Physiology of S. cerevisiae during aerobic cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established microbial host for the production of non-native compounds. The synthesis of these compounds typically demands energy and competes with growth for carbon and energy substrate. Uncoupling product formation form growth would benefit product yields and decrease formation of by-product biomass. Studying non-growing metabolically-active yeast cultures provides a first step towards developing S. cerevisiae as a non-growing, robust cell factory. Non-growing metabolically-active cultures can be obtained in retentostat, a glucose-limited, continuous bioreactor system in which biomass accumulates while spent medium is constantly removed. Hitherto retentostat cultures of S. cerevisiae have only been reported under anaerobiosis, condition inappropriate for the production of energy-demanding products. The present study, using retentostat cultures, explores the physiology of non-dividing, fully respiring S. cerevisiae, focusing on industrially-relevant features. Following model-aided experimental design, retentostat cultivations were optimized for accelerated but smooth transition of S. cerevisiae from exponential growth to near-zero growth rates. During 20 days in retentostat the biomass concentration increased, leading very slow growth rates (specific growth rates below 0.001 h-1) but high culture viability (over 80% of viable cells). The maintenance requirement (mATP) was estimated at 0.64 mmolATP.gX-1.h-1, which is remarkably ca. 35% lower than the mATP measured in anaerobic retentostat cultures. Transcriptional down-regulation of genes involved in biosynthesis and up-regulation of stress-responsive genes towards near-zero growth rates corresponded well with data from anaerobic retentostats. More striking was the extreme heat-shock tolerance of S. cerevisiae, which exceeded by far previously reported heat shock tolerance of notoriously robust yeast cultures such as stationary phase cultures. Furthermore, while the metabolic fluxes in the retentostats were relatively low as a result of extreme caloric restriction, off-line measurements revealed that S. cerevisiae retained a high catabolic capacity. The high viability and extreme heat-shock tolerance revealed the robustness of S. cerevisiae at near-zero growth in retentostat. In addition, the relatively low maintenance requirements and high metabolic capacity under severe calorie restriction underline the potential of S. cerevisiae as a non-dividing microbial cell factory for the production of energy-intensive compounds. The retentostat is a promising tool to identify the molecular basis of this extreme robustness. The goal of the present study is to investigate the physiology of aerobic fully respiring S. cerevsiae at near-zero growth rates. Fundamental but industrially-relevant questions were addressed thanks to the design, implementation and study of aerobic retentostat cultivations enabling a rapid but smooth transition of S. cerevisiae from exponential growth to near-zero growth rates.
Project description:Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h-1) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. Retentostats enable controlled, energy-limited cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates while avoiding starvation. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyze physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. Cultures at near-zero specific growth rates exhibited several characteristics previously associated with quiescence, including accumulation of storage polymers and an increased expression of genes involved in storage metabolism, autophagy and exit from the replicative cell cycle into G0. Analysis of transcriptome data from glucose-limited retentostat and chemostat cultures showed, as specific growth rate was decreased, quiescence-related transcriptional responses already set in at specific growth rates above 0.025 h-1. Many genes involved in mitochondrial processes were specifically upregulated at near-zero specific growth rates, possibly reflecting an increased turn-over of organelles under these conditions. Prolonged (> 2 weeks) cultivation in retentostat cultures led to induction of several genes that were previously implicated in chronological ageing. These observations stress the need for systematic dissection of physiological responses to slow growth, quiescence, ageing and starvation and indicate that controlled cultivation systems such as retentostats can contribute to this goal. Independent duplicate retentostat cultures were subjected to microarray analysis at four time points after switching the effluent line to the filter unit (2, 9, 16 and 22 d). Microarray analysis of independent, triplicate anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at a specific growth rate of 0.025 h-1 (t = 0) were also performed as part of this study, resulting in a dataset of 11 arrays.
Project description:The present study aims to explore the role of Rim15 in both physiology and genome wide expression in S. cerevisiae under severe caloric restriction. Non-growing but metabolically active cultures of S. cerevisiae are of major interest for application in industry and as model systems for aging in higher eukaryotes. Using retentostat cultivations, almost non-growing but metabolic active cultures can be obtained resulting from the severe caloric restriction, yet not starvation, yeast experiences. Rim15 plays an important role in several nutrient sensing pathways and is involved in activating stress response and glycogen accumulation upon nutrient shortage. To investigate the role of Rim15 in the extreme robustness and glycogen accumulation of anaerobic retentostat cultures, a rim15 deletion strain is compared with its parental strain under anaerobic calorie restriction on both physiology and transcriptome. Rim15 is described as essential for G0 entry and glycogen accumulation in yeast during diauxic shift and stationary phase. Anaerobic retentostat cultures display many stationary phase characteristics, including increased expression levels of Rim15 target genes, suggesting an important role for Rim15 under these conditions. Comparing a rim15 deletion strain and its parental strain revealed both on transcriptome level and physiology indeed a major role in the acquired robustness, glycogen accumulation, but also maintenance of viability and cell cycle arrest. The severe caloric restriction, but not starving, conditions applied together with a thorough physiological and transcriptome analysis of the cultures shows that Rim15 is essential in fine-tuning cell cycle progression with glucose availability under extreme growth-limiting conditions. To investigate the impact of rim15 deletion under severe calorie restricted conditions, transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae rim15 deletion mutant was monitored during anaerobic retentostat cultivation. Five time points were used, one in the starting point of the retentostat (T0 = chemostat) and four during the course of the retentostat (time points 2, 9, 16 and 20 days). Culture triplicates were performed for T0 in chemostat, while two independent cultures were run for retentostat.
Project description:Cultivation methods used to investigate microbial calorie restriction often result in carbon and energy starvation. This study aims to dissect cellular responses to calorie restriction and starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using retentostat cultivation. In retentostats, cells are continuously supplied with a small, constant carbon and energy supply, sufficient for maintenance of cellular viability and integrity but insufficient for growth. When glucose-limited retentostats cultivated under extreme calorie restriction were subjected to glucose starvation, calorie-restricted and glucose-starved cells were found to share characteristics such as increased heat-shock tolerance and expression of quiescence-related genes. However, they also displayed strikingly different features. While calorie-restricted yeast cultures remained metabolically active and viable for prolonged periods of time, glucose starvation resulted in rapid consumption of reserve carbohydrates, population heterogeneity due to appearance of senescent cells and, ultimately, loss of viability. Moreover, during starvation, calculated rates of ATP synthesis from storage carbohydrates were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than steady-state ATP-turnover rates calculated under extreme calorie restriction in retentostats. Stringent reduction of ATP turnover during glucose starvation was accompanied by a strong down-regulation of genes involved in protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that extreme calorie restriction and carbon starvation represent different physiological states in S. cerevisiae. The yeast was first grown for 14 days under extreme calorie restriction in anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats (Boender et al., 2009, Appl.Environ.Microbiol., 75: 5607-5614.). Subsequently, starvation was started by terminating the glucose feed. Yeast transcriptional reprogramming in response to calorie restriction and starvation was monitored by microarray analysis. Independent duplicate retentostat cultures, and subsequently starvation, were sampled for transcriptome analysis using Affymetrix microarrays. One time-point was sampled during calorie restriction (T0) and four time points were sampled during the starvation phase 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after switching of the feed, resulting in a dataset of 10 arrays.
Project description:This paper describes the molecular and physiological adaptations of Lactococcus lactis during the transition from a growing to a near-zero growth state using carbon-limited retentostat cultivation. Metabolic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that metabolic patterns shifted between homolactic and mixed-acid fermentation during the retentostat cultivation, which appeared to be controlled at the transcription level of the corresponding pyruvate-dissipation enzyme pathway encoding genes. Furthermore, during extended retentostat cultivation, cells continued to consume several amino acids, but also produced specific amino acids subsets, which may derive from the conversion of glycolytic intermediates. Under conditions of extremely low carbon availability, carbon catabolite repression was progressively relieved and alternative catabolic functions were found to be highly up-regulated, which was confirmed by enhanced initial acidification rates on various sugar substrates in cells obtained from near-zero growth cultures. Moreover, the expression of genes involved in multiple stress response mechanisms was gradually induced during extended retentostat cultivation, supporting the strong molecular focus on maintenance of cellular function and viability. The present integrated transcriptome and metabolome study provides molecular understanding of the adaptation of Lactococcus lactis KF147 to near-zero growth rate conditions, and expands our earlier analysis of the quantitative physiology of this bacterium at near-zero growth rates. loop design of the samples including two shortcuts
Project description:Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was grown under anaerobic carbon-limited conditions in a chemostat with complete biomass retention (retentostat). In this cultivation system, the biomass concentration progressively increases while the dilution rate is kept constant, resulting in decreased specific susbtrate availibility, and hence, a progressive decrease in the specific growth rate. During the progressive transition from growth to virtually no growth, the global changes occurring at the level of metabolism and gene expression were studied using a genome-scale metabolic model and DNA microarrays. Four different time-points are compared, corresponding to 4 different specific growth rates, and hence, 4 different ratios of energy used for maintenance and growth. The samples taken at the start of retentostat cultivation serves as a a reference sample, to which the three other samples (taken after 3 days, 17 days, and 31 days under retentostat conditions) are compared. No biological replicates: all samples were taken from the same retentostat fermentation.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a popular host for production of non-native compounds. The metabolic pathways involved generally require a net input of energy. To maximize the ATP yield on sugar in S. cerevisiae, industrial cultivation is typically performed in aerobic, sugar-limited fed-batch reactors which, due to constraints in oxygen transfer and cooling capacities, have to be operated at low specific growth rates. Because intracellular levels of key metabolites and cellular energy status are growth-rate dependent, slow growth can significantly affect biomass-specific productivity. Using an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing a heterologous pathway for resveratrol production as a model energy-requiring product, the impact of specific growth rate on yeast physiology and productivity was investigated in aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Stoichiometric analysis revealed that de novo resveratrol production from glucose requires a net input of 2 moles of ATP per mole of produced resveratrol. The biomass-specific production rate of resveratrol showed a strong positive correlation with the specific growth rate. At low growth rates, a substantial fraction of the carbon source was invested in cellular maintenance-energy requirements (e.g., 27% at 0.03 h-1). This distribution of resources was unaffected by resveratrol production. Formation of the by-products coumaric, phloretic and cinnamic acid had no detectable effect on maintenance energy requirement and yeast physiology in the chemostats. Expression of the heterologous pathway led to marked differences in transcript levels in the resveratrol-producing strain, including increased expression levels of genes involved in pathways for precursor supply (e.g., ARO7 and ARO9 involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis). The observed strong differential expression of many glucose-responsive genes in the resveratrol producer as compared to a congenic reference strain could be explained from higher residual glucose concentrations and higher relative growth rates in cultures of the resveratrol producer. De novo resveratrol production by engineered S. cerevisiae is an energy demanding process. Resveratrol production by an engineered strain exhibited a strong correlation with specific growth rate. Since industrial production in fed-batch reactors typically involves low specific growth rates, this study emphasizes the need for uncoupling growth and product formation via energy-requiring pathways. The goal of the present study is to investigate the impact of specific growth rate on biomass-specific productivity, product yield, by-product formation and host strain physiology of an S. cerevisiae strain that was previously engineered for de novo production of resveratrol from glucose. To this end, (by)product formation, physiology and transcriptome were analysed in steady-state, glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at different dilution rates.
Project description:Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h-1) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. Retentostats enable controlled, energy-limited cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates while avoiding starvation. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyze physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. Cultures at near-zero specific growth rates exhibited several characteristics previously associated with quiescence, including accumulation of storage polymers and an increased expression of genes involved in storage metabolism, autophagy and exit from the replicative cell cycle into G0. Analysis of transcriptome data from glucose-limited retentostat and chemostat cultures showed, as specific growth rate was decreased, quiescence-related transcriptional responses already set in at specific growth rates above 0.025 h-1. Many genes involved in mitochondrial processes were specifically upregulated at near-zero specific growth rates, possibly reflecting an increased turn-over of organelles under these conditions. Prolonged (> 2 weeks) cultivation in retentostat cultures led to induction of several genes that were previously implicated in chronological ageing. These observations stress the need for systematic dissection of physiological responses to slow growth, quiescence, ageing and starvation and indicate that controlled cultivation systems such as retentostats can contribute to this goal. Overall design: Independent duplicate retentostat cultures were subjected to microarray analysis at four time points after switching the effluent line to the filter unit (2, 9, 16 and 22 d). Microarray analysis of independent, triplicate anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at a specific growth rate of 0.025 h-1 (t = 0) were also performed as part of this study, resulting in a dataset of 11 arrays.
Project description:Earlier studies pointed to the ability of C. thermocellum to exquisitely control gene expression in response to growth rate and the presence of insoluble cellulose or soluble compounds such as cellobiose. This microarray study was carried out in order to examine expression responses of the entire genome. The use of the chemostat technique allowed the effects of different growth rates to be analyzed separately from the effects of different substrates. An 11-chip study of 11 separate C. thermocellum chemostat cultures grown on cellulose or cellobiose at different dilution rates.
Project description:The hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., contains an exceptionally high content of secondary metabolites, the hop iso-α-acids, which possess a range of beneficial properties including antiseptic action. Studies performed on the mode of action of hop iso-α-acids have hitherto been restricted to lactic acid bacteria. The present study investigates molecular mechanisms of hop iso-α-acid resistance in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth inhibition occurred at concentrations of hop iso-α-acids that were an order of magnitude higher than those found with hop-tolerant prokaryotes. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis and phenotype screening of the S. cerevisiae haploid gene deletion collection were used as complementary methods to screen for genes involved in hop iso-α-acids detoxification and tolerance. Further analysis of deletion mutants confirmed that yeast tolerance to hop iso-α-acids involves two major processes: active export of iso-α-acids across the plasma membrane and active proton pumping into the vacuole by the V-ATPase to enable vacuolar sequestration of iso-α-acids. Furthermore, iso-α-acids were shown to affect cellular metal homeostasis by acting as strong zinc and iron chelator. Experiment Overall Design: Two complementary genome-wide approaches were employed to investigate cellular responses of S. cerevisiae to hop extracts enriched in iso-α-acids. Microarray transcriptome analysis was performed on chemostat cultures of an S. cerevisiae reference strain grown in the presence and absence of iso-α-acids. In addition, screening of the nearly complete set of yeast open reading frame (ORF) haploid knock-outs generated by the Saccharomyces Genome Deletion Project (SGDP) (Open Biosystems) identified the mutants with increased hop sensitivity. Subsequently, involvement of selected genes and cellular processes in hop acid sensitivity and tolerance was analyzed by construction and detailed analysis of selected mutant strains.
Project description:The aim of present study is to understand the impact of genetic engineering event, integration of ClCBH2 gene into yeast genome, as well as the subsequent biological process, such as expression and secretion of CBH2 protein. Further, the ‘dosage’ of genetic engineering event, the copy number inserted ClCBH2 gene, is also of particular interest. In parallel, the relationship between the copy number of ClCBH2 gene and the condition of yeast culture during CBH2 production, as well as the effect of these two factors towards yeast metabolism are investigated. Extensive transcriptomics analysis and comparison were conducted for three CBP yeast strains with different copy numbers of ClCBH2 gene, at two growth rates A twenty-four array study using total RNA recovered from three CBP yeast strains with different copy numbers of ClCBH2 gene, at two growth rates