Transcription profiling of pig non-infected and Salmonella Choleraesuis infected mesenteric lymph nodes
ABSTRACT: To understand the host transcriptional response to S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), the first generation Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes responding to infection at acute (8 hours (h), 24h, 48h post-inoculation (pi)) and chronic stages (21 days (d) pi); The objectives of this study were to identify and examine the stereotypical gene expression response within the host mesenteric lymph nodes to S. Choleraesuis infection, and to characterize the global host responses by revealing the specific features of the host’s innate immunity. Experiment Overall Design: Fifteen piglets from Salmonella spp.-free sows were weaned at 10 days (d) of age, shipped to the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA and raised in isolation facilities. To confirm that all piglets were free of Salmonella spp. prior to challenge, bacteriological cultures were performed on rectal swabs twice. Seven week old pigs were randomly divided into 2 groups, 3 non-infected pigs and 12 infected pigs. Three non-infected control pigs were necropsied 3 days prior to experimental infection. On day 0, pigs in the infected groups were intranasally challenged with 1 billion CFU of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis x3246. Three infected pigs were necropsied at 8 hours post-inoculation (hpi), 24 hpi, 48 hpi and 21 day post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation.
Project description:A first generation Affymetrix GeneChip® Porcine genome array was used to profile the gene expression in porcine mesenteric lymph nodes over a time course of infection with S. Typhimurium, including the acute (8 hours post inoculation (hpi), 24 hpi, 48 hpi) and chronic (21 days post-inoculation (dpi)) stages of infection. Our objectives were to 1) identify and examine the stereotypical gene expression response within host MLN to S. Typhimurium infection, 2) characterize global host responses by revealing the specific features of the host’s innate immunity pathways, and 3) explore if and how S. Typhimurium may escape the host immune response and develop into a carrier state. Our study has attempted to investigate the features of host gene expression profiling during S. Typhimurium infection at the acute and chronic infection stages and to explore the mechanism by which S. Typhimurium can escape from the host immune response and develop a carrier state in the host. In conclusion, by using the Affymetrix porcine GeneChip, 848 differentially expressed genes were identified in porcine MLN during infection and several specific features of host response were revealed by gene cluster and pathway analysis. Our data are the first report to investigate global host responses to S. Typhimurium in porcine MLN, and this new study provides data applicable for studying enteric salmonellosis of pigs, as well as humans. Experiment Overall Design: Fifteen piglets from Salmonella spp.-free sows were weaned at 10 days (d) of age, shipped to the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA and raised in isolation facilities. To confirm that all piglets were free of Salmonella spp. prior to challenge, bacteriological cultures were performed on rectal swabs twice. Seven week old pigs were randomly divided into 2 groups, 3 non-infected pigs and 12 infected pigs. Three non-infected control pigs were necropsied 2 days prior to experimental infection. On day 0, pigs in the infected groups were intranasally challenged with 1 billion CFU of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Three infected pigs were necropsied at 8 hours post-inoculation (hpi), 24 hpi, 48 hpi and 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were collected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA isolation.
Project description:Yorkshire pigs were divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) for 8 generations. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed intake. Based on the resource allocation theory, we hypothesize that these low RFI pigs might have compromised immune response to immune stimulation. To test this hypothesis, twenty eight gilts of initial body weight (BW) of 63 4 kg from pigs selected for low RFI and high RFI were randomly selected for the ISU RFI selection project and utilized in two replicates (14 pigs/replicate) for this study. All pigs were housed in individual metabolism pens, had free access to water and were fed a corn-soy-based diet twice daily, and feed restricted (1.5 kg/day) as previously described. After a 9-day adaptation period pigs were randomly assigned within line to either a control (n = 6, three pigs per line) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (n = 8, 4 pigs per line) group. Pigs in the challenge group were then repeatedly challenged with an intramuscular injection of 30, 36, 39, and 42 g/kg BW of LPS from E. coli O5:B5 (sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) dissolved in saline solution at time points 0, 48, 96, and 144 hours post initial injection (hpi) to compensate for LPS tolerance after initial injection, respectively, while animals in the control group were injected with an equivalent volume of saline solution at the equivalent time points. Rectal temperatures of individual pigs were measured immediately before the initial injection (serving as baseline, called 0 hpi for convenience), and 2, 4, 6, and 24 hpi, and 0, 4, 24 hours after each subsequent injection for all pigs. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into TempusTM Blood RNA tubes (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) for long-term storage at -80 C, EDTA tubes (BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ) for CBC tests and serum tubes for cytokine assays at 0, 2, 6, 24 and 168 hpi. At 168 hpi, all pigs were euthanized via barbiturate overdose, exsanguinated and tissue samples including the longissimus dorsi muscle, liver, spleen, and ileum were isolated, cleaned an frozen for later use. This study only focused on samples and data collected for the first 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted from the 32 blood samples of the treatment group in Replicate 2, collected at 0, 2, 6, and 24 hpi, by using preserved blood RNA purification kit I (Norgen Biotek Corp, Thorold, Ontario) per manufacturers instruction. On-column DNA digestion was performed as described using DNase I (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Globin transcripts (HBB and HBA) were depleted by following an RNase H-mediated method. The quantity and integrity of the RNA were monitored by using Nanodrop 2000 (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) and Bioanalyzer 2100 (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) before and after globin depletion. The efficiency of globin depletion of each sample was checked by conventional RT-qPCR with -actin and GAPDH as the internal controls. Globin depletion efficiencies for all RNA samples were above 85%.
Project description:In this study, we used Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based Western blotting coupled with MALDI-TOF / TOF-MS / MS to separate and identify the T. pseudospiralis adult worms (Ad) ES products immunoreaction-positive proteins. In total, 400 protein spots were separated by 2-DE. 28 protein spots were successfully identified using the sera from infected pigs and were characterized to correlate with twelve different proteins of T. pseudospiralis.
Project description:The mesenteric lymph nodes represent the immune response to eggs in schistosome infections,and the analysis of gene expression profiles of the mesenteric lymph nodes from the Vac-Cha (vaccinated with UV attenuated cercariae and challenged with normal cercariae)and Inf-Con (infected with normal cercariae) groups. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression and identified distinct classes of up-regulated and down-regulated genes. The mesenteric lymph nodes surrounding the cecum from the Vac-Cha and Inf-Con groups were collected at week 8 post challenge and used to analyze the gene profile with Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain the different genes expression profiles between the Vac-Cha group and Inf-Con group.The Vac-Cha group is three pigs vaccinated with UV attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae and challenged with normal Schistosoma japonicum cercariae, and the Inf-Con group is three pigs infected with normal cercariae. Samples pooled per group. A list of differentially-regulated genes can be found in the supplementary file below.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarray chip technology to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL) pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed) and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited the range of clinical features that typify the disease, while the DPL pigs exhibited only mild signs of the disease. The percentage of CD8+ T cells in the DPL pigs was significantly higher than that in the DLY pigs at 21 days post-infection (dpi) (p< 0.05). Interleukin (IL) 1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-2 levels showed significant differences between the DPL and DLY pigs at 0 and 7 dpi (p< 0.01). For IL-10, the DLY pigs had significantly higher values than the DPL pigs at 0 and 7 dpi (p< 0.01). Significant differences were apparent between the DPL and DLY pigs in terms of their tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN)-gamma (IFN-γ) levels at 0 and 7 dpi (p< 0.01). Microarray data revealed 16 differentially expressed genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q≤5%), of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The expression levels of 10 of the 16 genes, namely CCDC84, C6ORF52, THYMOSIN, PRVE, HSPCB, CYP2J2, AMPD3, TOR1AIP2, PTGES3, and ACOX3, were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. This study provides a platform for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential immune responses to PRRSV infection in different breeds or lines of pig. We investigated the response of lung tissues from Dapulian (DPL) pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed) and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY) pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (strain JXA1) by using the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array. Sixteen healthy 30-day-old weaned DPL pigs were selected from the Jiaxiang Dapulian farm, Jining City, China, and 15 healthy 30-day-old weaned DLY pigs were obtained from a commercial farm with high standards of animal health. These pigs were free from PRRSV, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) as determined by ELISA tests for serum antibodies; the absence of PRRSV was also confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Pigs were randomly assigned into two groups and reared in separate places: the PRRSV-infected group consisted of 11 DPL and 10 DLY pigs, and the control group consisted of five DPL and five DLY pigs. Infections in the pigs proceeded via inoculation with 2 ml of a viral suspension of PRRSV (at a tissue culture infectious dose of 105) by dripping the solution into the nasal cavity of each pig. The control group was treated with an identical volume of PBS by the same method. Rectal temperatures and clinical examinations on the pigs were recorded daily during the experiment. Anticoagulant-treated blood and untreated blood samples were collected separately at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (dpi) from the infected and control groups for assaying CD4+, CD8+, cytokine (interleukin (IL) 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein levels. Lung samples for microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR analysis were collected from six infected DLY and DPL pigs (three pigs for each breed) immediately post-slaughter at 28 dpi. Total RNA was isolated from lung tissue samples and purified using an RNeasy Mini kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. RNA was prepared using the GeneChip (AFF-900623) one cycle target for the labeling and control reagents, and the labeled RNA was hybridized in an Affymetrix Hybridization Oven 640 for sequencing.
Project description:To elucidate the mechanisms involved in pulmonary inflammation in Zaire ebolavirus-infected pigs, lung sections infected pigs were used for a porcine microarray to analyse changes in gene expression with particular interest in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine transcription. Pigs were given inhalation anaesthesia and then inoculated with 106 plaque forming units of Zaire ebolavirus in sterile PBS per pig via the intranasal, intraocular and oral routes. Three control pigs were mock inoculated with PBS and housed separately.
Project description:Salmonella species infect many vertebrate species, and pigs colonized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) are usually asymptomatic, making detection of these Salmonella-carrier pigs difficult. The variable fecal shedding of this gram-negative bacteria in such pigs is an important cause of foodborne illness and zoonotic disease. To investigate gene pathways and biomarkers associated with the variance in Salmonella shedding following experimental inoculation, we have initiated the first analysis of the whole blood transcriptional response induced by Salmonella. A population of pigs (n=40) was inoculated with ST and the peripheral blood and feces were collected between 2 and 20 days post-inoculation. Two groups of pigs with either low shedding (LS) or persistent shedding (PS) phenotypes were identified. The global transcriptional changes in response to ST inoculation were identified by Affymetrix Genechip?analysis of peripheral blood RNA at day 0 and day 2 post-inoculation. Forty pigs (n=40) was inoculated with ST. Four low shedding (LS) pigs and six persistent shedding (PS) pigs were identified. Transcriptom of peripheral blood collected at 0 and 2 dpi were identified by Affymetrix Genechip analysis.
Project description:Piglets were raised in isolation facilities from 10 days to 7 weeks of age at the National Animal Disease Center. Bacteriological culture of rectal swabs was performed twice to confirm that all pigs were free of Salmonella spp. Three control pigs were necropsied on experimental day -3. On day 0, pigs in the infected group were intranasally challenged with 1 x 109 CFU S. Choleraesuis X3246. Lung samples were aseptically collected from three 24 h and three 48 h post infection pigs and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for future mRNA isolation. In the microarray experiment, the nine animals were randomly assigned to three loops so that each loop included one animal from each infection status category. A total of 9 slides (3 slides per loop) were used to obtain a total of 18 measurements from the three control and six infected pigs. A mixed model analyses was also used to identify differentially expressed genes. The mixed model included fixed effects for dye (Cy3 or Cy5), time point (control, 24 hour, and 48 hour infection) as well as random effects for slide and animal. Keywords: repeat sample
Project description:The early interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 with intact small intestinal mucosa was studied in a Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion (SISP) model. Intestinal segments were infected with or without Salmonella. Scrapings from jejunal segments were collected after perfusion for 0, 2, 4, or 8 hours. Details of the SISP experiment are described in: Niewold TA, Veldhuizen EJ, van der Meulen J, Haagsman HP, de Wit AA, Smits MA, Tersteeg MH, Hulst MM. Using the Operon 13K pig oligonucleotide array differences in host gene expression were recorded between infected and uninfected segments within a single pig (isogenic comparisons), and between identical treated segments collected from 3 individual SISP pigs, all responding markedly different to infection with Salmonella (inter-animal comparisons). A Small Intestinal Segment Perfusion (SISP) test was performed with 3 pigs (pig no. 2, 3, and 4) (cross-bred Yorkshire×(Large White×Landrace)). Two adjacent segments prepared in the mid-jejunum of each pig were perfused for 1 hour with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 suspended in peptone solution (10E-09 CFU/ml) or with peptone solution alone (mock infected segment) respectively. Subsequently, segments were perfused with peptone solution alone for a maximum period of 8 hours. At 2, 4, and 8 hours a part of the infected segment was dissected to obtain mucosal scrappings. The same was done at 0 and 8 hours for the uninfected (mock) control segment. RNA isolated from scrappings was used for microarray comparisons using the Operon 13K pig oligonucleotide array. 9 comparisons were done. For each of the 3 SISP pigs, expression in the 8 hours perfused infected segment, perfused for 8 hours, was compared to expression in its adjacent mock infected segment (3 isogenic comparisons, 8 hpi.). Expression in the infected segment of each SISP pig, dissected after 2 or 4 hours of perfusion, was compared to expression in an infected segment dissected from another SISP pig (2 versus 3, 2 versus 4, and 3 versus 4 / 3 comparisons at 2 hpi., and 3 comparisons at 4 hpi.). Dye-swaps were performed for each comparison. jejunum pig, host-microbe interaction, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104.