Urinary Extracellular Vesicles RNA Profile in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma as Biomarker
ABSTRACT: Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for about 2% of all cancers. Renal biopsy is the gold standard among the diagnostic tools, but it is invasive and not suitable for all patients. Therefore, new reliable and non-invasive biomarkers for ccRCC detection are required. Secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs), containing RNA molecules that can be transferred between cells, seems to be a general characteristic of malignant transformation. Consistently, cancer-derived EVs are enriched in the blood, urine and various malignant effusions of cancer patients. Therefore, urinary samples can be a non-invasive approach for discovering diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: We enrolled 33 clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS), age and sex-matched, for urine collection and extracellular vesicles isolation by differential centrifugation. Transcriptional profiles of urinary EVs from 12 patients with ccRCC and 11 HS were generated using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip oligonucleotide arrays. Microarray analysis led to the identification of RNA that were then validated using RT-qPCR. Results: We showed for the first time that urinary exosomal shuttle RNA (esRNA) was significantly different in ccRCC patients compared to HS and we identified three EVs esRNA involved in the tumor biology that are potentially suitable as non-invasive biomarkers. GSTA1, CEBPA and PCBD1 RNA levels decreased in urinary EVs of patients compared to HS. After 1 month post-operation, the levels of RNA increased to reach the normal level. Conclusions: This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of the RNA content of urinary EVs to provide a non-invasive first step to diagnose the ccRCC. Total RNA obtained from urinary extracellular vesicles isolated from ccRCC patients and healthy subjects.
Project description:Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since prognosis ameliorates with early detection, it is a challenge to develop techniques that could replace or complement the current diagnosis protocols. The study of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are present in urine samples has become an attractive alternative. The present study describes the mRNA content of vesicles isolated from voided urine samples within bladder cancer context. To discover a genetic signature of cancer, RNA associated to EVs was analyzed by microarray technique. Total RNA isolated from Extracellular Vesicles obtained from urine of bladder cancer patients was compared with RNA isolated from urinary vesicles of non-cancer patients.
Project description:Background: Urine is a potential source of biomarkers for diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. RNA, including microRNA, is present in the urine enclosed in detached cells or in extracellular vesicles (EVs) or bound and protected by extracellular proteins. Detection of cell- and disease-specific microRNA in urine may aid early diagnosis of organ-specific pathology. In this study, we applied barcoded deep sequencing to profile microRNAs in urine of healthy volunteers, and characterized the effects of sex, urine fraction (cells vs. EVs) and repeated voids by the same individuals. Results: Compared to urine-cell-derived small RNA libraries, urine-EV-derived libraries were relatively enriched with miRNA, and accordingly had lesser content of other small RNA such as rRNA, tRNA and sn/snoRNA. Unsupervised clustering of specimens in relation to miRNA expression levels showed prominent bundling by specimen type (urine cells or EVs) and by sex, as well as a tendency of repeated (first and second void) samples to neighbor closely. Likewise, miRNA profile correlations between void repeats, as well as fraction counterparts (cells and EVs from the same specimen) were distinctly higher than correlations between miRNA profiles overall. Differential miRNA expression by sex was similar in cells and EVs. Conclusions: miRNA profiling of both urine EVs and sediment cells can convey biologically important differences between individuals. However, to be useful as urine biomarkers, careful consideration is needed for biofluid fractionation and sex-specific analysis, while the time of voiding appears to be less important. Overall design: Two urine voids from 20 healthy volunteers (10 men, 10 women). From each void cells and extracellular vesicles were purified and total RNA extracted. Thus 80 samples overall (however only 79 processed because 1 women did not provide sufficient urine in second void for extracellular vesicle purification).
Project description:Nephronophthisis is one of the leading genetic causes of end-stage renal disease in childhood. Early diagnostics and prognostics for nephronophthisis are currently limited. We aimed to identify non-invasive protein biomarkers for nephronophthisis in urinary extracellular vesicles. Extracellular vesicles were isolated from urine of 12 patients with a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy and 12 age- and gender-matched controls, followed by in-depth label-free LC-MS/MS proteomics analysis of gel fractionated extracellular vesicles proteins.
Project description:To identify urinary RNA as non-invasive biomarkers for progression of chronic kidney disease Overall design: Urine samples from patients with nephrotic syndrome due to different types of glomerular diseases and stages of kidney disease. No controls.
Project description:Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles; EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid, and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, it remains unknown if EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle. Examination of small RNA population in bovine follicular fluid extracellular vesicles isolated from antral follicles
Project description:One of the challenges of current research in prostate cancer is to improve the differential non-invasive diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Extracellular vesicles (EV) are emerging structures with promising properties for intercellular communication. In addition, the characterization of EV in biofluids is an attractive source of non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Here we show that urinary EV (uEV) from prostate cancer patients exhibit genuine and differential physical and biological properties. Importantly, transcriptomics characterization of uEVs led us to define the decreased abundance of Cadherin 3, type 1 (CDH3) transcript in uEV from PCa patients. Tissue and cell line analysis strongly suggested that the status of CDH3 in uEVs is a distal reflection of changes in the expression of this cadherin in the prostate tumor. Our results reveal that uEVs could represent a non-invasive tool to inform about the molecular alterations in prostate cancer. RNA extraction was performed in 10 ultracentrifuge-isolated-uEVs samples (4 BPH, 6 Pca)
Project description:urinary mRNA quantification using an Agilent 60k microarray in 26 stable kidney transplant patients with or without renal partial Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Subclinical pathological features on the 3-month biopsy of renal allografts predict a poor prognosis, but it is unclear whether surveillance biopsies are beneficial. Non-invasive biomarkers are wanted, and urinary pellet RNA quantification of selected candidate genes has been used with some success do detect overt rejection. We performed a mRNA microarray study using different normalization methods on the urinary cell pellet to evaluate the feasibility of using urine to detect renal partial epithelial mesenchymal transition of the renal allograft (renal pEMT) non-invasively in a group of 26 stable transplanted patients. We found that, when using a novel method of normalization by Upk1a mRNA, renal pEMT of the renal allograft was associated in urine with differential expression of genes belonging to predefined gene sets of kidney-expressed genes and epithelial mesenchymal transition genes. An unbiased pathway analysis revealed that the immune response was the main urinary biological process associated with pEMT in the kidney. In urine from patients with pristine biopsies, pEMT was not associated with inflammation, but with reduced metabolic functions. Thus, we show that pEMT translates into specific UPK1a-normalized mRNA patterns in urine and use genome-wide analyses to characterize underlying molecular patterns, i.e. increased inflammation and decreased metabolic functions. Overall design: 12 pateins without renal partial Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and 14 patients with renal partial Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from cell cultures contain miRNAs associated with T cell co-inhibitory receptors. These are differently regulated in EVs from RA patients and could contribute to the development of a chronic disease. Overall design: Peripheral blood (PBMC) and synovial fluid (SFMC) mononuclear cells were cultured from RA patients and HCs. EVs were collected by ultracentrifugation, and the miRNA profile investigated
Project description:Comparative RNA profiling between tumor cells and their secreted extracellular vesicles. Results revealed enrichment in genes involved in cellular migration and metastasis in extracellular vesicles, in agreement with their role as mediators of tumor progression. Mice were orthotoplically transplanted with MDA-MB-231 Breast Adenocarcinoma cells. Cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the resulting tumors were isolated. EVs were characterized by electron microscopy and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis before total RNA isolation for comparative analysis with cellular RNA. Three biological replicates were analyzed in (technical) duplicate.
Project description:Differences in the levels of miRNAs in extracellular vesicles (EVs) between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals were detected by means of microarray analysis. Overall design: In this study, miRNAs were extracted from EVs in the plasma of 4 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 4 sex- and age-matched healthy controls, and applied to array analysis.