ABSTRACT: Next Generation Sequencing of Unmethylated Alu (NSUMA) interrogation of more than 130,000 individual Alus for differential methylation with concomitant analysis of copy number variations applied to the study of hypomethylation in primates. 3 replicates of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and Homo sapiens were studied.
SUBMITTER: Sergi Lois Berta MartínMiguel A. PeinadoMireia JordàIzaskun MallonaMiguel A Peinado
Methylation of the cytosine is the most frequent epigenetic modification of DNA in mammalian cells. In humans, most of the methylated cytosines are found in CpG-rich sequences within tandem and interspersed repeats that make up to 45% of the human genome, being Alu repeats the most common family. Demethylation of Alu elements occurs in aging and cancer processes and has been associated with gene reactivation and genomic instability. By targeting the unmethylated SmaI site within the Alu sequence ...[more]
Project description:Next Generation Sequencing of Unmethylated Alu (NSUMA) interrogation of more than 130,000 individual Alus for differential methylation with concomitant analysis of copy number variations applied to the study of hypomethylation in colorectal cancer. normal colon tissues, matched primary tumors, blood and colon derived cell lines
Project description:A large-scale characterization of the methylation states of candidate CpG islands (CGIs) throughout the gastric cancer methylome has not previously been conducted. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were compared between 4 metastatic and 4 non-metastatic gastric carcinomas (GCs) and their surgical margins (SMs). The GC genome showed significantly higher proportions of hypomethylation in the promoter and exon-1 regions, as well as increased hypermethylation of intragenic fragments when compared to SMs. Differential methylation was observed in CGIs near transcription start sites of 546 genes between GCs and SMs, and 601 genes between metastatic and non-metastatic GCs. From the list of differentially methylated CGIs, 68 candidate genes and 10 known tumor-related genes were selected for further characterization based on their known molecular function using DHPLC. Significant differential methylation was validated in the CGIs of 15 genes between GCs and SMs (Ps<0.05) and confirmed using bisulfite-sequencing. These genes include BMP3, BNIP3, CDKN2A, ECEL1, ELK1, GFRA1, HOXD10, KCNH1, PSMD10, PTPRT, SIGIRR, SRF, TBX5, TFPI2, and ZNF382. Hypomethylation of CGIs correlated with up-regulation of GFRA1 expression in GCs, while hypermethylation of other genes inactivated their transcription. Most importantly, prevalence of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 methylation alterations were inversely and coordinately associated with GC metastasis and the patients’ overall survival throughout discovery and testing cohorts in China as well as independent validation cohorts in Japan and Korea. In conclusion, methylation changes in the CGIs of 15 genes correlated strongly with GC development. GFRA1 hypomethylation and SRF and ZNF382 hypermethylation are potential synergistic biomarkers for the prediction of GC metastasis. To identify differential methylation of CGIs related to GC development and metastasis, genome-wide DNA methylation changes in 8 pairs of GC and SM samples were analysed using the MCAM assay with a 99K custom-designed Agilent oligonucleotide microarray composed of 99,027 probes targeting 6,177 unique protein-coding genes containing at least two methylation-sensitive/insensitive SmaI/ XmaI restriction sites (CCC|GGG/ C|CmCGGG) as described in Shen et al, PLoS Genet 3, 2023-2036 (2007).
Project description:Compare the global methylation profile of 20 malignant pleural mesotheliomas and lung adenocarcinomas. A DNA mixture of two normal mesothelium tissues was used as a reference for the mesotheliomas and a mixture of five normal lung tissues used as the reference for the lung adenocarcinomas
Project description:We perform genome wide methylation analysis using 33 clinical samples, which were obtained from patients who underwent surgical resection at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital in accordance with institutional policies. The purpose of this experiment is revealing the methylation status affected by hepatitis viral infection.
Project description:In mammals, cytosine methylation (5mC) is widely distributed throughout the genome but is notably depleted from active promoters and enhancers. While the role of DNA methylation in promoter silencing has been well documented, the function of this epigenetic mark at enhancers remains unclear. Recent experiments have demonstrated that enhancers are enriched for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an oxidization product of the Tet family of 5mC dioxygenases and an intermediate of DNA demethylation. These results support the involvement of Tet proteins in the regulation of dynamic DNA methylation at enhancers. By mapping DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at base resolution, we find that deletion of Tet2 causes extensive loss of 5hmC at enhancers, accompanied by enhancer hypermethylation, reduction of enhancer activity, and delayed gene induction in the early steps of differentiation. Our results reveal that DNA demethylation modulates enhancer activity, and its disruption influences the timing of transcriptome reprogramming during cellular differentiation. We performed traditional bisulfite sequencing, TAB-Seq, RNA-Seq, and ChIP-Seq for 6 histone modifications in two biological replicates of wild-type, Tet1-/-, and Tet2-/- mouse ES cells. We also performed RNA-Seq analysis during a timecourse of differentiation to neural progenitor cells.
Project description:Cytosine methylation of DNA is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism from plants to animals with crucial roles in gene regulation. However, the variation between methylomes of normal tissues is largely unexplored. To better understand the epigenetic variation of a normal individual, we profiled DNA methylation using whole genome bisulfite sequencing in 17 tissues isolated from an individual mouse. We observed a unique distribution of CpG methylation for each tissue, which cluster based on cell lineage. Global analysis identified only one-eighth of the genome as tissue-specifically methylated. Remarkably, the vast majority of these regions exhibit hallmarks of cis-regulatory activity. Our results also reveal a novel class of dormant enhancers in adult tissues which retain an epigenetic memory of regulatory elements active during development. Together, these results expand the repertoire of regulatory information encoded within the methylome, and suggest mapping it as an alternative method to identify cell-type specific regulatory elements. whole genome bisulfite sequencing of mouse adult tissue