CC-122, a pleiotropic pathway modifier, mimics an interferon response and has antitumor activity in DLBCL
ABSTRACT: Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4CRBN, is the target of the immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide. Recently, it was demonstrated that binding of these drugs to CRBN promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of two common substrates, transcription factors Aiolos and Ikaros. Here we report that the pleiotropic pathway modifier CC-122, a new chemical entity termed pleiotropic pathway modifier binds CRBN and promotes degradation of Aiolos and Ikaros in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and T cells in vitro, in vivo and in patients, resulting in both cell autonomous as well as immunostimulatory effects. In DLBCL cell lines, CC-122-induced degradation or shRNA mediated knockdown of Aiolos and Ikaros correlates with increased transcription of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) independent of interferon α, β, γ production and/or secretion and results in apoptosis in both ABC and GCB-DLBCL cell lines. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the cell of origin independent anti-lymphoma activity of CC-122, in contrast to the ABC subtype selective activity of lenalidomide. Microarray analysis of the OCI-LY10 activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) cell line treated with the compound CC-122 for 18 hours
Project description:Knowledge of essential oncogenic mutations can inspire therapeutic strategies that are synthetically lethal, affecting cancer cells bearing an oncogenic mutation while sparing normal cells. Lenalidomide is emerging as an active agent in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), especially for the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype, but the mechanism of its action is unknown. Here we show that lenalidomide kills ABC DLBCL cells by augmenting the production of interferon 3/4, which these cells are predisposed to produce by their oncogenic MYD88 mutations. Lenalidomide stimulates the type I interferon pathway by suppressing IRF4, a repressor of IRF7. IRF4 is required for ABC DLBCL viability and is both a target and an amplifier of NF-kB signaling in this lymphoma subtype. Blockade of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling synergized with lenalidomide to reduce IRF4 levels, increase interferon 3/4 secretion, decrease NF-kB, and kill ABC DLBCL cells, suggesting therapeutic combinations that exploit the oncogenic signaling pathways in this cancer. For the OCILY10 cell line treated with 10 uM lenalidamide, a four point time course of 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours was analyzed (n=4). For the TMD8 cell line treated with 10 uM lenalidamide, a four point time course of 3, 6, 24, and 48 hours was analyzed (n=4).
Project description:The precise molecular mechanism of action and targets through which thalidomide and related immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) exert their anti-tumor effects remains unclear. We investigated the role of cereblon (CRBN), a primary teratogenic target of thalidomide, in the anti-myeloma activity of IMiDs. CRBN depletion is initially cytotoxic to human myeloma cells but surviving cells with stable CRBN depletion become highly resistant to both lenalidomide and pomalidomide, but not to the unrelated drugs bortezomib, dexamethasone and melphalan. Acquired deletion of CRBN was found to be the primary genetic event differentiating isogenic MM1.S cell lines cultured to be sensitive or resistant to lenalidomide and pomalidomide. Gene expression changes induced by lenalidomide were dramatically suppressed in the presence of CRBN depletion further demonstrating that CRBN is required for lenalidomide activity. Downstream targets of CRBN include interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) previously reported to also be a target of lenalidomide. Patients exposed to and putatively resistant to lenalidomide had lower CRBN levels in paired samples before and after therapy. In summary, CRBN is an essential requirement for IMiD activity, and a possible biomarker for the clinical assessment of anti-myeloma efficacy. We included two isogenic MM1.S cell lines, which differ in the sensibiligy to lenalidomide. We included MM1.S and MM1.S res, which were sensitive and resistant to lenalidomide, respectively.
Project description:The precise molecular mechanism of action and targets through which thalidomide and related immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) exert their anti-tumor effects remains unclear. We investigated the role of cereblon (CRBN), a primary teratogenic target of thalidomide, in the anti-myeloma activity of IMiDs. CRBN depletion is initially cytotoxic to human myeloma cells but surviving cells with stable CRBN depletion become highly resistant to both lenalidomide and pomalidomide, but not to the unrelated drugs bortezomib, dexamethasone and melphalan. Acquired deletion of CRBN was found to be the primary genetic event differentiating isogenic MM1.S cell lines cultured to be sensitive or resistant to lenalidomide and pomalidomide. Gene expression changes induced by lenalidomide were dramatically suppressed in the presence of CRBN depletion further demonstrating that CRBN is required for lenalidomide activity. Downstream targets of CRBN include interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) previously reported to also be a target of lenalidomide. Patients exposed to and putatively resistant to lenalidomide had lower CRBN levels in paired samples before and after therapy. In summary, CRBN is an essential requirement for IMiD activity, and a possible biomarker for the clinical assessment of anti-myeloma efficacy. We included 15 samples from multiple myeloma cell lines.
Project description:Lenalidomide is a therapeutically active compound that binds to E3 ubiquitin ligase recruiter cereblon (CRBN) and induces cytotoxicity. We have identified eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit C2 (EIF2C2) as a new member of CRBN-downstream binding protein that plays an important role in microRNA (miRNA) maturation and function. The treatment of immunomodulatory drug (IMiD)-sensitive multiple myeloma (MM) cells with lenalidomide altered the steady-state levels of CRBN, EIF2C2 and miRNAs and induced apoptosis. However, although the treatment of IMiD-resistant MM cells with lenalidomide altered the steady-state levels of CRBN, EIF2C2 and miRNAs, but did not massively induce apoptosis. In contrast, silencing of EIF2C2 with its small hairpin RNA significantly altered the levels of miRNAs and induced apoptosis regardless of whether those cells are sensitive or resistant to IMiDs. Therefore, EIF2C2 could be considered as a new drug target for overcoming IMiDs resistance in MM cells. To find the role of EIF2C2 in MM cell growth, OCI-My5 cell lines My5/LV and My5/CRBN, with low and high CRBN expression, respectively, were treated 12 different ways. The steady-state levels of miRNAs between (1) My5/LV, EIF2C2-shRNA-treated My5/LV and EIF2C2-cDNA-treated My5/LV cells, (2) My5/CRBN, EIF2C2-shRNA-treated My5/CRBN and EIF2C2-cDNA-treated My5/CRBN cells, (3) My5/LV cells, My5/LV cells treated with 10 µM lenalidomide for 72 hours or 120 hours, and EIF2C2-cDNA-treated My5/LV cells treated with 10 µM lenalidomide for 72 hours, and (4) My5/CRBN cells, My5/CRBN cells treated with 10 µM lenalidomide for 72 hours or 120 hours, and EIF2C2-cDNA-treated My5/CRBN cells treated with 10 µM lenalidomide for 72 hours, were compared in this array.
Project description:In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led ot the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and ist IMiD derivatives recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4(CRBN)) ubiquitin ligase. Through an unbiased screen we identify the homeobox trranscription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). By definition, a specific target of CRL4(CRBN) is expected to have a very low intensity on negative control arrays (E1_E2), (E1_CRBN), (E1_E2_Cdt2), (E1_E2_Cdt2_revlimid), (E1_E2_Cdt2_CSN) or with CRL4(CRBN) in presence of inhibitor (E1_E2_CRBN_revlimid) and high intensity on arrays with CRL4(CRBN) (E1_E2_CRBN) or CRL4(CRBN) in presence of CSN (E1_E2_CRBN_CSN) Accordingly 16 protein microarrays were subjected to in vitro ubiquitylation using the following enzyme combinations: 3x Uba1+UbcH5a; 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(DDB2); 3x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(CRBN); 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(CRBN)+lenalidomide; 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(CRBN)+CSN; 2x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(Cdt2); 1x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(Cdt2)+CSN; 1x Uba1+UbcH5a+CRL4(Cdt2)+lenalidomide
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) are the most prevalent B-lymphocyte neoplasms in which abnormal activation of the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK)–mediated B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway contributes to pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an oral covalent BTK inhibitor that has shown some efficacy in both indications. To improve ibrutinib efficacy through combination therapy, we first investigated differential gene expression in parental and ibrutinib-resistant cell lines to better understand the mechanisms of resistance. Ibrutinib-resistant TMD8 cells had higher BCL2 gene expression and increased sensitivity to ABT-199, a BCL-2 inhibitor. Consistently, clinical samples from ABC-DLBCL patients who experienced poorer response to ibrutinib had higher BCL2 gene expression. We further demonstrated synergistic growth suppression by ibrutinib and ABT-199 in multiple ABC-DLBCL, GCB-DLBCL, and FL lymphoma cell lines. The combination of both drugs also reduced colony formation, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth in a TMD8 xenograft model. A synergistic combination effect was also found in ibrutinib-resistant cells generated by either genetic mutation or drug treatment. Together, these findings suggest a potential clinical benefit from ibrutinib and ABT-199 combination therapy. Overall design: Gene expression in ibrutinib pretreated tumor biopsy samples from ABC-DLBCL patients was detected by U133 plus 2.0 arrays and the correlation of BCL2 expression and patient response to ibrutinib or PFS after ibrutinib treatment was analyzed. There are total 28 ABC-DLBCL samples. 17 of them are non-responders (PD+SD) and 11 of them are responders (PR+CR). For this analysis restricted to ABC-DLBCL subtype, only the ABC-DLBCL samples were used and normalized separately. Data was processed with all subsets of DLBCL samples (60 samples) and also separately for 28 ABC-DLBCL samples ('re-analysis' samples). The values in the sample 'characteristics' field represent: response: CR=complete response, PR=partial response, SD=stable disease, PD=progression disease class: NR=non-responder, RR=responder subtype: ABC=ABC-DLBCL, GCB=GCB-DLBCL, UNC=unclassified subtype progression_free_survival_censor: censored case = 1; event (death/progression) = 0 in the censoring variable for the progression free survival analysis
Project description:CD5-positive (CD5+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has a poor prognosis and high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) relapse, even in the rituximab era. To determine the gene expression profile of CD5+ DLBCL, total RNA from 90 patients with DLBCL, including 33 CD5+ DLBCL and 57 CD5-negative (CD5-) DLBCL patients, was examined using Agilent human oligo microarrays. These cases were separated into 78 activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCLs and 12 germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCLs. All cases of CD5+ DLBCL were classified as ABC DLBCLs. The classifier based on gene expression used in a supervised analysis correctly identified CD5 expression in the DLBCL and ABC DLBCL samples. The gene most relevant to CD5 expression was SH3BP5. The enriched GO categories in the CD5+ ABC DLBCL signature gene set were multicellular organismal signaling, transmission of nerve impulse, and synaptic transmission. This present study, which includes the largest reported number of patients with CD5+ DLBCL, confirmed that most CD5+ DLBCLs are ABC DLBCLs, suggesting that therapeutic strategies for ABC DLBCL may be effective for the treatment of CD5+ DLBCL. Our CD5+ ABC DLBCL signature gene set may provide insights into the cause of the high frequency of CNS relapse in CD5+ DLBCL. This present study involved 90 cases (33 patients with CD5+ DLBCL and 57 with CD5- DLBCL) of de novo consecutive DLBCL diagnosed at Mie University Hospital with available frozen biopsy specimens and total RNA samples. Lymphoma tissue RNA from 90 patients was extracted for target preparation and hybridization onto Agilent microarrays. The expression of CD5 in tumor cells was confirmed by means of immunohistochemistry using frozen sections.
Project description:A subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), termed activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, depends on constitutive NF-kB pathway signaling for survival. Small molecule inhibitors of IkB kinase b (IKKb), a key regulator of the NF-kB pathway, kill ABC DLBCL cells and hold promise for the treatment of this lymphoma type. We conducted an RNA interference genetic screen to investigate potential mechanisms of resistance of ABC DLBCL cells to IKKb inhibitors. We screened a library of small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting 500 protein kinases for shRNAs that would kill an ABC DLBCL cell line in the presence of a small molecule IKKb inhibitor more effectively than in its absence. Two independent shRNAs targeting IKKa synergized with the IKKb inhibitor to kill three different ABC DLBCL cell lines but were not toxic by themselves. Surprisingly, IKKa shRNAs blocked the classical rather than the alternative NF-kB pathway in ABC DLBCL cells, as judged by inhibition of IkBa phosphorylation. IKKa shRNA toxicity was reversed by coexpression of wild type but not kinase inactive forms of IKKa, suggesting that IKKa may directly phosphorylate IkBa under conditions of IKKb inhibition. These results suggest that therapy for ABC DLBCL may be improved by targeting both IKKa and IKKb. Keywords: compound treatment design Overall design: Gene expression profiling of OCI-Ly3 cells with or without expressing IKKa shRNA in the presence or absence of 12.5 uM IKKb inhibitor for 2 and 3 days. Four samples were analyzed.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease, with at least one-third of its patients not responding to the current chemotherapy regimen, R-CHOP. By gene expression profiling, patients with DLBCL can be categorized into two clinically relevant subtypes: activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL and germinal center B-cell (GCB). Patients with ABC DLBCL have a worse prognosis, and are defined by chronic, overactive signaling through the B-cell receptor and NF-κB pathways. We examined the effects of the Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor dasatinib in a panel of ABC and GCB DLBCL cell lines, and found that the ABC DLBCL cell lines are much more sensitive to dasatinib than the GCB DLBCL cell lines. However, using multiplexed inhibitor bead coupled to mass spectrometry (MIB/MS) kinome profiling competition and western blot analysis, both subtypes display inhibition of the SFKs in response to dasatinib after both short- and long-term treatment. MIB/MS analyses revealed several cell cycle kinases, including CDK4, CDK6, and the Aurora kinases, are inhibited by dasatinib treatment in the ABC DLBCL subtype, but not in the GCB DLBCL subtype. The present findings have important implications for the clinical use of dasatinib for the treatment of ABC DLBCL, either alone or in combination with other agents.
Project description:The ABC subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this lymphoma despite recent advances in therapy. We have combined structural and functional genomics to triangulate on new oncogenic mechanisms and devise new therapeutic strategies. RNA interference screen revealed a dependence of ABC DLBCL cell lines on MYD88 and IRAK1. High throughput resequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) revealed frequent somatic mutations in MYD88 that preferentially occurred in the ABC DLBCL subtype. Remarkably, one third of ABC DLBCL tumor samples harbored the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 TIR domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in two other DLBCL subtypes, but was observed in 9% of MALT lymphomas. At a lower frequency, multiple other mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and GCB subtypes of DLBCL. Survival of ABC DLBCL lines bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not wild type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that this MYD88 mutant is oncogenic and gain-of-function. The MYD88 L265P mutant assembled a protein complex that spontaneous triggers the phosphorylation of IRAK1, leading to NF-kB signaling, secretion of the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-b, and JAK kinase signaling. These findings demonstrate that the MYD88 signaling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, providing a genetic rationale for therapeutic targeting of the MYD88 signaling pathway in this lymphoma subtype. Overall design: To generate a gene expression signature of MYD88 signaling in ABC DLBCL, the HBL-1 cell line was transduced with retroviral vectors expressing either shMYD88-4 or shMYD88-7. Following puromycin selection, shRNA expression was induced for 24 or 48 hours and gene expression was measured, comparing uninduced (Cy3) to induced (Cy5) cells, using genome-wide Agilent 4x44K oligonucleotide microarrays. A signature of NF-kB signaling in ABC DLBCL was generated by treating HBL-1 cells with the IkB kinase beta inhibitor MLN120B for 2h, 3h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 12h, 16h, and 24h (Cy5), and comparing their gene expression to untreated cells (Cy3). A signature of JAK signaling in ABC DLBCL was generated by treating HBL-1 cells with JAK inhibitor I (5 micromolar; Calbiochem) for 2h, 4h, 6h, and 8h (Cy5) and comparing their gene expression to vehicle-treated cells (DMSO, Cy3). RNA-Seq data not provided.