Lung microbiome enriched with anaerobes associated with Th17 immune phenotype
ABSTRACT: In a prior report, we observed two distinct lung microbiomes in healthy subjects that we termed “pneumotypes”: pneumotypeSPT, characterized by high bacterial load and supraglottic predominant taxa (SPT) such as the anaerobes Prevotella and Veillonella; and pneumotypeBPT, with low bacterial burden and background predominant taxa (BPT) found in the saline lavage and bronchoscope. Here, we determined the prevalence of these two contrasting lung microbiome types, in a multi-center study of healthy subjects. We confirmed that a lower airway microbiome enriched with upper airway microbes (pneumotypeSPT) was present in ~45% of healthy individuals. Cross-sectional Multicenter cohort. BAL of 49 healthy subjects from three cohort had their lower airway microbiome assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing and microbial gene content (metagenome) was computationally inferred from taxonomic assignments. The amplicons from total 100 samples are barcoded; the barcode and other clinical characteristics (e.g. inflammatory biomarkers and metabolome data) for each sample are provided in the 'Pneumotype.sep.Map.A1.txt' file.
Project description:Azithromycin (AZM) reduces pulmonary inflammation and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with emphysema. The antimicrobial effects of AZM on the lung microbiome are not known and may contribute to its beneficial effects. Methods. Twenty smokers with emphysema were randomized to receive AZM 250 mg or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at baseline and after treatment. Measurements included: rDNA gene quantity and sequence. Results. Compared with placebo, AZM did not alter bacterial burden but reduced α-diversity, decreasing 11 low abundance taxa, none of which are classical pulmonary pathogens. Conclusions. AZM treatment the lung microbiome Randomized trial comparing azithromycin (AZM) treatment with placebo for eight weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained before and after treatment to explore the effects of AZM on microbiome, in the lower airways. 16S rRNA was quantified and sequenced (MiSeq) The amplicons from total 39 samples are barcoded and the barcode is provided in the metadata_complete.txt file.
Project description:In this study, we assessed lower airway microbiome from a cohort of patients to determine whether specific microbiome taxa correlate with with specific metabolic activities. In a subset of 12 patients, transcriptomic expression were analyzed to compare host mucosa immune response We collected peripheral airway brushings from the 12 subjects whose lung microbiome were analyzed; Total RNA were obtained from the peripheral airway epithelium.
Project description:The characterization of microbial community structure via 16S rRNA gene profiling has been greatly advanced in recent years by the application of amplicon pyrosequencing. The possibility of barcode-tagged sequencing of templates gives the opportunity to massively screen multiple samples from environmental or clinical sources for community details. However, an on-going debate questions the reproducibility and semi-quantitative rigour of pyrotag sequencing and, as in the early days of genetic community fingerprinting, pros and cons are continuously provided. In this study we investigate the reproducibility of bacterial 454 pyrotag sequencing over biological and technical replicates of natural microbiota. Moreover, via quantitatively defined template spiking to the natural community, we explore the potential for recovering specific template ratios within complex microbial communities. For this reason, we pyrotag sequenced three biological replicates of three samples, each belonging from yearly sampling campaigns of sediment from a tar oil contaminated aquifer in Düsseldorf, Germany. Furthermore, we subjected one DNA extract to replicate technical analyses as well as to increasing ratios (0, 0.2, 2 and 20%) of 16S rRNA genes from a pure culture (Aliivibrio fisheri) originally not present in the sample. Unexpectedly, taxa abundances were highly reproducible in our hands, with max standard deviation of ~3% abundance across biological and ~2% for technical replicates. Furthermore, our workflow was also capable of recovering A. fisheri amendmend ratios in reliable amounts (0, 0.29, 3.9 and 23.8%). These results highlight that pyrotag sequencing, if done and evaluated with due caution, has the potential to robustly recapture taxa template abundances within environmental microbial communities. 9 Biological and 3 technical replicates were evaluated, as well as potential to recover qPCR-defined ratios of DNA, in 454 pyrotag sequencing
Project description:Sub-Saharan Africa represents 69% of the total number of individuals living with HIV infection worldwide and 72% of AIDS deaths globally. Pulmonary infection is a common and frequently fatal complication, though little is known regarding the lower airway microbiome composition of this population. Our objectives were to characterize the lower airway microbiome of Ugandan HIV-infected patients with pneumonia, to determine relationships with demographic, clinical, immunological, and microbiological variables and to compare the composition and predicted metagenome of these communities to a comparable cohort of patients in the US (San Francisco). Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from a cohort of 60 Ugandan HIV-infected patients with acute pneumonia were collected. Amplified 16S ribosomal RNA was profiled and aforementioned relationships examined. Ugandan airway microbiome composition and predicted metagenomic function were compared to US HIV-infected pneumonia patients. Among the most common bacterial pulmonary pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most prevalent in the Ugandan cohort. Patients with a richer and more diverse airway microbiome exhibited lower bacterial burden, enrichment of members of the Lachnospiraceae and sulfur-reducing bacteria and reduced expression of TNF-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Compared to San Franciscan patients, Ugandan airway microbiome were significantly richer, and compositionally distinct with predicted metagenomes that encoded a multitude of distinct pathogenic pathways e.g secretion systems. Ugandan pneumonia-associated airway microbiome is compositionally and functionally distinct from those detected in comparable patients in developed countries, a feature which may contribute to adverse outcomes in this population. Please note that the data from the comparable cohort of patients in the USUS data was published as supplemental material of PMID: 22760045 but not submitted to GEO The 'patient_info.txt' contains 12 clinical, 7 immunological and 3 microbiological variables for each patient. The G2 PhyloChip microarray platform (commercially available from Second Genome, Inc.) was used to profile bacteria in lower airway samples from 60 subjects
Project description:Background: The lung microbiome of healthy individuals frequently harbors oral organisms. Despite evidence that micro-aspiration is commonly associated with smoking-related lung diseases, the effects of lung microbiome enrichment with upper airway taxa on inflammation has not been studied. We hypothesize that the presence of oral microorganisms in the lung microbiome is associated with enhanced pulmonary inflammation. Methods: We sampled bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the lower airways of 29 asymptomatic subjects (9 never-smokers, 14 former-smokers and 6 current-smokers). We quantified, amplified, and sequenced 16S rRNA genes from BAL samples by qPCR and 454 sequencing. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), BAL lymphocytes and neutrophils. Results: BAL had lower total 16S than supraglottic samples and higher than saline background. Bacterial communities in the lower airway clustered in two distinct groups that we designated... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:The early-life intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping host immune system development. We found that a single early-life antibiotic course (1PAT) accelerated Type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in male NOD mice. The single course had strong and persistent effects on the intestinal microbiome, selecting for a highly metabolically active metagenome, with altered hepatic and serum metabolites. The exposure led to differential ileal and hepatic histone modification, and perturbed ileal gene expression, strongly affecting the normal maturational pattern. Earliest effects involved specific genes in innate immune pathways, with later effects on adaptive immunity. Microbiome analysis revealed four potential T1D-protective taxa and four T1D-accelerating taxa, and a network linking specific microbial taxa to differences in ileal gene expression was identified. This simplified animal model has improved understanding of the mechanisms by which early-life gut microbiome perturbations alter host intestinal responses, contributing to T1D. Overall design: Nanostring gene expression analysis was performed on RNA extracted from the terminal ileum of control, PAT1 and PAT3 mice from P12 to P42 of life.
Project description:The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks. Age had a profound effect on early microbiota where compositional and functional complexity of less dissimilar communities increased with time. Comparisons of the relative abundances of proteins revealed the transition of taxon-associated saccharolytic and carbon metabolism strategies from catabolic pathways of milk and mucin-derived monosaccharides feeding acetate/propanoate synthesis to complex food sugars fuelling butyrate production. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis uncovered two anti-correlated modules of functional taxa. A low-connected Bifidobacteriaceae-centred guild of facultative anaerobes was succeeded by a rich club of obligate anaerobes densely interconnected around Lachnospiraceae, underpinning their pivotal roles in microbial ecosystem assemblies. Our findings establish a framework to visualize whole microbial community metabolism and ecosystem succession dynamics, proposing opportunities for microbiota-targeted health-promoting strategies early in life.
Project description:An investigation of gene expression changes in rectal biopsies from donors with IBS compared to controls to begin to understand this complex syndrome. To further investigate differences between IBS groups (constipation and diarrhoea predominant) (part1) and how IBS relates to bacterial infection (part2) with biopsies taken 6 months after Campylobacter jejuni infection. Part1: 18 Constipation predominant IBS subjects (IBS-C) and 27 diarrhoea predominant IBS subjects (IBS-D) compared to 21 healthy volunteers (HV). Part2: 21 Campylobacter jejuni infection (PIBD, PIBS, PINIBS) compared to 19 healthy volunteers (HV). PIBD = post Campylobacter infection with IBS (within 6 months) PIBS = post infection IBS (unknown time point and organism) PINIBS = post Campylobacter infection with no resulting IBS
Project description:Opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed in the United States and worldwide. However, serious side effects such as addiction, immunosuppression and gastrointestinal symptoms limit long term use. In the current study using a chronic morphine-murine model a longitudinal approach was undertaken to investigate the role of morphine modulation of gut microbiome as a mechanism contributing to the negative consequences associated with opioids use. The results revealed a significant shift in the gut microbiome and metabolome within 24 hours following morphine treatment when compared to placebo. Morphine induced gut microbial dysbiosis exhibited distinct characteristic signatures profiles including significant increase in communities associated with pathogenic function, decrease in communities associated with stress tolerance. Collectively, these results reveal opioids-induced distinct alteration of gut microbiome, may contribute to opioids-induced pathogenesis. Therapeutics directed at these targets may prolong the efficacy long term opioid use with fewer side effects.
Project description:Molecular profiling studies in asthma cohorts have identified a Th2-driven asthma subtype, characterized by elevated lower airway expression of POSTN, CLCA1 and SERPINB2. To assess upper airway gene expression as a potential biomarker for lower airway Th2 inflammation, we assayed upper airway (nasal) and lower airway (bronchial) epithelial gene expression, serum total IgE, blood eosinophils and serum periostin in a cohort of 54 allergic asthmatics and 30 matched healthy controls. 23 of 51 asthmatics in our cohort were classified as ‘Th2 high’ based on lower airway Th2 gene signature expression. Consistent with this classification, ‘Th2 high’ subjects displayed elevated total IgE and blood eosinophil levels relative to ‘Th2 low’ subjects. Upper airway Th2 signature expression was significantly correlated with lower airway Th2 signature expression (r=0.44), with similar strength of association as serum total IgE and blood eosinophils, known biomarkers of Th2 inflammation. In an unbiased genome-wide scan, we identified 8 upper airway genes more strongly correlated with lower airway Th2 gene signature expression (r=0.58), including Eotaxin-3 (CCL26), Galectin-10 (CLC) and Cathepsin-C (CTSC). Asthmatics classified as ‘Th2 high’ using this 8-gene signature show similar serum total IgE and blood eosinophil levels as ‘Th2 high’ asthmatics classified using lower airway Th2 gene signature expression. We have identified an 8-gene upper airway signature correlated with lower airway Th2 inflammation, which may be used as a diagnostic biomarker for Th2-driven asthma. Upper airway (nasal) and lower airway (bronchial) epithelial brushings obtained from a cohort of 54 allergic asthmatics and 30 matched healthy controls were profiled by gene expression by microarray. Subjects were assayed for gene expression, serum total IgE, blood eosinophils and serum periostin.