DNA methylation in the arcuate nucleus of heifers under two nutritional schedules
ABSTRACT: DNA methylation was assessed in genomic DNA obtained from the arcuate nucleus of heifers fed to gain body weight at high (HG, n = 4) and low (LG, n = 4) rates from 4.5 to 8.5 mo of age. A methyl-CpG binding domain-based (MBD) protein assay was performed to capture fragments of methylated DNA (methylated-enriched DNA). Input (total) and methylated-enriched DNA were labeled with two different dyes and co-hybridized to a custom-designed oligonucleotide array targeted to genes associated with nutritional inputs and the control of puberty. The ratio of the log2 (enriched/input) of the normalized intensities, were determined. Data was analyzed comparing values of HG versus LG heifers. Two nutritional schedules: HG (n=4 heifers) and LG (n=4 heifers); one array per heifer; methylated enriched DNA (enriched) and total DNA (input) co-hybridyzed into each array Methylated-enriched DNA obtained from a methyl-CpG binding domain-based (MBD) protein assay
Project description:Epigenetic changes, including CpG island hypermethylation, occur frequently in bladder cancer (BC) and may be exploited for BC detection and distinction between high-grade (HG) and low-grade (LG) disease. Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed using Agilent Human CpG Island Microarrays to determine epigenetic differences between LG and HG cases. Pathway enrichment analysis and functional annotation determined that the most frequently methylated pathways in HG BC were enriched for anterior/posterior pattern specification, embryonic skeletal system development, neuron fate commitment, DNA binding, and transcription factor activity. We identified 990 probes comprising a 32-gene panel that completely distinguished LG from HG based on methylation. Selected genes from this panel, EOMES, GP5, PAX6, TCF4, and ZSCAN12, were selected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based validation by MethyLight in an independent series (n=84) of normal bladder samples and LG and HG cases. GP5 and ZSCAN12, two novel methylated genes in BC, were significantly hypermethylated in HG versus LG BC (P≤.03). We validated our data in a second independent cohort of LG and HG BC cases (n=42) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Probes representing our 32-gene panel were significantly differentially methylated in LG versus HG tumors (P≤.04). These results indicate the ability to distinguish normal tissue from cancer, as well as LG from HG, based on methylation and reveal important pathways dysregulated in HG BC. Our findings were corroborated using publicly available data sets from TCGA. Ultimately, the creation of a methylation panel, including GP5 and ZSCAN12, able to distinguish between disease phenotypes will improve disease management and patient outcomes.
Project description:Agilent CpG microarray in combination with enriched methylated DNA by a MBD protein were carried out in each pool of genomic DNA from primary breast tumor and matched adjacent normal tissues. 1.Common reference vs enriched methylated DNA in tumor 2. Common reference vs enriched methylated DNA in adjacent normal 3. Then compare two data indirectly
Project description:The methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family of proteins was defined based on sequence similarity in their DNA binding domains. In light of their high degree of conservation, it is of inherent interest to determine the genomic distribution of these proteins, and their associated co-repressor complexes. One potential determinant of specificity resides in differences in the intrinsic DNA binding properties of the various MBD proteins. In this report, we use a capillary electrophoretic mobility shift assay (CEMSA) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and neutral capillaries to calculate MBD-DNA binding affinities. MBD proteins were assayed on pairs of methylated and unmethylated duplex oligos corresponding to the promoter regions of the BRCA1, MLH1, GSTP1 and p16(INK4a) genes, and binding affinities for each case were calculated by Scatchard analyses. With the exception of mammalian MBD3 and Xenopus MBD3 LF, all the MBD proteins showed higher affinity for methylated DNA (in the nanomolar range) than for unmethylated DNA (in the micromolar range). Significant differences between MBD proteins in the affinity for methylated DNA were observed, ranging within two orders of magnitude. By mutational analysis of MBD3 and using CEMSA, we demonstrate the critical role of specific residues within the MBD in conferring selectivity for methylated DNA. Interestingly, the binding affinity of specific MBD proteins for methylated DNA fragments from naturally occurring sequences are affected by local methyl-CpG spacing.
Project description:Genomic DNA from two normal lung cell lines (MRC5 and WI38) and two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (H226 and H520) was fragmented, and affinity purified using the MBD domain from MeCP2, which binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides. This allows enrichment of a methylated fraction of DNA. Promoter arrays were used to look for methylated promoters by hybridising the enriched fraction and total genomic DNA simultaneously. The process is similar to ChIP-on-chip.
Project description:The challenge of bringing DNA methylation biomarkers into clinic is the lack of simple methodologies as most current assays have been developed for research purposes. To address the limitations of current methods, we describe herein a novel methyl-protein domain (MBD) enrichment protocol for simple yet rapid and highly stringent selection of highly methylated DNA from limiting input samples. We then coupled this with a DNA-mediated flocculation assay for rapid and low cost naked-eye binary evaluation of highly methylated genes in cell line and blood DNA. The low resource requirements of our method may enable widespread adoption of DNA methylation-based diagnostics in clinic and may be useful for small-scale research.
Project description:DNA samples derived from vertebrate skin, bodily cavities and body fluids contain both host and microbial DNA; the latter often present as a minor component. Consequently, DNA sequencing of a microbiome sample frequently yields reads originating from the microbe(s) of interest, but with a vast excess of host genome-derived reads. In this study, we used a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) to separate methylated host DNA from microbial DNA based on differences in CpG methylation density. MBD fused to the Fc region of a human antibody (MBD-Fc) binds strongly to protein A paramagnetic beads, forming an effective one-step enrichment complex that was used to remove human or fish host DNA from bacterial and protistan DNA for subsequent sequencing and analysis. We report enrichment of DNA samples from human saliva, human blood, a mock malaria-infected blood sample and a black molly fish. When reads were mapped to reference genomes, sequence reads aligning to host genomes decreased 50-fold, while bacterial and Plasmodium DNA sequences reads increased 8-11.5-fold. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for 149 bacterial species in saliva before and after enrichment. Unenriched saliva had an index of 4.72, while the enriched sample had an index of 4.80. The similarity of these indices demonstrates that bacterial species diversity and relative phylotype abundance remain conserved in enriched samples. Enrichment using the MBD-Fc method holds promise for targeted microbiome sequence analysis across a broad range of sample types.
Project description:DNA methylation in a CpG context can be recognised by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) via its methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). An A/T run next to a methyl-CpG maximises the binding of MeCP2 to the methylated DNA. The A/T run characteristics are reported here with an X-ray structure of MBD A140V in complex with methylated DNA. The A/T run geometry was found to be strongly stabilised by a string of conserved water molecules regardless of its flanking nucleotide sequences, DNA methylation and bound MBD. New water molecules were found to stabilise the Rett syndrome-related E137, whose carboxylate group is salt bridged to R133. A structural comparison showed no difference between the wild type and MBD A140V. However, differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting temperature of A140V constructs in complex with methylated DNA was reduced by ~7?°C, although circular dichroism showed no changes in the secondary structure content for A140V. A band shift analysis demonstrated that the larger fragment of MeCP2 (A140V) containing the transcriptional repression domain (TRD) destabilises the DNA binding. These results suggest that the solution structure of MBD A140V may differ from the wild-type MBD although no changes in the biochemical properties of X-ray A140V were observed.
Project description:Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common autoinflammatory disease in children and is often grouped together with hereditary periodic fever syndromes, although its cause and hereditary nature remain unexplained. We investigated whether differential DNA methylation was present in DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with PFAPA vs. healthy controls. A whole-epigenome analysis (MeDIP and MBD) was performed using pooled DNA libraries enriched for methylated genomic regions and identified candidate genes, two of which were further evaluated with methylation-specific restriction enzymes coupled with qPCR (MSRE-qPCR). The analysis showed that the PIK3AP1 and SPON2 gene regions are differentially methylated in patients with PFAPA. MSRE-qPCR proved to be a quick, reliable, and cost-effective method of confirming results from MeDIP and MBD. Our findings indicate that a B-cell adapter protein (PIK3AP1), as the PI3K binding inhibitor of inflammation, and spondin-2 (SPON2), as a pattern recognition molecule and integrin ligand, could play a role in the etiology of PFAPA. Their role and the impact of changed DNA methylation in PFAPA etiology and autoinflammation need further investigation.
Project description:MBD1, a member of the methyl-CpG-binding domain family of proteins, has been reported to repress transcription of methylated and unmethylated promoters. As some MBD1 isoforms contain two DNA-binding domains-an MBD, which recognizes methylated DNA; and a CXXC3 zinc finger, which binds unmethylated CpG-it is unclear whether these two domains function independently of each other or if they cooperate in facilitating recruitment of MBD1 to particular genomic loci. In this report we investigate DNA-binding specificity of MBD and CXXC3 domains in vitro and in vivo. We find that the methyl-CpG-binding domain of MBD1 binds more efficiently to methylated DNA within a specific sequence context. We identify genes that are targeted by MBD1 in human cells and demonstrate that a functional MBD domain is necessary and sufficient for recruitment of MBD1 to specific sites at these loci, while DNA binding by the CXXC3 motif is largely dispensable. In summary, the binding preferences of MBD1, although dependent upon the presence of methylated DNA, are clearly distinct from those of other methyl-CpG-binding proteins, MBD2 and MeCP2.
Project description:Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common and lethal type of ovarian cancer, is thought to develop from two distinct molecular pathways. High-grade (HG) serous carcinomas contain frequent TP53 mutations, whereas low-grade (LG) carcinomas arise from serous borderline tumors (SBT) and harbor mutations in KRAS/BRAF/ERBB2 pathway. However, the molecular alterations involved in the progression from SBT to LG carcinoma remain unknown. In addition, the extent of deletion of tumor suppressors in ovarian serous carcinomas has not been well studied. To further address these two issues, we assessed DNA copy number changes among affinity-purified tumor cells from 37 ovarian serous neoplasms including SBT, LG, and HG tumors using high-density 250K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Chromosomal instability index as measured by changes in DNA copy number was significantly higher in HG than in LG serous carcinomas. Hemizygous ch1p36 deletion was common in LG serous carcinomas but was rarely seen in SBT. This region contains several candidate tumor suppressors including miR-34a. In contrast, in HG serous carcinomas, significant numbers of amplifications and deletions, including homozygous deletions, were identified. Among homozygous deletions, loci containing Rb1, CDKN2A/B, CSMD1, and DOCK4 were most common, being present in 10.6%, 6.4%, 6.4%, and 4.3%, respectively, in independent 47 affinity-purified HG serous carcinomas. Except for the CDKN2A/B region, these homozygous deletions were not present in either SBT or LG tumors. Our study provides a genome-wide homozygous deletion profile in HG serous carcinomas, which can serve as a molecular foundation to study tumor suppressors in ovarian cancer.