DNA methylation changes induced by overexpression of IDH1mut or treatment with 2HG in the sorted mouse bone marrow cells
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the enzymes IDH1 and IDH2 have been identified in a wide variety of tumors like glioma, chondrosarcoma, thyroid cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, and in acute myeloid leukemia. Mutated IDH1/2 produces the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which interferes with epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thus may promote tumorigenesis. HoxA9 immortalised bone marrow cells from C57BJ/6 mice were tranduced with either empty vector or pSF91-IDH1wt-IRES-EGFP, or pSF91-IDH1mut-IRES-GFP and transplanted in irradiated recipient mice. Alternatively, HoxA9 immortalised cells transduced with empty vector transplanted mice were treated with R-2HG at dose of 1mg/day for four weeks. Four weeks after transplantation/treatment GFP+ cells were sorted from mouse bone marrow, from which total DNA was extracted and subjected to Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) to determine the genome-wide methylation signature.
Project description:Neomorphic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are driver mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other cancers. We report the development of new allosteric inhibitors of mutant IDH1. Crystallographic and biochemical results demonstrated that compounds of this chemical series bind to an allosteric site and lock the enzyme in a catalytically inactive conformation, thereby enabling inhibition of different clinically relevant IDH1 mutants. Treatment of IDH1 mutant primary AML cells uniformly led to a decrease in intracellular 2-HG, abrogation of the myeloid differentiation block and induction of granulocytic differentiation at the level of leukemic blasts and more immature stem-like cells, in vitro and in vivo. Molecularly, treatment with the inhibitors led to a reversal of the DNA cytosine hypermethylation patterns caused by mutant IDH1 in AML patients’ cells. Our study provides proof-of-concept for the molecular and biological activity of novel allosteric inhibitors for targeting different mutant forms of IDH1 in leukemia. To obtain insight into the molecular mechanism of the novel IDH1 mutant allosteric inhibitor, primary AML cells were treated with either GSK321 IDH1 active inhibitor or Controls (DMSO or GSK990 inactive inhibitor) followed by DNA extraction for ERRBS analysis. Primary IDH1 mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mononuclear (MNC) cells were treated in suspension cultures in differentiating media for 6 days with 3 microM GSK990 or GSK321 and an equal volume of DMSO, Followed ERRBS analysis after DNA extraction.
Project description:Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases are frequent in human glioblastomas1 and cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemias (AML)2. These alterations are gain-of-function mutations in that they drive the synthesis of the “oncometabolite” R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG)3. It remains unclear how IDH1 and IDH2 mutations modify myeloid cell development and promote leukemogenesis. Here we report the characterization of conditional knock-in mice in which the most common IDH1 mutation, Idh1-R132H, is inserted into the endogenous murine Idh1 locus and is expressed in cells of the hematopoietic (Vav-KI) or more specifically in cells of the myeloid (LysM-KI) lineage. These mutants show increased numbers of early hematopoietic progenitors and develop splenomegaly and anemia with extramedullary hematopoiesis, suggesting a dysfunctional bone marrow niche. Furthermore, LysM-KI cells exhibit both hypermethylated histones and changes to DNA methylation similar to those observed in human IDH1/2-mutant AML. Thus, our study is the first to describe the generation of conditional Idh1-R132H-KI mice. Furthermore, our study is also the first report showing the induction of a leukemic DNA methylation signature in a modeled system and sheds light on the mechanistic links between IDH1 mutation and human AML. DNA methylation profiling in LSK cells from IDH1-R132H knock-in mice vs. control mice
Project description:Mutations in the enzymes IDH1 and IDH2 have been identified in a wide variety of tumors like glioma, chondrosarcoma, thyroid cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, and in acute myeloid leukemia. Mutated IDH1/2 produces the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which interferes with epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thus may promote tumorigenesis. HoxA9 immortalised bone marrow cells from C57BJ/6 mice were tranduced with either empty vector or pSF91-IDH1wt-IRES-EGFP, or pSF91-IDH1mut-IRES-GFP and transplanted in irradiated recipient mice. Alternatively, HoxA9 immortalised cells transduced with empty vector transplanted mice were treated with R-2HG at dose of 1mg/day for four weeks. Four weeks after transplantation/treatment GFP+ cells were sorted from mouse bone marrow, from which total RNA ws extracted and subjected to microarray analysis.
Project description:The activation-induced cytidine deaminase enzyme (AID) is required in germinal center (GC) B cells for somatic hyper-mutation and class switch recombination at the immunoglobulin locus. In GC-B cells, AID is highly expressed, with inherent mutator activity that helps generate antibody diversity. However, AID may also regulate gene expression epigenetically, irrespective of mutator activity, by directly deaminating 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in concert with base excision repair glycosylases to exchange unmethylated cytosine. This pathway promotes gene demethylation, thereby removing epigenetic memory. For example, AID promotes active demethylation of the genome in primordial germ cells. However, the range and mechanism by which AID promotes pluripotency is not known. Different studies have suggested either a requirement or a lack of function for promoting pluripotency in somatic nuclei following fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESC). Here we tested directly whether AID regulates epigenetic memory, by comparing the relative ability of cells lacking AID to reprogram from a differentiated cell type to an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). We show that loss of AID impacts two distinct steps of reprogramming: First, AID-null cells are transiently hyper-responsive to the reprogramming process. Second, although they initiate expression of pluripotency genes, they fail to stabilize the pluripotent state. The genome of AID-null cells remains hypermethylated in reprogramming cells, and hypermethylated genes associated with pluripotency fail to be stably up-regulated. MYC target genes are highly enriched in the set of genes hypermethylated and under-expressed in reprogramming cells lacking AID. Recent studies identified a distinctive late step of reprogramming associated with methylation status. AID appears to regulate this step to stabilize the pluripotent state, removing epigenetic memory to promote expression of secondary pluripotency network genes. Transcriptome sequencing of AID-null tail fibroblasts, wildtype tail fibroblasts, AID-null and wildtype tail fibroblasts reprogrammed for three weeks by ectopic expression of transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, KLf4 and cMyc. Methylation profiling by reduced representation bisulphite seuencing of AID-null tail fibroblasts, wildtype tail fibroblasts, AID-null and wildtype tail fibroblasts reprogrammed for three weeks and AID-null and wildtype clones after three weeks of reprogramming (Picked at two weeks)
Project description:Because gastric cancer cells already had genetic and epigenetic alterations which can affect the gastric carcinogenesis, we tried to characterize genetic and epigenetic changes during gastric carcinogenesis. To do this, we performed MBD sequencing and RRBS sequencing. MBD and RRBS sequencing of gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer cells from one patient were generated by NGS using Illumina GAII.
Project description:Using a pooled (n=10) zebrafish liver DNA, we generated base-resolution DNA methylation maps to document epigenetic landscape in zebrafish genome. Here we generated single-nucleotide resoultion DNA methylation map of zebrafish pooled liver sample using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS)
Project description:Using 2 male and 2 female zebrafish (pool of 6) brain samples, we generated base-resolution DNA methylation maps to document sex-specific epigenetic differences. Here we generated single-nucleotide resoultion DNA methylation map of 4 zebrafish brain samples using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS)
Project description:Purpose: To investigate the effect of Tet1 depletion on global DNA methylation, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). Methods: Starting with as little as 1400-5251 manually micro-dissected PGCs, we used an ultra-low input method, Tn5mC-seq. Results: We generated 945 million reads for Tet1Gt/Gt PGCs and 302 million reads for wild-type PGCs. We obtained 14-16 million CpG sites per genotype at 1.76-2.66x genome coverage, which enables a comprehensive view of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in E13.5 PGCs. PGCs are almost completely unmethylated genome-wide. Loss of Tet1 led to a subtle increase of methylation level in various genomic elements including promoters, exons, introns and repetitive elements in Tet1Gt/Gt PGCs (p<0.01). Local analysis identified 4,337 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between Tet1-/- PGCs and wild-type cells. These DMRs are associated with 5,261 genes, among which 271 genes also exhibited differential gene expression and enriched for the cell cycle pathway (FDR=0.02). Conclusions: This result revealed that demethylation of certain set of cell cycle genes is largely abolished in the Tet1-/- PGCs. Genome-wide methylation profiles of primordial germ cells derived from the wild type (WT) and Tet1-null female embryos at E13.5 were generated by whole genome bisulfite sequencing using Illumina Hiseq.
Project description:The de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are of crucial importance in hematopoietic stem cells, and Dnmt3b has recently been shown to play a role in genic methylation. Forced Dnmt3b expression induced widespread DNA hypermethylation in myc-bcl2 induced leukemias, especially at promoters and gene bodies of stem cell-related genes. MLL-AF9 induced leukemogenesis showed much less pronounced DNA hypermethylation upon Dnmt3b expression. Nonetheless, leukemogenesis was delayed in both models with a shared core set of DNA hypermethylated regions and suppression of stem cell-related genes. Our findings indicate a critical role for Dnmt3b-mediated DNA methylation in leukemia development and maintenance of LSC function. To investigate how Dnmt3b-mediated DNA methylation affects leukemogenesis, we analyzed leukemia development under conditions of high and physiological methylation levels in a tetracycline-inducible knockin mouse model. High expression of Dnmt3b slowed leukemia development in serial transplantations and impaired leukemia stem cell (LSC) function.
Project description:Mammalian cells contain copious amounts of RNA including both coding and non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Generally the ncRNAs function to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Among ncRNA, the long ncRNA and small ncRNA can affect histone modification, DNA methylation targeting and gene silencing. Here we show that endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) co-purifies with inhibitory ncRNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) binds directly to DNMT1 with high affinity. The binding of miRNAs, such as miR-155, leads to inhibition of DNMT1 enzyme activity. Exogenous miR-155 in cells induces aberrant DNA methylation of the genome, resulting in hypomethylation of low to moderately methylated regions. And small shift of hypermethylation of previously hypomethylated region was also observed. Furthermore, hypomethylation led to activation of genes. Based on these observations, we propose that overexpression of specific miRNAs in human cancer may lead to aberrant DNA methylation and altered gene-expression. Examine of the DNA methylation and mRNA profile of HCT 116 cells transfected by random 23-mer or miR-155 RNA