The transcriptome of Serratia sp. ZM under different concentrations of (NH4)2SO4
ABSTRACT: The RNA-seq technique aims to identify genes that are differently expressed in low nitrogen (2mM (NH4)2SO4) and high nitrogen (10mM (NH4)2SO4) conditions. Two groups of Serratia sp. ZM were analysed by us, low nitrogen group and high nitrogen group.
Project description:A microarray analysis was conducted to analyze gene expression patterns in different tissues of the ECM interaction between Betula pendula and Paxillus involutus grown in peat microcosms containing (NH4)2SO4 nutrient patches. Expression profiles for mycorrhizal root tips (TIP), rhizomorphs (CORD) and the mycelium harvested from (NH4)2SO4 nutrient patches (PATCH) were compared. Our goal was to identify genes that showed nutrient- and tissue-specific differential regulation. <br> <br> The entire design involved 9 slides (DW1_01--DW1_09), 12 labelled extracts, and 3 biological replicates (R1-R3). The experiment was designed as a simple loop (all-pairwise comparisons) of the three tissues including dye-swap, biological and technical replication.
Project description:The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.
Project description:We conducted pot experiments to assess the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in contaminated rhizosphere soil and accumulation in rice organs in response to nitrogen (N) supply ((NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NH4Cl). The results showed that the concentration of bioavailable Cd in rice rhizosphere soil was (NH4)2SO4 treatment?>?NH4Cl treatment?>?NH4NO3 treatment at the same level of N application and growth period; the Cd concentration in rice roots was (NH4)2SO4 treatment?>?NH4NO3 treatment?>?NH4Cl treatment; and the Cd concentration in rice straw was NH4NO3 treatment?>?NH4Cl. The Cd concentration in rice roots, straws, and seeds at the maturity stage was (NH4)2SO4 treatment?>?NH4Cl treatment. With the same N fertilizer, excessive N promoted Cd accumulation in rice at later growth stages. This suggested that sulfate (SO42-) influenced Cd concentration in rice. NH4Cl application maintained a low Cd level in different rice organs with the same N level. This confirmed that NH4Cl is a safe N source for rice planting in polymetallic sulfide mining areas. The study concludes that appropriate NH4Cl levels for Cd-contaminated paddy soil with high-S-content could obtain rice grains with Cd concentrations below the food safety standards (0.2 or 0.4?mg·kg-1).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plants can suffer ammonium (NH4 (+)) toxicity, particularly when NH4 (+) is supplied as the sole nitrogen source. However, our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of NH4 (+) toxicity is still largely unknown. Lemna minor, a model duckweed species, can grow well in high NH4 (+) environment but to some extent can also suffer toxic effects. The transcriptomic and physiological analysis of L. minor responding to high NH4 (+) may provide us some interesting and useful information not only in toxic processes, but also in tolerance mechanisms. RESULTS:The L. minor cultured in the Hoagland solution were used as the control (NC), and in two NH4 (+) concentrations (NH4 (+) was the sole nitrogen source), 84 mg/L (A84) and 840 mg/L (A840) were used as stress treatments. The NH4 (+) toxicity could inhibit the growth of L. minor. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death were studied using stained fronds under toxic levels of NH4 (+). The malondialdehyde content and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase increased from NC to A840, rather than catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. A total of 6.62G nucleotides were generated from the three distinct libraries. A total of 14,207 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among 70,728 unigenes were obtained. All the DEGs could be clustered into 7 profiles. Most DEGs were down-regulated under NH4 (+) toxicity. The genes required for lignin biosynthesis in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated. ROS oxidative-related genes and programmed cell death (PCD)-related genes were also analyzed and indicated oxidative damage and PCD occurring under NH4 (+) toxicity. CONCLUSIONS:The first large transcriptome study in L. minor responses to NH4 (+) toxicity was reported in this work. NH4 (+) toxicity could induce ROS accumulation that causes oxidative damage and thus induce cell death in L. minor. The antioxidant enzyme system was activated under NH4 (+) toxicity for ROS scavenging. The phenylpropanoid pathway was stimulated under NH4 (+) toxicity. The increased lignin biosynthesis might play an important role in NH4 (+) toxicity resistance.
Project description:Nitrogen nutrition can influence cluster root formation in many wild species, but the effect of N form on cluster root formation and root exudation by white lupin is not known. In a solution culture study, we examined the effect of N nutrition (ammonium, nitrate, both or N2 fixation) on cluster root formation and H+ extrusion by white lupin plants under deficient and adequate P supply. The number of cluster roots increased greatly when plants were supplied with I microM P compared with 50 microM P, the increase being 7.8-fold for plants treated with (NH4)2SO4, 3-fold for plants treated with KNO3 and NH4NO3, and 2-4-fold for N2-fixing plants. Under P deficiency. NH4+-N supply resulted in production of a greater number and biomass of cluster roots than other N sources. Dry weight of cluster roots was 30 % higher than that of non-cluster roots in P-deficient plants treated with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. In plants treated with sufficient P (50 microM), the weight of non-cluster roots was approx. 90 % greater than that of cluster roots. Both total (micromol per plant h(-1)) and specific (micromol g(-1) root d. wt h(-1)) H+ extrusions were greatest from roots of plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4, followed by those supplied with NH4NO3 and N2 fixation, whereas plants receiving KNO3 had negative net H+ extrusion between the third and fifth week of growth (indicating uptake of protons or release of OH- ions). The rate of proton extrusion by NH4+-N-fed plants was similar under P-deficient and P-sufficient conditions. In contrast, proton exudation by N2-fixing plants and KNO3-treated plants was ten-fold greater under P deficiency than under P sufficiency. In comparison with P deficiency, plants treated with 50 microM P had a significantly higher concentration of P in roots, shoots and youngest expanded leaves (YEL). Compared with the N2 fixation and KNO3 treatments, total N concentration was highest in roots, shoots and YEL of plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, regardless of P supply. Under P deficiency, K concentrations in roots decreased at all N supplies, especially in plants treated with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3, which coincided with the greatest H+ extrusion at these P and N supplies. In conclusion, NH4-N nutrition stimulated cluster root formation and H+ extrusion by roots of P-deficient white lupin.
Project description:Despite the important role of the ammonium ion in metabolism, i.e. as a form of nitrogen that is taken up from the soil by microorganisms and plants, little is known at the molecular level about its transport across biomembranes. Biphasic uptake kinetics have been observed in roots of several plant species. To study such transport processes, a mutant yeast strain that is deficient in two NH4+ uptake systems was used to identify a plant NH4+ transporter. Expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA in the yeast mutant complemented the uptake deficiency. The cDNA AMT1 contains an open reading frame of 501 amino acids and encodes a highly hydrophobic protein with 9-12 putative membrane spanning regions. Direct uptake measurements show that mutant yeast cells expressing the protein are able to take up [14C]methylamine. Methylamine uptake can be efficiently competed by NH4+ but not by K+. The methylamine uptake is optimal at pH 7 with a Km of 65 microM and a Ki for NH4+ of approximately 10 microM, is energy-dependent and can be inhibited by protonophores. The plant protein is highly related to an NH4+ transporter from yeast (Marini et al., accompanying manuscript). Sequence homologies to genes of bacterial and animal origin indicate that this type of transporter is conserved over a broad range of organisms. Taken together, the data provide strong evidence that a gene for the plant high affinity NH4+ uptake has been identified.
Project description:Background:The primary sources of nitrogen for plants have been suggested to be nitrate (NO3 -) and ammonium (NH4 +). However, when both nitrate and ammonium are simultaneously available to plants, it is very difficult to differentially quantify NO3 -/NH4 + utilization in culture media or soil. Consequently, the contribution of NO3 -/NH4 + to total inorganic nitrogen assimilation cannot be determined. Results:We developed a method called the bidirectional stable nitrogen isotope tracer to differentially quantify the nitrate and ammonium utilization by Orychophragmus violaceus (Ov) and Brassica napus (Bn) plantlets in vitro. The utilization efficiency of nitrate was markedly lower than the utilization efficiency of ammonium for plantlets of both Ov and Bn. In both Ov and Bn, the proportion of NO3 -/NH4 + utilization did not show a linear relationship with inorganic nitrogen supply. The Ov plantlets assimilated more nitrate than the Bn plantlets at the lowest inorganic nitrogen concentration. Conclusions:Quantifying the utilization of nitrate and ammonium can reveal the differences in nitrate and ammonium assimilation among plants at different inorganic nitrogen supply levels and provide an alternate way to conveniently optimize the supply of inorganic nitrogen in culture media.
Project description:Background: Lysine crotonylation (Kcr), as a novel evolutionarily conserved type of PTM, is ubiquitous and essential in cell biology. However, its functions in tea plant, an important beverage crop, are largely unknown. Our study firstly attempted to describe Kcr proteins in tea leaves under NH4+ deficiency/resupply, and provided significant insights into exploring the physiological role of Kcr in plants for N utilization. Results: We performed the global analysis of crotonylome in tea plants under NH4+ deficiency/resupply using high-resolution LC-MS/MS coupled with highly sensitive immune-antibody. A total of 2288 kcr sites on 971 proteins were identified, of which contained in 15 types of Kcr motifs. Most of Kcr proteins were located in chloroplast and cytoplasm. 120 and 151 Kcr proteins were significantly changed at 3 hours and 3days of NH4+ resupply, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed Kcr proteins participated in diverse biological processes such as photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism, suggesting Kcr plays important roles in these processes. Interestingly, a large number of enzymes were crotonylated, and the activity and Kcr level of these enzymes changed significantly after NH4+ resupply, indicating a potential function of Kcr in the regulation of enzyme activities. Moreover, the protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the diverse interactions of identified Kcr proteins mainly involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism and ribosome. Conclusions: The results suggested that lysine crotonylated proteins might play regulating roles in metabolic process in tea leaves under NH4+ deficiency/resupply. The critical regulatory roles mainly involved in diverse aspects of primary metabolic processes, especially in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism. The provided data may serve as important resources for exploring the physiological, biochemical, and genetic role of lysine crotonylation in tea plants.
Project description:affy_nitrogen_medicago - affy_nitrogen_medicago - Experiment has been designed to characterize the molecular expression patterns associated to a contrasted modification of the nitrogen status of the whole plant. The systemic effects of nitrogen status modifications are investigated and compared on non nodulated plant supplied with NO3, NH4 or nodulated plants (Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011) supplied with air. The root systems were separated in two compartments of unequal sizes (split root system). Two treatments were applied on the larger compartment in order to modulate the nitrogen status of the plant: for the S treatment, roots are supplied with nutrient solution containing 10 mM NH4NO3,, whereas for the C treatment, roots are supplied with nitrogen free medium. In the case of N2 fixing plants, N limitation was obtained by replacing air by a mixture of Ar and O2 80 per cent and 20 per cent. The effects of these treatments were investigated on roots of the minor compartment supplied continuously with either NO3 1 mM, NH4 1 mM or air (N2) and on the shoots. We were also interested in the molecular expression patterns associated to the roots deprived of N.-The root system of non-nodulated (NO3- and NH4+) or nodulated (N2) plants is split into two unequal parts and each one is installed in a separate compartment. For the S treatement, the major root part is supplied with NH4NO3 10 mM whereas the minor part is supplied with either NO3- 1mM, NH4+ 1mM or N2. For the C treatement, the major root part is supplied with nitrogen-free nutrient solution whereas the minor part is supplied with either NO3- 1mM, NH4plus 1mM or N2. Each treatement is four days long. Samples of roots of six biological types (NO3S, NO3C, NH4S, NH4C, N2S and N2C) were collected. Two biological repeats per biological types have been analyzed. The effect of the S and C treatments were investigated for each N sources by comparing Affymetrix transcriptomes (NO3C vs NO3S, NH4C vs NH4S, N2C vs N2S). Keywords: treatement (nitrogen-sufficient) vs treatement (nitrogen-limited) Overall design: 26 arrays - medicago