Lin28A binds active promoters and recruits Tet1 to regulate gene expression
ABSTRACT: Lin28, a well-known RNA-binding protein, regulates diverse cellular properties. All physiological functions of Lin28A characterized so far have been attributed to its repression of let-7 miRNA biogenesis or modulation of the mRNA translational efficiency. Here we show that Lin28A directly binds to a consensus DNA sequence in vitro and in mouse embryonic stem cells in vivo. ChIP-seq and RNA-seq reveal the enrichment of Lin28A binding around transcription start sites, and a positive correlation between its genomic occupancy and expression of many associated genes. Mechanistically, Lin28A recruits 5-methylcytosine-dioxygenase Tet1 to genomic binding sites to orchestrate 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine dynamics. Either Lin28A or Tet1 knockdown leads to dysregulated DNA methylation and expression of common target genes. These results reveal a surprising role for Lin28A in transcriptional regulation via epigenetic DNA modifications and provide a new framework for understanding mechanisms underlying versatile functions of Lin28A in mammalian systems. Examine the DNA binding ability of Lin28 and its roles in regulating gene expression by coordinating with Tet1
Project description:The mammalian TET dioxygenases contribute to global waves of DNA demethylation in the zygote and in primordial germ cells, but their involvement during de novo DNA methylation at peri/post-implantation development is unknown. Here, we show novel physiological functions of Tet1 in the pre-primitive streak stage mouse embryo, where it is expressed not only in the primed-state epiblast, but also in the extra-embryonic ectoderm. In the epiblast, Tet1 contributes to DNA methylation patterning, which indirectly results in dominant transcriptional repression involving a Jumonji-family gene Jmjd8. In the extra-embryonic ectoderm, Tet1 suppresses expression of metabolic genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. These lineage-specific gene repressive functions, involving distinct modes of regulation by DNA methylation, counteract precocious differentiation of the embryo prior to the onset of gastrulation. Such dysregulation in the absence of Tet1 are surprisingly tolerated in an inbred strain but results in full embryonic lethality in non-inbred mice, thus implicating a complex but essential role of Tet1 in normal gestational development.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. The neurodegenerative disease known as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is caused by the absence of the ATM (A-T mutated) protein. A long-standing mystery surrounding A-T is why cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) appear uniquely vulnerable to ATM-deficiency. Here, we present that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic marker found at high levels in neurons, is substantially reduced in human A-T and Atm-/- mouse cerebellar PCs. TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, responds to DNA damage. Manipulation of TET1 activity directly affects neuronal cell cycle reentry and cell death after the induction of DNA damage. Quantitative, genome-wide analysis of 5hmC of samples from human cerebellum showed that in ATM-deficiency there is a remarkable genome-wide reduction of 5hmC enrichment at both proximal and distal regulatory elements. These results reveal a role of TET1-mediated 5hmC in DNA damage response, and provide insights into the basis of a PC-specific DNA demethylation alteration in ATM-deficiency. Refer to individual Series
Project description:We performed a meta analysis of publicly available TET1, 5mC, 5hmC and genome wide bisulfite profiling data mostly from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC). Genome wide chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) has revealed binding of the TET1 protein at CpG-island (CGI) promoters and at bivalent promoters. We show that TET1 also coincides with DNAseI hypersensitive sites (HS). Presence of TET1 at these THREE locations suggests that it may play a dual role: an active role at CpG-islands and DNAseI hypersensitive sites and a repressive role at bivalent loci. In line with the presence of TET1, significant enrichment of 5hmC but not 5mC is detected at bivalent promoters and DNaseI HS. Surprisingly, 5hmC is not detected or present at very low levels at CGI promoters notwithstanding the presence of TET1 at these loci. Our meta analysis suggest that asymmetric methylation is present at CA- and CT-repeats in the genome of some human ESC. Examination of the distribution of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells.
Project description:Genomic DNA was prepared, fragmented, and immunoprecipitated with antibodies specific for 5mC or 5hmC prior to standard sequencing. The neurodegenerative disease known as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is caused by the absence of the ATM (A-T mutated) protein. A long-standing mystery surrounding A-T is why cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) appear uniquely vulnerable to ATM-deficiency. Here, we present that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic marker found at high levels in neurons, is substantially reduced in human A-T and Atm-/- mouse cerebellar PCs. TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, responds to DNA damage. Manipulation of TET1 activity directly affects neuronal cell cycle reentry and cell death after the induction of DNA damage. Quantitative, genome-wide analysis of 5hmC of samples from human cerebellum showed that in ATM-deficiency there is a remarkable genome-wide reduction of 5hmC enrichment at both proximal and distal regulatory elements. These results reveal a role of TET1-mediated 5hmC in DNA damage response, and provide insights into the basis of a PC-specific DNA demethylation alteration in ATM-deficiency. There are two groups, A-T and Control. For each group, cerebellar DNA samples were immunoprecipitated with anti-5mC (n=1) or anti-5hmC (n=3). There were also two replicates of input control for each group.
Project description:Mammalian somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by introducing defined sets of transcription factors. Somatic cell reprogramming involves epigenomic reconfiguration, conferring iPSCs with characteristics similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. Human ES cells contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is generated though the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the TET family of enzymes. Here we show that 5hmC level increases significantly during reprogramming due to the activation of TET1. During this process, dynamic genome-wide 5hmC modification occurs across the genome with more modifications at telomere-proximal regions. Compared with hES cells, we found iPS cells tend to form large-scale (100kb-1.3Mb) aberrant reprogramming hotspots in subtelomeric regions, most of which display incomplete hydroxymethylation. Strikingly, these 5hmC aberrant hotspots largely coincide (>80%) with previously reported aberrant non-CG methylation regions. Our results suggest that 5hmC modification could play important roles during reprogramming to pluripotency, and contribute to the differences between iPSCs and hESCs. we generated comprehensive genome-wide profiles of 5hmC in somatic cells, iPS cell lines derived from a variety of origins, and multiple hES cell lines.
Project description:Through the analysis of mouse liver tumours promoted by distinct routes (DEN exposure alone, DEN exposure plus non-genotoxic insult with phenobarbital and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease); we report that the cancer associated hyper-methylated CGI events in mice are also predicated by silent promoters that are enriched for both the DNA modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and the histone modification H3K27me3 in normal liver. During cancer progression these CGIs undergo hypo-hydroxymethylation, prior to subsequent hyper-methylation; whilst retaining H3K27me3. A similar loss of promoter-core 5hmC is observed in Tet1 deficient mouse livers indicating that reduced Tet1 binding at CGIs may be responsible for the epigenetic dysregulation observed during hepatocarcinogenesis. Consistent with this reduced Tet1 protein levels are observed in mouse liver tumour lesions. As in human, DNA methylation changes at CGIs do not appear to be direct drivers of hepatocellular carcinoma progression in mice. Instead dynamic changes in H3K27me3 promoter deposition are strongly associated with tumour-specific activation and repression of transcription. Our data suggests that loss of promoter associated 5hmC in diverse liver tumours licences DNA methylation reprogramming at silent CGIs during cancer progression. We carry out 5-hydroxymethylation DNA immunoprecipitation (hmeDIP) prior to sequencing Ion Proton P1 to report on the genome-wide 5hmC patterns. Heterozygote pairs of Tet1 B6;129S4-Tet1tm1.1Jae/J mice were bought from The Jackson Laboratory (Maine USA). Heterozygotes were interbred to produce homozygous knock out males with colony mate wild type controls. Genome-wide 5hmC patterns were generated by hydroxymethyl-DNA immuoprecipitation (hmeDIP) followed by genome wide sequencing on the Ion Proton P1 sequencer.
Project description:TET1/2/3 are methylcytosine dioxygenases regulating cytosine hydroxymethylation in the genome. Tet1 and Tet2 are abundantly expressed in HSC/HPCs and implicated in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. Tet2-deletion in mice causes myeloid malignancies, while Tet1-null mice develop B-cell lymphoma after an extended period of latency. Interestingly, TET1 and TET2 were often concomitantly down-regulated in acute B-lymphocytic leukemia. Here, we investigated the overlapping and non-redundant functions of Tet1/Tet2 in HSC maintenance and development of hematological malignancies using Tet1/2 double knockout (DKO) mice. DKO and Tet2-/- HSC/HPCs had overlapping and unique 5hmC and 5mC profiles and behaved differently. DKO mice exhibited strikingly decreased incidence and delayed onset of myeloid malignancies compared to Tet2-/- mice and in contrast developed lethal B-cell malignancies. Transcriptome analysis of DKO tumors revealed expression changes in many genes dysregulated in human B-cell malignancies, such as LMO2, BCL6 and MYC. These results highlight the critical roles of TET1 or TET2 individually and their cross-talks in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. Given the role of Tet proteins in 5mC oxidation, we employed a previously established chemical labeling and affinity purification method coupled with high-throughput sequencing (hMe-Seal) to profile the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC, as well as methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq) to profile 5mC using BM LK cells purified from young WT, Tet2-/- and DKO mice (6-10 wks old).
Project description:During mammalian development DNA methylation patterns need to be reset in primordial germ cells (PGC) and preimplantation embryos. However, many retro-transposons and imprinted genes are resistant to such global epigenetic reprogramming via hitherto undefined mechanisms. Here, we report that some of these sequences are immune to widespread erasure of DNA methylation in the mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lacking de novo DNA methyltransferases. Persistence of DNA methylation at these loci in mESCs depends on the histone H3K9 methyltransferase Setdb1, as deletion of Setdb1 results in reduction of H3K9me3 and DNA methylation levels concomitant with an increase in 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC). In addition, depletion of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a leads to genome-wide reduction of DNA methylation but to a lesser extent at the above sequences. Taken together, these data reveal that Setdb1 ensures the fidelity of DNA methylation at specific loci in mESCs, which may reflect mechanisms functioning in vivo during key developmental stages. Examination of genome-wide DNA hydroxy-methylation status in 3 cell types.
Project description:Purpose: we want to see gene expression changes during in vitro expansion of VM-derived NSCs (VM-NSCs) with cell passges in the absence or presence of Lin28a overexpression. changes upon Lin28 overexpression in P1 and P3 stages of Neural stem cells. RNA-seq, sRNA-seq, and Polysome-seq with/without Lin28 overexpression in P1 and P3 stages of Neural stem cells.
Project description:The conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family has recently been identified as a key process for active DNA demethylation, whose effects in the immune response is currently unknown. Examination of both 5mC and 5hmC modifications in 5 Th cell types. CD2(Cre)Tet2(f/f) mice (previously described in Moran-Crusio et al.,2011) and wild-type littermates on the mixed background were used in experiments.