Long-term exposure to cold plasma-generated ROS –an in vitro model for redox-related diseases of the skin
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress illustrates an imbalance between radical formation and removal. Frequent redox stress is critically involved in a variety of human pathologies including cancer, psoriasis, and chronic wounds. However, reactive species pursue a dual role being involved in signaling on the one hand and oxidative damage on the other. Using a HaCaT keratinocyte cell culture model, we here aimed at investigating the cellular and transcriptional response to periodic, low dose oxidative challenge over three months. Chronic redox stress was generated by frequent incubation with cold physical plasma treated cell culture medium. Using mRNA microarray technology, we found both acute ROS stress responses as well as numerous adaptions on the transcriptional level and over several weeks of redox challenge. This included an altered expression of 260 genes that function in inflammation and redox homeostasis, such as, signaling molecules, cytokines, and anti-oxidant enzymes. Apoptotic signaling was affected to a minor extend, especially in p53 down-stream targets. Strikingly, the anti-apoptotic heat shock protein HSP27 was strongly upregulated. These results suggest a variety of adaptive responses relating involved a number of cellular processes elicited by frequent redox stress over several months. They may help to better understand inflammatory responses in redox related diseases and possibly allow uncovering new biomarkers of ROS-stress. Microarrays were used to analyze and investigate the biological effects of repeated exposure of cold physical plasma on human HaCaT keratinocytes. Using an argon plasma jet kinpen, regulated transcripts were analyzed and further described in Schmidt et al. (submittes): “Long-term exposure to cold plasma-generated ROS –an in vitro model for redox-related diseases of the skin”. HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to plasma treated medium - time course
Project description:Investigation of gene expression in human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) following non-thermal plasma treatment for 20 s, 60 s, and 180 s compared to untreated and H2O2-treated controls. Microarrays were used to analyze and investigate the biological effects of non-thermal plasma on human keratinocyte cells. Using an argon plasma jet kinpen, regulated transcripts were analyzed and further described in Schmidt et al. (2014): “Transcript profiling identifies an important role for Nrf2/Keap1-pathway after non-thermal plasma treatment in human keratinocytes”. A study using total RNA recovered from at non-thermal plasma treated-probes (n>6), as well as H2O2-treated, argon-gas treated, and untreated HaCaT controls.
Project description:Investigation of gene expression in cultured human skin epithelial keratinocytes (HaCaT) following non-thermal plasma treatment for 60 s, compared to untreated control. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has recently gained attention in the field of biomedical and clinical applications. In the area of plasma medicine research one promising approach is to promote wound healing by stimulation of cells involved. To understand basic molecular and cellular mechanisms triggered by plasma treatment we investigated biological effects of an argon plasma jet (kinpen) on human epithelial skin cells. Consequently, whole-genome microarrays were used to analyze this interaction in detail and identified a statistically significant modification of 3,274 genes including 1,828 up- and 1,446 down-regulated genes. Particularly, plasma-treated cells are characterized by differential expression of a considerable number of genes involved in the response to stress. In this regard, we found a plasma-dependent regulation of oxidative stress answer and increased expression of enzymes of the antioxidative defense system (e.g. 91 oxidoreductases). Our results demonstrate that plasma induces cell reactions of stress-sensing but also of proliferative nature. Consistent with gene expression changes as well as Ingenuity Pathway Analysis prediction, we propose that stimulating doses of plasma may protect epithelial skin cells in wound healing by promoting proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, gene expression profiling may become an important tool in identifying plasma-related changes of gene expression. Our results underline the enormous clinical potential of plasma as a biomedical tool for stimulation of epithelial skin cells We investigated biological effects of an argon plasma jet on HaCaTs. Microarray were used to analyzed this interaction in detail. The transcripts analyzed in this study are further described in Schmidt et al. (2013): Non-thermal plasma treatment is associated with changes in transcriptome of human epithelial skin cells. Accepted in Journal Free Radical Research A study using total RNA recovered from at least 8 non-thermal plasma treated samples (300 ms*µl/cell) and untreated HaCaT controls.
Project description:Treatment of tumor progression and metastasis continues to be of major importance in the field of cancer. It is reported that cancer cells often show a pronounced sensitivity towards oxidative stress. Cold plasma offers the ability to deliver a delicate mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species directly into cells or tissues. Using a well-described argon plasma jet, we investigated the biological responses of plasma on tumor cell death, cell migration, and expression of adhesion-associated genes as well as cytoskeletal modifications. Using the human melanoma cancer cell line SK-Mel-147 we were able to show that plasma induced only little apoptosis but had profound effects on tumor cell motility. Plasma treatment of cells was associated with an inhibition of migration and disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton which were mediated through multiple signaling pathways, as transcriptome-wide gene analysis suggested. Specifically, changes in cell adhesion were regulated by differential expression of cell junction and cell-matrix proteins. These results provide evidence that plasma may be able to disturb the migration and adhesion in metastatic SK-Mel-147 cells. Microarrays were used to analyze and investigate the biological effects of cold plasma on human melanoma cell line SK-Mel-147. Using an argon plasma jet kinpen, regulated transcripts were analyzed and further described in Schmidt et al. (2015): “Human melanoma cell migration and adhesion is decreased by cold plasma treatment”. A study using total RNA recovered from human SK-Mel-147, treated with cold plasma as well as H2O2-treated and untreated SK-Mel-147 controls.
Project description:Aim of the study was to characterize at a molecular level (changes in transcriptomes) the effect of monosodium urate crystal (MSU) on HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. This was adressed by using a culture model. The HaCaT cell line (human keratinocytes) was stimulated by MSU (1mg/mL) vs control for 12 hrs. By using genome-wide expression profiling, we identified deregulation of functionally relevant gene networks. HaCaT were obtained from Cell Lines Service (Eppelheim, Germany) and grown in DMEM medium (PAN biotech, Aidenbach, Germany) supplemented with 10% FBS (Life Technology, Grand Island, NY, USA), L-glutamine and non-essential amino acid. Before the treatment HaCaT cells were cultured in serum-free medium for 12hrs. HaCaT were treated with MSU (1mg/ml) vs DMEM control for 12hrs then submitted to RNA extration and gene expression profiling. Triplicate experiments were performed: HaCaT control (n=3), MSU-treated (n=3).
Project description:Background: Negative-pressure wound therapy has become widely available in modern chronic wound cares. Accelerated keratinocyte (HaCaT cell) movements and decreased E-cadherin expressions induced by the applied negative pressure gradient of 125 mmHg (NP) have been reported in previous studies. However, the molecular mechanism for E-cadherin regulations under NP remains unexplored. We highlighted the signal transduction involved in NP-induced E-cadherin regulation for keratinocytes in the study. Results: Microarray results showed that catenin 1 (CTNND1) gene, the gene encoding the p120-catenin (p120ctn) in cell-cell junctions, was significantly (p = 0.0005) upregulated in HaCaT cells under NP for 12 hours in comparison with those at ambient pressure (AP). Cell fractionations and immunoblotting data showed that NP increased p120ctn phosphorylation, and resulted in p120ctn translocation from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm. Fluorescent stains suggested that NP diminished the co-localization of p120ctn and E-cadherin on the plasma membrane. Similar phenomenon was also observed in the cells with overexpressed p120ctn at NP. Interestingly, overexpression of dN- p120ctn, a deletion mutant of p120ctn without the N-terminal phosphorylation sites, restored the adherens junctions (AJ) at NP. Knockdown of p120ctn with lentiviral small hairpin RNA not only diminished E-cadherin expressions but also accelerated cell movement at AP. Conclusions: Phosphorylation of p120ctn is endowed to respond rapidly to NP and contributes to the AJ disassembly. This NP-induced E-cadherin downregulation can possibly accelerate wound-healing process. Conclusions: Phosphorylation of p120ctn is endowed to respond rapidly to NP and contributes to the AJ disassembly. This NP-induced E-cadherin downregulation can possibly accelerate wound-healing process. HaCaT cells under negative pressure (NP) gradient of 125 mmHg for 12 hours in comparison with those at ambient pressure (AP) were tested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. The experiments have been biological replicated three times. The differential expression gene between NP and AP were selected and validated with qPCR method.
Project description:The purpose of this study is to search for aberrant genes in HaCaT keratinocytes after chronic exposure to arsenic trioxide. The objective of the investigation was to discover the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenicity in human epidermal keratinocytes. We hypothesize that a combined strategy of DNA microarray, qRT-PCR and gene function annotation will identify aberrantly expressed genes in HaCaT keratinocyte cell line after chronic treatment with arsenic trioxide. HaCaT cells were chronically exposed to 0.5µg/mL arsenic trioxide (As2O3) up to 22 passages and RNA was extracted. Microarray data analysis identified 14 up-regulated genes and 21 down-regulated genes in response to arsenic trioxide Two experimental groups: 1. The treatment group was sub-cultured up to passage 22 to establish a chronic exposure state. 2. The passage control group was also sub-cultured up to 22 passages but with no exposure to arsenic trioxide. 4 technical replicates with 3 replicates making a total of 8X3 =24 samples HaCat Cell untreated (passage control): 1. H1_H001, H1_H002, H1_H003 2. H2_ H004, H2_H005, H2_H006 3. H3_ H007, H3_H008, H3_H009 4. H4_ H010, H4_H011, H4_H012 HaCat Cell treated with 0.5µg/ml of arsenic trioxide: 5. A1_H013, A1_H014, A1_H015 6. A2_H016, A2_H017, A2_H018 7. A3_H019, A3_H020, A3_H021 8. A4_H022, A4_H023, A4_H024 Cell Type: Human Skin Keratinocyte: 1.5 ×105 HaCaT cells were cultured in 7.5 ml of complete DMEM containing 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin, streptomycin in T-25 culture plate. Cells were incubated in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37 ºC. The treatment groups were exposed to 0.5µg/mL As2O3 (equivalent to LC 0.5), and passaged at 90% confluent. Total RNA was extracted from 4 technical replicates of unexposed HaCaT cells and HaCaT cells chronically exposed to arsenic trioxide up to passage 22 using RNA STAT-60 (TEL-TEST, INC, Friendswood, TX, USA).
Project description:Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1) in Arabidopsis is rapidly and transiently upregulated by H202, as well as biotic and abiotic induced redox signals. Inactivation of RRTF1 restricts and overexpression promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to stress. Overexpressor (oe) lines are impaired in root and shoot development, light sensitive and susceptible to Alternaria brassicae infection. These symptoms are diminished by the beneficial root endophyte Piriformospora indica which reduces ROS accumulation locally in roots and systemically in shoots, and by antioxidants and ROS inhibitors which scavenge ROS. More than 850 stress-, redox-, ROS regulated-, ROS scavenging-, defense-, cell death- and senescence-related genes are regulated by RRTF1, ~ 30% of them have ROS related functions. Bioinformatic analyses and in vitro DNA binding assays demonstrate that RRTF1 binds to GCC-box and GCC-box like sequences in the promoter of RRTF1-responsive genes. Upregulation of RRTF1 by stress stimuli as well as H2O2 requires WRKY18/40/60. RRTF1 is co-regulated with the phylogenetically related RAP2.6, which contains GCC-box like sequene in its promoter, but RAP2.6 oe lines do not accumulate higher ROS levels. RRTF1 stimulates systemic ROS accumulation in distal non-stressed leaves. We conclude that the highly conserved RRTF1 rapidly, transiently and systemically induce ROS accumulation in response to ROS and ROS-producing abiotic and biotic stress signals. Necrotrophs stimulate RRTF1 expression, while symbiotic interactions of Arabidopsis with (hemi)-biotrophs and P. indica do not affect or repress RRTF1 expression. The seedlings were grown on MS medium with 1.37% sucrose under short day conditions and low light intensity (30 µmol m-2s-1) at 20˚C for 14 days. Transcriptome analysis was performed for the rrtf1 knock-out line and a RRTF1-overlexpressor line (called oe18) in comparison to wild-type seedlings.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling in HACAT cells using a whole human genome array; HACAT cells treated with si RNA against Keap 1 or a scrambled si RNA sequence (Scram) vs HACAT cells mock transfected with lipofectamine (reference control) Experiment Overall Design: 2 biological replicates, 2 technical (dye swap) replicates per treatment.
Project description:Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with dermatological and non-dermatological disorders. Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water results in accumulation of arsenic in liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Although, arsenic is cleared from these sites, a substantial amount of residual arsenic is left in keratin-rich tissues such as skin. Epidemiological studies on arsenic suggest the association of skin cancer upon arsenic exposure, however, the exact mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is not completely understood. We have developed a cell line-based model to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in arsenic mediated toxicity and carcinogenicity. Human skin keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT was exposed to 100nM sodium arsenite for six months. We observed an increase in the basal ROS levels in arsenic exposed cells along with the increase in anti-apoptotic proteins. SILAC-based quantitative proteomics approach resulted in the identification and quantitation of 2,181 proteins of which 39 proteins were found to be overexpressed (≥2-fold) and 56 downregulated (≤2-fold) upon chronic arsenic exposure. Our study provides comprehensive insights into the molecular basis of chronic arsenic exposure on skin.
Project description:Constitutive activation of EGFR- and NF-kB-dependent pathways is a hallmark of cancer, yet signaling proteins that connect both oncogenic cascades are poorly characterized. Here we define KIAA1199 as a BCL-3- and p65-dependent gene in transformed keratinocytes. KIAA1199 expression is enhanced upon human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is aberrantly expressed in clinical cases of cervical (pre)neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, KIAA1199 binds Plexin A2 and protects from Semaphorin 3A-mediated cell death by promoting EGFR stability and signaling. Moreover, KIAA1199 is an EGFR-binding protein and KIAA1199 deficiency impairs EGF-dependent Src, MEK1 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations. Therefore, EGFR stability and signaling to downstream kinases requires KIAA1199. As such, KIAA1199 promotes EGF-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Taken together, our data define KIAA1199 as an oncogenic protein induced by HPV infection and constitutive NF-kB activity that transmits pro-survival and invasive signals through EGFR signaling. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression upon BCL-3 overexpression We used two experimental conditions, namely HaCat cells infected with a control lentivirus as well as HaCat cells infected with a BCL-3 expressing construct. Both experimental conditions were in triplicates.