thus, Chd7 coordinates with Sox10 to regulate the initiation of myelinogenesis and acts as a molecular nexus of regulatory networks that account for the development of a seemingly diverse array of lineages, including oligodendrocytes and osteoblasts, pointing to previously uncharacterized Chd7 functions in white matter pathogenesis in CHARGE syndrome.
Project description:We performed gene expression pofiling of Zeb2cKO and control sciatic nerves and identified significantly changed genes ZEB2 is also known as SIP1 4 RNA-Seq samples from P7 sciatic nerves of Ctrl and Zeb2 cKO mice (duplicatess, Ctrl and cKO)
Project description:Establishment and maintenance of CNS glial cell identity ensures proper brain development and function, yet the epigenetic mechanisms underlying glial fate control remain poorly understood. Here we show that the histone deacetylase Hdac3 controls oligodendrocyte-specification gene Olig2 expression, and functions as a molecular switch for oligodendrocyte and astrocyte lineage determination. Our data suggest that Hdac3 cooperates with p300 to prime and maintain oligodendrogenic programs while inhibiting Stat3-mediated astrogliogenesis, and thereby regulate phenotypic commitment at the point of oligodendrocyte-astrocytic fate decision. Gene expression profiling of optic nerve from P12 control and Hdac3 cKO mice
Project description:Schwann cell remyelination defects impair functional restoration after nerve damage, contributing to peripheral neuropathies. The mechanisms that mediate remyelination block remain elusive. Upon small-molecule epigenetic screening, we identified HDAC3, a histone-modifying enzyme, as a potent inhibitor of peripheral myelinogenesis. Inhibition of HDAC3 markedly enhances myelin growth and regeneration, and improves functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. HDAC3 antagonizes myelinogenic neuregulin/PI3K/AKT signaling axis. Moreover, genome-wide profiling analyses reveal that HDAC3 represses pro-myelinating programs through epigenetic silencing, while coordinating with p300 histone acetyltransferase to activate myelination-inhibitory programs that include HIPPO signaling effector TEAD4 to inhibit myelin growth. Schwann-cell-specific deletion of either Hdac3 or Tead4 results in a profound increase in myelin thickness in sciatic nerves. Thus, our findings identify the HDAC3-TEAD4 network as a dual-function switch of cell-intrinsic inhibitory machinery that counters myelinogenic signals and maintains peripheral myelin homeostasis, highlighting the therapeutic potential of transient HDAC3 inhibition for improving peripheral myelin repair. Overall design: 4 RNA-Seq samples from P6 sciatic nerves of Ctrl and Hdac3-cKO mice (Cnpcre-Ctrl, Cnpcre-cKO, Dhhcre-Ctrl, Dhhcre-cKO)
Project description:Multiple congenital disorders often present complex phenotypes, but how the mutation of individual genetic factors can lead to multiple defects remains poorly understood. In the present study, we used human neuroepithelial (NE) cells and CHARGE patient-derived cells as an in vitro model system to identify the function of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 7 (CHD7) in NE-neural crest bifurcation, thus revealing an etiological link between the central nervous system (CNS) and craniofacial anomalies observed in CHARGE syndrome. We found that CHD7 is required for epigenetic activation of superenhancers and CNS-specific enhancers, which support the maintenance of the NE and CNS lineage identities. Furthermore, we found that BRN2 and SOX21 are downstream effectors of CHD7, which shapes cellular identities by enhancing a CNS-specific cellular program and indirectly repressing non-CNS-specific cellular programs. Based on our results, CHD7, through its interactions with superenhancer elements, acts as a regulatory hub in the orchestration of the spatiotemporal dynamics of transcription factors to regulate NE and CNS lineage identities.
Project description:CHARGE syndrome-which stands for coloboma of the eye, heart defects, atresia of choanae, retardation of growth/development, genital abnormalities, and ear anomalies-is a severe developmental disorder with wide phenotypic variability, caused mainly by mutations in CHD7 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7), known to encode a chromatin remodeler. The genetic lesions responsible for CHD7 mutation-negative cases are unknown, at least in part because the pathogenic mechanisms underlying CHARGE syndrome remain poorly defined. Here, we report the characterization of a mouse model for CHD7 mutation-negative cases of CHARGE syndrome generated by insertional mutagenesis of Fam172a (family with sequence similarity 172, member A). We show that Fam172a plays a key role in the regulation of cotranscriptional alternative splicing, notably by interacting with Ago2 (Argonaute-2) and Chd7. Validation studies in a human cohort allow us to propose that dysregulation of cotranscriptional alternative splicing is a unifying pathogenic mechanism for both CHD7 mutation-positive and CHD7 mutation-negative cases. We also present evidence that such splicing defects can be corrected in vitro by acute rapamycin treatment.
Project description:CHARGE syndrome is caused by mutations in the CHD7 gene. Several organ systems including the retina, cranial nerves, inner ear and heart are affected in CHARGE syndrome. However, the mechanistic link between mutations in CHD7 and many of the organ systems dysfunction remains elusive. Here, we show that Chd7 is required for the organization of the neural retina in zebrafish. We observe an abnormal expression or a complete absence of molecular markers for the retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptors, indicating that Chd7 regulates the differentiation of retinal cells and plays an essential role in retinal cell development. In addition, zebrafish with reduced Chd7 display an abnormal organization and clustering of cranial motor neurons. We also note a pronounced reduction in the facial branchiomotor neurons and the vagal motor neurons display aberrant positioning. Further, these fish exhibit a severe loss of the facial nerves. Knock-down of Chd7 results in a curvature of the long body axis and these fish develop irregular shaped vertebrae and have a reduction in bone mineralization. Chd7 knockdown also results in a loss of proper segment polarity illustrated by flawed efnb2a and ttna expression, which is associated with later vascular segmentation defects. These critical roles for Chd7 in retinal and vertebral development were previously unrecognized and our results provide new insights into the role of Chd7 during development and in CHARGE syndrome pathogenesis.
Project description:Nebulin is a giant sarcomeric protein that spans along the actin filament in skeletal muscle, from the Z-disk to near the thin filament pointed end. Mutations in nebulin cause muscle weakness in nemaline myopathy patients, suggesting that nebulin plays important roles in force generation, yet little is known about nebulin's influence on thin filament structure and function. Here, we used small-angle X-ray diffraction and compared intact muscle deficient in nebulin (using a conditional nebulin-knockout, Neb cKO) with control (Ctrl) muscle. When muscles were activated, the spacing of the actin subunit repeat (27 Å) increased in both genotypes; when converted to thin filament stiffness, the obtained value was 30 pN/nm in Ctrl muscle and 10 pN/nm in Neb cKO muscle; that is, the thin filament was approximately threefold stiffer when nebulin was present. In contrast, the thick filament stiffness was not different between the genotypes. A significantly shorter left-handed (59 Å) thin filament helical pitch was found in passive and contracting Neb cKO muscles, as well as impaired tropomyosin and troponin movement. Additionally, a reduced myosin mass transfer toward the thin filament in contracting Neb cKO muscle was found, suggesting reduced cross-bridge interaction. We conclude that nebulin is critically important for physiological force levels, as it greatly stiffens the skeletal muscle thin filament and contributes to thin filament activation and cross-bridge recruitment.
Project description:CHARGE syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterised by Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of choanae, Retardation of growth and/or development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies often associated with deafness. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in the CHD7 gene and shows a highly variable phenotype. Anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occur in the majority of the CHARGE patients, but the underlying pathogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we studied the ability to smell and aspects of the reproductive system (reproductive performance, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and anatomy of testes and uteri) in a mouse model for CHARGE syndrome, the whirligig mouse (Chd7(Whi/+)). We showed that Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (Chd7) is expressed in brain areas involved in olfaction and reproduction during embryonic development. We observed poorer performance in the smell test in adult Chd7(Whi/+) mice, secondary either to olfactory dysfunction or to balance disturbances. Olfactory bulb and reproductive organ abnormalities were observed in a proportion of Chd7(Whi/+) mice. Hypothalamic GnRH neurons were slightly reduced in Chd7(Whi/+) females and reproductive performance was slightly less in Chd7(Whi/+) mice. This study shows that the penetrance of anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is lower in Chd7(Whi/+) mice than in CHARGE patients. Interestingly, many phenotypic features of the Chd7 mutation showed incomplete penetrance in our model mice, despite the use of inbred, genetically identical mice. This supports the theory that the extreme variability of the CHARGE phenotype in both humans and mice might be attributed to variations in the fetal microenvironment or to purely stochastic events.