HSB-2 cells stably expressing LDB1 or mutant LDB1 proteins
ABSTRACT: LMO2 is a component of multisubunit DNA-binding transcription factor complexes that regulate gene expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development. Enforced expression of LMO2 causes leukemia by inducing hematopoietic stem cell-like features in T-cell progenitor cells, but the biochemical mechanisms of LMO2 function have not been fully elucidated. In this study we systematically dissected the LMO2/LDB1 binding interface to investigate the role of this interaction in T-cell leukemia. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the LIM interaction domain of LDB1 revealed a discrete motif R320LITR required for LMO2 binding. Most strikingly, co-expression of full length, wild type LDB1 increased LMO2 steady state abundance, whereas co-expression of mutant proteins deficient in LMO2 binding compromised LMO2 stability. These mutant LDB1 proteins also exerted dominant negative effects on growth and transcription in diverse leukemic cell lines. Raw gene expression data on HSB-2 cells is presented here. RNAseq were performed on HSB cell lines to examine their expression patterns
Project description:LMO2 is a component of multisubunit DNA-binding transcription factor complexes that regulate gene expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development. Enforced expression of LMO2 causes leukemia by inducing hematopoietic stem cell-like features in T-cell progenitor cells, but the biochemical mechanisms of LMO2 function have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we systematically dissected the LMO2/LDB1-binding interface to investigate the role of this interaction in T-cell leukemia. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the LIM interaction domain of LDB1 revealed a discrete motif, R(320)LITR, required for LMO2 binding. Most strikingly, coexpression of full-length, wild-type LDB1 increased LMO2 steady-state abundance, whereas coexpression of mutant proteins deficient in LMO2 binding compromised LMO2 stability. These mutant LDB1 proteins also exerted dominant negative effects on growth and transcription in diverse leukemic cell lines. Mass spectrometric analysis of LDB1 binding partners in leukemic lines supports the notion that LMO2/LDB1 function in leukemia occurs in the context of multisubunit complexes, which also protect the LMO2 oncoprotein from degradation. Collectively, these data suggest that the assembly of LMO2 into complexes, via direct LDB1 interaction, is a potential molecular target that could be exploited in LMO2-driven leukemias resistant to existing chemotherapy regimens.
Project description:The LMO2/LDB1 macromolecular complex is critical in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell specification and in the development of acute leukemia. This complex is comprised of core subunits of LMO2 and LDB1 as well as single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBP) cofactors and DNA-binding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and GATA transcription factors. We analyzed the steady-state abundance and kinetic stability of LMO2 and its partners via Halo protein tagging in conjunction with variant proteins deficient in binding their respective direct protein partners. We discovered a hierarchy of protein stabilities (with half-lives in descending order) as follows: LDB1 > SSBP > LMO2 > TAL1. Importantly, LDB1 is a remarkably stable protein that confers enhanced stability upon direct and indirect partners, thereby nucleating the formation of the multisubunit protein complex. The data imply that free subunits are more rapidly degraded than those incorporated within the LMO2/LDB1 complex. Our studies provided significant insights into LMO2/LDB1 macromolecular protein complex assembly and stability, which has implications for understanding its role in blood cell formation and for therapeutically targeting this complex in human leukemias.
Project description:LIM-only protein 2, Lmo2, is a regulatory protein that is essential for hematopoietic development and inappropriate overexpression of Lmo2 in T-cells contributes to T-cell leukemia. It exerts its functions by mediating protein-protein interactions and nucleating multicomponent transcriptional complexes. Lmo2 interacts with LIM domain binding protein 1 (Ldb1) through the tandem LIM domains of Lmo2 and the LIM interaction domain (LID) of Ldb1. Here, we present the solution structure of the LIM2 domain of Lmo2 bound to Ldb1(LID) . The ordered regions of Ldb1 in this complex correspond well with binding hotspots previously defined by mutagenic studies. Comparisons of this Lmo2(LIM2) -Ldb1(LID) structure with previously determined structures of the Lmo2/Ldb1(LID) complexes lead to the conclusion that modular binding of tandem LIM domains in Lmo2 to tandem linear motifs in Ldb1 is accompanied by several disorder-to-order transitions and/or conformational changes in both proteins.
Project description:The nuclear adaptor Ldb1 functions as a core component of multiprotein transcription complexes that regulate differentiation in diverse cell types. In the hematopoietic lineage, Ldb1 forms a complex with the non-DNA-binding adaptor Lmo2 and the transcription factors E2A, Scl and GATA-1 (or GATA-2). Here we demonstrate a critical and continuous requirement for Ldb1 in the maintenance of both fetal and adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Deletion of Ldb1 in hematopoietic progenitors resulted in the downregulation of many transcripts required for HSC maintenance. Genome-wide profiling by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified Ldb1 complex-binding sites at highly conserved regions in the promoters of genes involved in HSC maintenance. Our results identify a central role for Ldb1 in regulating the transcriptional program responsible for the maintenance of HSCs.
Project description:The nuclear LIM domain protein LMO2, a T cell oncoprotein, is essential for embryonic erythropoiesis. LIM-only proteins are presumed to act primarily through protein-protein interactions. We, and others, have identified a widely expressed protein, Ldb1, whose C-terminal 76-residues are sufficient to mediate interaction with LMO2. In murine erythroleukemia cells, the endogenous Lbd1 and LMO2 proteins exist in a stable complex, whose binding affinity appears greater than that between LMO2 and the bHLH transcription factor SCL. However, Ldb1, LMO2, and SCL/E12 can assemble as a multiprotein complex on a consensus SCL binding site. Like LMO2, the Ldb1 gene is expressed in fetal liver and erythroid cell lines. Forced expression of Ldb1 in G1ER proerythroblast cells inhibited cellular maturation, a finding compatible with the decrease in Ldb1 gene expression that normally occurs during erythroid differentiation. Overexpression of the LMO2 gene also inhibited erythroid differentiation. Our studies demonstrate a function for Ldb1 in hemopoietic cells and suggest that one role of the Ldb1/LMO2 complex is to maintain erythroid precursors in an immature state.
Project description:Prolonged or enhanced expression of the proto-oncogene Lmo2 is associated with a severe form of T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL), designated Early T-progenitor ALL (ETP-ALL), that is characterized by the aberrant self-renewal and subsequent oncogenic transformation of immature thymocytes. Recent data suggest that Lmo2 may exert these effects by functioning as component of a multi-subunit transcription complex that includes the ubiquitous adapter Ldb1 along with b-HLH and/or GATA family transcription factors. In this study, we investigated the importance of Ldb1 for Lmo2-induced T-ALL by conditional deletion of Ldb1 in thymocytes in a Lmo2 transgenic mouse model of T-ALL. Our results identify a critical requirement for Ldb1 in the induction of thymocyte self-renewal, thymocyte radio-resistance and transition to T-ALL in Lmo2 transgenic mice. Ldb1 was also required for acquisition of the pre-leukemic ETP gene expression signature in immature Lmo2 transgenic thymocytes. Together, these results support a model where Lmo2-induced T-ALL results from failure to down-regulate Ldb/Lmo2 nucleated transcription complexes that normally function to enforce self-renewal in bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors Overall design: 2 cell types (DN2/3 and DN4), 3 genotypes: C57BL/6 (wild type) – 4 replicates, Lmo2tg – 5 replicates, Lmo2tg; Ldb1-KO – 4 replicates. Total = 28 samples.
Project description:LMO2 and LMO4 are members of a small family of nuclear transcriptional regulators that are important for both normal development and disease processes. LMO2 is essential for hemopoiesis and angiogenesis, and inappropriate overexpression of this protein leads to T-cell leukemias. LMO4 is developmentally regulated in the mammary gland and has been implicated in breast oncogenesis. Both proteins comprise two tandemly repeated LIM domains. LMO2 and LMO4 interact with the ubiquitous nuclear adaptor protein ldb1/NLI/CLIM2, which associates with the LIM domains of LMO and LIM homeodomain proteins via its LIM interaction domain (ldb1-LID). We report the solution structures of two LMO:ldb1 complexes (PDB: 1M3V and 1J2O) and show that ldb1-LID binds to the N-terminal LIM domain (LIM1) of LMO2 and LMO4 in an extended conformation, contributing a third strand to a beta-hairpin in LIM1 domains. These findings constitute the first molecular definition of LIM-mediated protein-protein interactions and suggest a mechanism by which ldb1 can bind a variety of LIM domains that share low sequence homology.
Project description:Many questions remain about how close association of genes and distant enhancers occurs and how this is linked to transcription activation. In erythroid cells, lim domain binding 1 (LDB1) protein is recruited to the ?-globin locus via LMO2 and is required for looping of the ?-globin locus control region (LCR) to the active ?-globin promoter. We show that the LDB1 dimerization domain (DD) is necessary and, when fused to LMO2, sufficient to completely restore LCR-promoter looping and transcription in LDB1-depleted cells. The looping function of the DD is unique and irreplaceable by heterologous DDs. Dissection of the DD revealed distinct functional properties of conserved subdomains. Notably, a conserved helical region (DD4/5) is dispensable for LDB1 dimerization and chromatin looping but essential for transcriptional activation. DD4/5 is required for the recruitment of the coregulators FOG1 and the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylating (NuRD) complex. Lack of DD4/5 alters histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II recruitment and results in failure of the locus to migrate to the nuclear interior, as normally occurs during erythroid maturation. These results uncouple enhancer-promoter looping from nuclear migration and transcription activation and reveal new roles for LDB1 in these processes.
Project description:Erythropoiesis is dependent on the lineage-specific transcription factors Gata1, Tal1, and Klf1. Several erythroid genes have been shown to require all 3 factors for their expression, suggesting that they function synergistically; however, there is little direct evidence for widespread cooperation. Gata1 and Tal1 can assemble within higher-order protein complexes (Ldb1 complexes) that include the adapter molecules Lmo2 and Ldb1. Ldb1 proteins are capable of coassociation, and long-range Ldb1-mediated oligomerization of enhancer- and promoter-bound Ldb1 complexes has been shown to be required for β-globin gene expression. In this study, we generated a genomewide map of Ldb1 complex binding sites that revealed widespread binding at erythroid genes and at known erythroid enhancer elements. Ldb1 complex binding sites frequently colocalized with Klf1 binding sites and with consensus binding motifs for other erythroid transcription factors. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between Ldb1 complex binding and Ldb1 dependency for gene expression and identified a large cohort of genes coregulated by Ldb1 complexes and Klf1. Together, these results provide a foundation for defining the mechanism and scope of Ldb1 complex activity during erythropoiesis.
Project description:Cell fate is governed by combinatorial actions of transcriptional regulators assembling into multiprotein complexes. However, the molecular details of how these complexes form are poorly understood. One such complex, which contains the basic-helix-loop-helix heterodimer SCL:E47 and bridging proteins LMO2:LDB1, critically regulates hematopoiesis and induces T cell leukemia. Here, we report the crystal structure of (SCL:E47)bHLH:LMO2:LDB1LID bound to DNA, providing a molecular account of the network of interactions assembling this complex. This reveals an unexpected role for LMO2. Upon binding to SCL, LMO2 induces new hydrogen bonds in SCL:E47, thereby strengthening heterodimer formation. This imposes a rotation movement onto E47 that weakens the heterodimer:DNA interaction, shifting the main DNA-binding activity onto additional protein partners. Along with biochemical analyses, this illustrates, at an atomic level, how hematopoietic-specific SCL sequesters ubiquitous E47 and associated cofactors and supports SCL's reported DNA-binding-independent functions. Importantly, this work will drive the design of small molecules inhibiting leukemogenic processes.