Loss of NAD homeostasis leads to progressive and reversible degeneration of skeletal muscle
ABSTRACT: NAD is an obligate co-factor for the catabolism of metabolic fuels in all cell types. However, the availability of NAD in several tissues can become limited during genotoxic stress and the course of natural aging. The point at which NAD restriction imposes functional limitations on tissue physiology remains unknown. We examined this question in murine skeletal muscle by specifically depleting Nampt, an essential enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway. Knockout mice exhibited a dramatic 85% decline in intramuscular NAD content, accompanied by fiber degeneration and progressive loss of both muscle strength and treadmill endurance. Administration of the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside rapidly ameliorated functional deficits and restored muscle mass, despite having only a modest effect on the intramuscular NAD pool. Additionally, lifelong overexpression of Nampt preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in aged mice, supporting a critical role for tissue-autonomous NAD homeostasis in maintaining muscle mass and function. Messenger RNA was isolated from quadriceps muscle of mice from three different age groups and three different genotypes. Wildtype mice were aged 4, 7, and 24 months. Mice deficient for Nampt in skeletal muscle (mNKO) were aged 7 months. Mice overexpressing Nampt in skeletal muscle were aged 4 and 24 months.
Project description:NAD is an obligate co-factor for the catabolism of metabolic fuels in all cell types. However, the availability of NAD in several tissues can become limited during genotoxic stress and the course of natural aging. The point at which NAD restriction imposes functional limitations on tissue physiology remains unknown. We examined this question in murine skeletal muscle by specifically depleting Nampt, an essential enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway. Knockout mice exhibited a dramatic 85% decline in intramuscular NAD content, accompanied by fiber degeneration and progressive loss of both muscle strength and treadmill endurance. Administration of the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside rapidly ameliorated functional deficits and restored muscle mass despite having only a modest effect on the intramuscular NAD pool. Additionally, lifelong overexpression of Nampt preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in aged mice, supporting a critical role for tissue-autonomous NAD homeostasis in maintaining muscle mass and function.
Project description:Augmenting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) availability may protect skeletal muscle from age-related metabolic decline. Dietary supplementation of NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR) appear efficacious in elevating muscle NAD+. Here we sought to identify the pathways skeletal muscle cells utilize to synthesize NAD+ from NMN and NR and provide insight into mechanisms of muscle metabolic homeostasis.We exploited expression profiling of muscle NAD+ biosynthetic pathways, single and double nicotinamide riboside kinase 1/2 (NRK1/2) loss-of-function mice, and pharmacological inhibition of muscle NAD+ recycling to evaluate NMN and NR utilization.Skeletal muscle cells primarily rely on nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), NRK1, and NRK2 for salvage biosynthesis of NAD+. NAMPT inhibition depletes muscle NAD+ availability and can be rescued by NR and NMN as the preferred precursors for elevating muscle cell NAD+ in a pathway that depends on NRK1 and NRK2. Nrk2 knockout mice develop normally and show subtle alterations to their NAD+ metabolome and expression of related genes. NRK1, NRK2, and double KO myotubes revealed redundancy in the NRK dependent metabolism of NR to NAD+. Significantly, these models revealed that NMN supplementation is also dependent upon NRK activity to enhance NAD+ availability.These results identify skeletal muscle cells as requiring NAMPT to maintain NAD+ availability and reveal that NRK1 and 2 display overlapping function in salvage of exogenous NR and NMN to augment intracellular NAD+ availability.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding.Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was assessed in NamptTg and WT mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD, 60% by kcal) or chow diet (CD). The aerobic capacity (VO2max) and endurance performance of NamptTg and WT mice before and after 7 weeks of voluntary exercise training (running wheel in home cage) or sedentary conditions (no running wheel) were measured. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial gene expression was also measured in exercised and sedentary mice and in mice fed HFD (45% by kcal) or low fat diet (LFD, 10% by kcal).NAMPT enzyme activity in skeletal muscle was 7-fold higher in NamptTg mice versus WT mice. There was a concomitant 1.6-fold elevation of skeletal muscle NAD+. NamptTg mice fed VHFD were partially protected against body weight gain, but not against insulin resistance. Notably, voluntary exercise training elicited a 3-fold higher exercise endurance in NamptTg versus WT mice. Mitochondrial gene expression was higher in NamptTg mice compared to WT mice, especially when fed HFD. Mitochondrial gene expression was higher in exercised NamptTg mice than in sedentary WT mice.Our studies have unveiled a fascinating interaction between elevated NAMPT activity in skeletal muscle and voluntary exercise that was manifest as a striking improvement in exercise endurance.
Project description:Obesity is associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and multi-organ insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms of such obesity-associated systemic metabolic complications are not clear. Here, we characterized mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a rate-limiting NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme known to decrease in adipose tissue of obese and aged rodents and people. We found that adipocyte-specific Nampt knockout mice had severe insulin resistance in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue dysfunction, manifested by increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations and decreased plasma concentrations of a major insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. Loss of Nampt increased phosphorylation of CDK5 and PPAR? (serine-273) and decreased gene expression of obesity-linked phosphorylated PPAR? targets in adipose tissue. These deleterious alterations were normalized by administering rosiglitazone or a key NAD(+) intermediate, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Collectively, our results provide important mechanistic and therapeutic insights into obesity-associated systemic metabolic derangements, particularly multi-organ insulin resistance.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays a critical role in energy metabolism and bioenergetic homeostasis. Most NAD+ in mammalian cells is synthesized via the NAD+ salvage pathway, where nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme, converting nicotinamide into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Using a Thy1-Nampt-/- projection neuron conditional knockout (cKO) mouse, we studied the impact of NAMPT on synaptic vesicle cycling in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), end-plate structure of NMJs and muscle contractility of semitendinosus muscles. Loss of NAMPT impaired synaptic vesicle endocytosis/exocytosis in the NMJs. The cKO mice also had motor endplates with significantly reduced area and thickness. When the cKO mice were treated with NMN, vesicle endocytosis/exocytosis was improved and endplate morphology was restored. Electrical stimulation induced muscle contraction was significantly impacted in the cKO mice in a frequency dependent manner. The cKO mice were unresponsive to high frequency stimulation (100?Hz), while the NMN-treated cKO mice responded similarly to the control mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed sarcomere misalignment and changes to mitochondrial morphology in the cKO mice, with NMN treatment restoring sarcomere alignment but not mitochondrial morphology. This study demonstrates that neuronal NAMPT is important for pre-/post-synaptic NMJ function, and maintaining skeletal muscular function and structure.
Project description:It is intuitive to speculate that nutrient availability may influence differentiation of mammalian cells. Nonetheless, a comprehensive complement of the molecular determinants involved in this process has not been elucidated yet. Here, we have investigated how nutrients (glucose) affect skeletal myogenesis. Glucose restriction (GR) impaired differentiation of skeletal myoblasts and was associated with activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activated AMPK was required to promote GR-induced transcription of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme Nampt. Indeed, GR augmented the Nampt activity, which consequently modified the intracellular [NAD+]:[NADH] ratio and nicotinamide levels, and mediated inhibition of skeletal myogenesis. Skeletal myoblasts derived from SIRT1+/- heterozygous mice were resistant to the effects of either GR or AMPK activation. These experiments reveal that AMPK, Nampt, and SIRT1 are the molecular components of a functional signaling pathway that allows skeletal muscle cells to sense and react to nutrient availability.
Project description:Ageing is an important risk factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we investigated whether the deficiency of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ), a ubiquitous coenzyme, links ageing with NAFLD.Hepatic concentrations of NAD(+) , protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD(+) biosynthesis, were compared in middle-aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD(+) decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild-type and H247A dominant-negative, enzymically-inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN-NAMPT) given normal or high-fat diet (HFD).Hepatic NAD(+) level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT-controlled NAD(+) salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle-age DN-NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD(+) reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro-inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and ?-SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD(+) deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes.These results provide the first evidence that ageing-associated NAD(+) deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD(+) substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD.
Project description:Neuromuscular diseases are often caused by inherited mutations that lead to progressive skeletal muscle weakness and degeneration. In diverse populations of normal healthy mice, we observed correlations between the abundance of mRNA transcripts related to mitochondrial biogenesis, the dystrophin-sarcoglycan complex, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis, consistent with a potential role for the essential cofactor NAD+ in protecting muscle from metabolic and structural degeneration. Furthermore, the skeletal muscle transcriptomes of patients with Duchene's muscular dystrophy (DMD) and other muscle diseases were enriched for various poly[adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerases (PARPs) and for nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), enzymes that are major consumers of NAD+ and are involved in pleiotropic events, including inflammation. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, we observed significant reductions in muscle NAD+ levels, concurrent increases in PARP activity, and reduced expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme for NAD+ biosynthesis. Replenishing NAD+ stores with dietary nicotinamide riboside supplementation improved muscle function and heart pathology in mdx and mdx/Utr-/- mice and reversed pathology in Caenorhabditis elegans models of DMD. The effects of NAD+ repletion in mdx mice relied on the improvement in mitochondrial function and structural protein expression (?-dystrobrevin and ?-sarcoglycan) and on the reductions in general poly(ADP)-ribosylation, inflammation, and fibrosis. In combination, these studies suggest that the replenishment of NAD+ may benefit patients with muscular dystrophies or other neuromuscular degenerative conditions characterized by the PARP/NNMT gene expression signatures.
Project description:In mammals, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is an obligate cosubstrate for mammalian sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), which in turn can activate mitochondrial biogenesis. Given that mitochondrial biogenesis is activated by exercise, we hypothesized that exercise would increase NAMPT expression, as a potential mechanism leading to increased mitochondrial content in muscle. A cross-sectional analysis of human subjects showed that athletes had about a twofold higher skeletal muscle NAMPT protein expression compared with sedentary obese, nonobese, and type 2 diabetic subjects (P < 0.05). NAMPT protein correlated with mitochondrial content as estimated by complex III protein content (R(2) = 0.28, P < 0.01), MRS-measured maximal ATP synthesis (R(2) = 0.37, P = 0.002), and Vo(2max) (R(2) = 0.63, P < 0.0001). In an exercise intervention study, NAMPT protein increased by 127% in sedentary nonobese subjects after 3 wk of exercise training (P < 0.01). Treatment of primary human myotubes with forskolin, a cAMP signaling pathway activator, resulted in an approximately 2.5-fold increase in NAMPT protein expression, whereas treatment with ionomycin had no effect. Activation of AMPK via AICAR resulted in an approximately 3.4-fold increase in NAMPT mRNA (P < 0.05) as well as modest increases in NAMPT protein (P < 0.05) and mitochondrial content (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that exercise increases skeletal muscle NAMPT expression and that NAMPT correlates with mitochondrial content. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the pathways regulating NAMPT as well as its downstream effects.
Project description:We examined if resistance training affected muscle NAD+ and NADH concentrations as well as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) protein levels and sirtuin (SIRT) activity markers in middle-aged, untrained (MA) individuals. MA participants (59±4 years old; n=16) completed 10 weeks of full-body resistance training (2 d/wk). Body composition, knee extensor strength, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained prior to training (Pre) and 72 hours following the last training bout (Post). Data from trained college-aged men (22±3 years old, training age: 6±2 years old; n=15) were also obtained for comparative purposes. Muscle NAD+ (+127%, p<0.001), NADH (+99%, p=0.002), global SIRT activity (+13%, p=0.036), and NAMPT protein (+15%, p=0.014) increased from Pre to Post in MA participants. Additionally, Pre muscle NAD+ and NADH in MA participants were lower than college-aged participants (p<0.05), whereas Post values were similar between cohorts (p>0.10). Interestingly, muscle citrate synthase activity levels (i.e., mitochondrial density) increased in MA participants from Pre to Post (+183%, p<0.001), and this increase was significantly associated with increases in muscle NAD+ (r2=0.592, p=0.001). In summary, muscle NAD+, NADH, and global SIRT activity are positively affected by resistance training in middle-aged, untrained individuals. Whether these adaptations facilitated mitochondrial biogenesis remains to be determined.