Expression Data form parental vs. TAE684 resistant SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells
ABSTRACT: The crizotinib–resistant ALKF1174L mutation arises de novo in neuroblastoma (NB) and is acquired in ALK translocation-driven cancers, lending impetus to the development of novel ALK inhibitors with different modes of action. The diaminopyrimidine TAE684 and its derivative ceritinib (LDK378), which are structurally distinct from crizotinib, are active against NB cells expressing ALKF1174L. Here we demonstrate acquired resistance to TAE684 and LDK378 in ALKF1174L-driven human NB cells that is linked to overexpression and activation of the AXL tyrosine kinase and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). AXL phosphorylation conferred TAE684 resistance to NB cells through upregulated ERK signaling. Inhibition of AXL partly rescued TAE684 resistance, resensitizing these cells to this compound. AXL activation in resistant cells was mediated through increased expression of the active form of its ligand, GAS6, which also served to stabilize the AXL protein. Although ectopic expression of AXL and TWIST2 individually in TAE684-sensitive parental cells led to the elevated expression of mesenchymal markers and invasive capacity, only AXL overexpression induced resistance to TAE684 as well. TAE684-resistant cells showed greater sensitivity to HSP90 inhibition than did their parental counterparts, with downregulation of AXL and AXL-mediated ERK signaling. Our studies indicate that aberrant AXL signaling and development of an EMT phenotype underlie resistance of ALKF1174L-driven NB cells to TAE684 and its derivatives. We suggest that the combination of ALK and AXL or HSP90 inhibitors be considered to delay the emergence of such resistance. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms driving resistance to ALK inhibition in ALK-mutated neuroblatoma, we established cell line models of resistance to TAE684, an ALK inhibitor, by treating SH-SY5Y cells (bearing the ALKF1174L mutation) with increasing concentration of this compound over time. We then performed an analysis of gene expression changes genome wide using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2 arrays, by comparing the TAE684-sensitive parental SH-SY5Y cells to the TAE684-resistant SH-SY5Y cells (named SY5Y-TR1). For that experiment, we analyzed gene expression variations by comparing the parental SH-SY5Y (control sample) to the resistant SY5Y-TR1 cells. So 2 samples were analyzed, with 3 replicates run for each.
Project description:The crizotinib-resistant ALK(F1174L) mutation arises de novo in neuroblastoma (NB) and is acquired in ALK translocation-driven cancers, lending impetus to the development of novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors with different modes of action. The diaminopyrimidine TAE684 and its derivative ceritinib (LDK378), which are structurally distinct from crizotinib, are active against NB cells expressing ALK(F1174L). Here we demonstrate acquired resistance to TAE684 and LDK378 in ALK(F1174L)-driven human NB cells that is linked to overexpression and activation of the AXL tyrosine kinase and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). AXL phosphorylation conferred TAE684 resistance to NB cells through upregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Inhibition of AXL partly rescued TAE684 resistance, resensitizing these cells to this compound. AXL activation in resistant cells was mediated through increased expression of the active form of its ligand, GAS6, that also served to stabilize the AXL protein. Although ectopic expression of AXL and TWIST2 individually in TAE684-sensitive parental cells led to the elevated expression of mesenchymal markers and invasive capacity, only AXL overexpression induced resistance to TAE684 as well. TAE684-resistant cells showed greater sensitivity to HSP90 inhibition than did their parental counterparts, with downregulation of AXL and AXL-mediated ERK signaling. Our studies indicate that aberrant AXL signaling and development of an EMT phenotype underlie resistance of ALK(F1174L)-driven NB cells to TAE684 and its derivatives. We suggest that the combination of ALK and AXL or HSP90 inhibitors be considered to delay the emergence of such resistance.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor crizotinib has proven to be effective in the treatment of ALK-mutated neuroblastoma, but crizotinib resistance was commonly observed in patients. We aimed to overcome crizotinib resistance by combining with the MEK inhibitor trametinib or low-dose metronomic (LDM) topotecan in preclinical neuroblastoma models.We selected a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines carrying various ALK genetic aberrations to assess the therapeutic efficacy on cell proliferation in vitro. Downstream signals of ALK activation, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt as well as HIF-1α expression were evaluated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Tumor growth inhibition was further assessed in NOD/SCID xenograft mouse models.All NBL cell lines responded to crizotinib treatment but at variable ED50 levels, ranging from 0.25 to 5.58 μM. ALK-mutated cell lines SH-SY5Y, KELLY, LAN-5, and CHLA-20 are more sensitive than ALK wild-type cell lines. In addition, we demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions, all NBL cell lines showed marked decrease of ED50s when compared to normoxia except for KELLY cells. Taking into consideration the hypoxia sensitivity to crizotinib, combined treatment with crizotinib and LDM topotecan demonstrated a synergistic effect in ALKF1174L-mutated SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo, single-agent crizotinib showed limited antitumor activity in ALKF1174L-mutated SH-SY5Y and KELLY xenograft models; however, when combined with topotecan, significantly delayed tumor development was achieved in both SH-SY5Y and KELLY tumor models.Oral metronomic topotecan reversed crizotinib drug resistance in the ALKF1174L-mutated neuroblastoma preclinical model.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with reduced sensitivity to many chemotherapeutic drugs, including EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we investigated if this reduced sensitivity also contributes to resistance to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor of lung cancer that exhibits the EML4-ALK translocation. We established a crizotinib-resistant subline (H2228/CR), which was derived from the parental H2228 cell line by long-term exposure to increasing concentrations of crizotinib. Characteristics associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT marker proteins, and cellular mobility, were analyzed. Compared with H2228 cells, the growth of H2228/CR cells was independent of EML4-ALK, and H2228/CR cells showed cross-resistance to TAE-684 (a second-generation ALK inhibitor). Phenotypic changes to the spindle-cell shape were noted in H2228/CR cells, which were accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin and increase in vimentin and AXL. In addition, H2228/CR cells showed increased secretion and expression of TGF-?1. Invasion and migration capabilities were dramatically increased in H2228/CR cells. Applying TGF-?1 treatment to parental H2228 cells for 72 h induced reversible EMT, leading to crizotinib resistance, but this was reversed by the removal of TGF-?1. Suppression of vimentin in H2228/CR cells by siRNA treatment restored sensitivity to crizotinib. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitors, similar to the parental H2228 cells. In conclusion, we suggest EMT is possibly involved in acquired resistance to crizotinib, and that HSP90 inhibitors could be a promising option for the treatment of EMT.
Project description:ALK has been identified as a novel therapeutic target in neuroblastoma (NB), but resistance to ALK inhibitors (such as crizotinib) is well recognized. We recently published that the crizotinib sensitivity in NB cells strongly correlates with the crizotinib-ALK binding, and ?-catenin effectively hinders this interaction and confers crizotinib resistance. Here, we asked if these observations hold true for the stem-like cells in NB cells, which were purified based on their responsiveness to a Sox2 reporter. Compared to bulk, reporter unresponsive (RU) cells, reporter responsive (RR) cells had significantly higher neurosphere formation ability, expression of CD133/nestin and chemo-resistance. Using the cellular thermal shift assay, we found that RR cells exhibited significantly weaker crizotinib-ALK binding and higher crizotinib resistance than RU cells. The suboptimal crizotinib-ALK binding in RR cells can be attributed to their high ?-catenin expression, since siRNA knockdown of ?-catenin restored the crizotinib-ALK binding and lowered the crizotinib resistance to the level of RU cells. Enforced expression of ?-catenin in RU cells resulted in the opposite effects. To conclude, high expression of ?-catenin in the stem-like NB cells contributes to their crizotinib resistance. Combining ?-catenin inhibitors and ALK inhibitors may be useful in treating NB patients.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) induce a dramatic response in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with the ALK fusion gene. However, acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs in lung cancer cells remains an inevitable problem: ALK secondary mutations and bypass pathways have been reported as major resistance mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to discover a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs and a strategy to conquer ALK-positive lung cancer. We established three types of ALK-TKI (crizotinib, alectinib and ceritinib)–resistant H2228 non-small cell lung cancer cell lines by high exposure and stepwise methods. We found these cells showed a loss of ALK signaling, overexpressed AXL with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and had cancer stem cell–like properties. Similarly, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 treated H2228 cells also showed AXL overexpression with EMT features and ALK-TKI–resistance. The AXL inhibitor, R428, or HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, were effective in reversing ALK-TKI–resistance and EMT changes in both ALK-TKI–resistant and TGF-β1–exposed H2228 cells. Progression-free survival of ALK-positive NSCLC patients with AXL overexpression was shorter than that of patients who underwent crizotinib therapy and showed low AXL expression. Thus, we found ALK signaling-independent AXL overexpression and EMT features were commonly involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to first and second generation ALK-TKIs. This suggests AXL and HSP90 inhibitors may be promising therapeutic drugs to overcome tumor cells in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. Overall design: We established ALK-TKI-resistant H2228 cells to discover a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs and a strategy to conquer ALK-positive lung cancer.
Project description:Crizotinib is the first anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor to have been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an ALK fusion gene, but it has been found that, in the clinic, patients develop resistance to it. Alectinib and ceritinib are second-generation ALK inhibitors which show remarkable clinical responses in both crizotinib-naive and crizotinib-resistant NSCLC patients harboring an ALK fusion gene. Despite their impressive activity, clinical resistance to alectinib and ceritinib has also emerged. In the current study, we elucidated the resistance mechanisms to these second-generation ALK inhibitors in the H3122 NSCLC cell line harboring the EML4-ALK variant 1 fusion in vitro. Prolonged treatment of the parental H3122 cells with alectinib and ceritinib led to two cell lines which are 10 times less sensitive to alectinib and ceritinib than the parental H3122 cell line. Although mutations of ALK in its kinase domain are a common resistance mechanism for crizotinib, we did not detect any ALK mutation in these resistant cell lines. Rather, overexpression of phospho-ALK and alternative receptor tyrosine kinases such as phospho-EGFR, phospho-HER3, and phospho-IGFR-1R was observed in both resistant cell lines. Additionally, NRG1, a ligand for HER3, is upregulated and responsible for resistance by activating the EGFR family pathways through the NRG1-HER3-EGFR axis. Combination treatment with EGFR inhibitors, in particular afatinib, was shown to be effective at overcoming resistance. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into adaptive resistance to second-generation ALK inhibitors and suggests a potential clinical strategy to combat resistance to these second-generation ALK inhibitors in NSCLC.
Project description:The mechanisms of small molecule targeting drug resistance and ways to overcome resistance are now both urgent need to improve the clinical efficacy. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using different methods to establish the crizotinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H2228/Crizotinib cell lines and to clarify the mechanisms of resistance to small molecule targeting drug, thus providing experimental and theoretical bases for further studies to overcome the mechanisms of Crizotinib resistance.The study utilized stepwise increase of drug concentrations and chemical mutagen to induce Crizotinib-resistant NCI-H2228 cells. The drug 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of parental and resistant cells and the population doubling time were determined by MTT assay. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot. Full-length sequencing method was used to compare the EML4-ALK genes in the parent and drug-resistant cells and analyze the mechanisms of drug resistance.The method of gradually increasing drug concentration to induce Crizotinib-resistant NCI-H2228 cells was time-consuming because the cell growth recovery was extremely slow. Thus, this method was considered invalid. However, chemical mutagen ENU can effectively induce NCI-H2228 cells resistant to crizotinib in a short time [IC50]= (3.810±1.100) ?mol/L, P=0.002,9 vs parental cells]. Furthermore, the gene mutation frequency of EML4-ALK in the resistant cells was significantly higher than that in the parent cells.Chemical mutagen-induced cell resistance was easily operated and had effectively shortened the experimental process. Preliminary technical methods and experimental evidence for in-depth study of drug resistance mechanisms and approaches to overcome the targeted drug resistance were also provided.?.
Project description:Starting with H3122 cells, which harbor the EML4-ALK E13;A20 fusion and are known to be sensitive to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors, we generated isogenic pairs of ALK TKI sensitive and ALK TKI resistant cell lines using established methods (see Chmeliecki, J et al Science Trans Med 2011). We modeled resistance against the currently FDA approved ALK TKI, crizotinib (also called PF-1066). We also modeled resistance against a novel more potent ALK inhibitor, X-376 (ref: Lovly, CM et al Cancer Research 2011). We compared gene expression profiles between the 'parental' (ALK TKI sensitive) H3122 cells and the drug resistant cells (H3122 CR for Crizotinib resistant cells and H3122 XR for X-376 resistant cells). Overall design: Total RNA was obtained from H3122 Parental, H3122 PF1066R, and H3122 X376R cells. The experiment was performed in triplicate.
Project description:The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents a molecular target in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation with potent transforming activity. In a pivotal phase 1 clinical trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib (PF-02341066) demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in the majority of patients with NSCLC harboring ALK fusions. However, despite these remarkable initial responses, cancers eventually develop resistance to crizotinib, usually within 1 y, thereby limiting the potential clinical benefit. To determine how cancers acquire resistance to ALK inhibitors, we established a model of acquired resistance to crizotinib by exposing a highly sensitive EML4-ALK-positive NSCLC cell line to increasing doses of crizotinib until resistance emerged. We found that cells resistant to intermediate doses of crizotinib developed amplification of the EML4-ALK gene. Cells resistant to higher doses (1 ?M) also developed a gatekeeper mutation, L1196M, within the kinase domain, rendering EML4-ALK insensitive to crizotinib. This gatekeeper mutation was readily detected using a unique and highly sensitive allele-specific PCR assay. Although crizotinib was ineffectual against EML4-ALK harboring the gatekeeper mutation, we observed that two structurally different ALK inhibitors, NVP-TAE684 and AP26113, were highly active against the resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Thus, we have developed a model of acquired resistance to ALK inhibitors and have shown that second-generation ALK TKIs or Hsp90 inhibitors are effective in treating crizotinib-resistant tumors harboring secondary gatekeeper mutations.
Project description:Many different aberrations in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) were found to be oncogenic drivers in several cancers including neuroblastoma (NB), therefore ALK is now considered a critical player in NB oncogenesis and a promising therapeutic target. The ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has a limited activity against the various ALK mutations identified in NB patients. We tested: the activity of the novel ALK-inhibitor X-396 administered alone or in combination with Targeted Liposomes carrying ALK-siRNAs (TL[ALK-siRNA]) that are active irrespective of ALK gene mutational status; the pharmacokinetic profiles and the biodistribution of X-396; the efficacy of X-396 versus crizotinib treatment in NB xenografts; whether the combination of X-396 with the TL[ALK-siRNA] could promote long-term survival in NB mouse models. X-396 revealed good bioavailability, moderate half-life, high mean plasma and tumor concentrations. X-396 was more effective than crizotinib in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation of NB cells and in reducing tumor volume in subcutaneous NB models in a dose-dependent manner. In orthotopic NB xenografts, X-396 significantly increased life span independently of the ALK mutation status. In combination studies, all effects were significantly improved in the mice treated with TL[ALK-siRNA] and X-396 compared to mice receiving the single agents. Our findings provide a rational basis to design innovative molecular-based treatment combinations for clinical application in ALK-driven NB tumors.