RAS signalling through PI3-Kinase controls cell migration via modulation of Reelin expression
ABSTRACT: RAS signalling through Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumor invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110adecreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110areveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-Cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin / E-Cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. MEFs with or without RAS binding to p110a were seeded in a 10cm dish and left to attach during 24 hours. Full serum media was then removed and media with no FBS was added to the plates. Starvation was carried out during a period of 16 hours (over night starvation). Assay was performed in triplicates: for each genotype two diferent fibroblasts clones (and a mix of both of the clones) were used on the analysis. After starvation RNA was extracted using RNAsy kit (Quiagen). RNA was quantified and sent to Oxford Gene Technology microarray facility.
Project description:RAS signalling through Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumor invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110adecreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110areveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-Cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin / E-Cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. Overall design: MEFs with or without RAS binding to p110a were seeded in a 10cm dish and left to attach during 24 hours. Full serum media was then removed and media with no FBS was added to the plates. Starvation was carried out during a period of 16 hours (over night starvation). Assay was performed in triplicates: for each genotype two diferent fibroblasts clones (and a mix of both of the clones) were used on the analysis. After starvation RNA was extracted using RNAsy kit (Quiagen). RNA was quantified and sent to Oxford Gene Technology microarray facility.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that both Tiam1, an activator of Rac, and constitutively active V12Rac promote E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in epithelial Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Moreover, Tiam1 and V12Rac inhibit invasion of Ras-transformed, fibroblastoid MDCK-f3 cells by restoring E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Here we show that the Tiam1/Rac-induced cellular response is dependent on the cell substrate. On fibronectin and laminin 1, Tiam1/Rac signaling inhibits migration of MDCK-f3 cells by restoring E-cadherin-mediated cell- cell adhesion. On different collagens, however, expression of Tiam1 and V12Rac promotes motile behavior, under conditions that prevent formation of E-cadherin adhesions. In nonmotile cells, Tiam1 is present in adherens junctions, whereas Tiam1 localizes to lamellae of migrating cells. The level of Rac activation by Tiam1, as determined by binding to a glutathione-S-transferase- PAK protein, is similar on fibronectin or collagen I, suggesting that rather the localization of the Tiam1/Rac signaling complex determines the substrate-dependent cellular responses. Rac activation by Tiam1 requires PI3-kinase activity. Moreover, Tiam1- but not V12Rac-induced migration as well as E-cadherin-mediated cell- cell adhesion are dependent on PI3-kinase, indicating that PI3-kinase acts upstream of Tiam1 and Rac.
Project description:RAS proteins directly activate PI3-kinases. Mice bearing a germline mutation in the RAS binding domain of the p110? subunit of PI3-kinse are resistant to the development of RAS-driven tumors. However, it is unknown whether interaction of RAS with PI3-kinase is required in established tumors. The need for RAS interaction with p110? in the maintenance of mutant Kras-driven lung tumors was explored using an inducible mouse model. In established tumors, removal of the ability of p110? to interact with RAS causes long-term tumor stasis and partial regression. This is a tumor cell-autonomous effect, which is improved significantly by combination with MEK inhibition. Total removal of p110? expression or activity has comparable effects, albeit with greater toxicities.
Project description:Myc synergizes with Ras and PI3-kinase in cell transformation, yet the molecular basis for this behavior is poorly understood. We now show that Myc recruits TFIIH, P-TEFb and Mediator to the cyclin D2 and other target promoters, while the PI3-kinase pathway controls formation of the pre-initiation complex and loading of RNA polymerase II. The PI3-kinase pathway involves Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO transcription factors. In a nonphosphorylated state, FoxO factors inhibit induction of multiple Myc target genes, Myc-induced cell proliferation and transformation by Myc and Ras. Abrogation of FoxO function enables Myc to activate target genes in the absence of PI3-kinase activity and to induce foci formation in primary cells in the absence of oncogenic Ras. We suggest that the cooperativity between Myc and Ras is at least in part due to the fact that Myc and FoxO proteins control distinct steps in the activation of an overlapping set of critical target genes.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT pathways are frequently co-activated in melanoma through overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases, mutations in their signaling surrogates, such as RAS and BRAF, or loss of negative regulators such as PTEN. As RAS can be a positive upstream regulator of PI3-K, it has been proposed that the loss of PTEN and the activation of RAS are redundant events in melanoma pathogenesis. Here, in genetically engineered mouse models of cutaneous melanomas, we sought to better understand the genetic interactions between HRAS activation and PTEN inactivation in melanoma genesis and progression in vivo. We showed that HRAS activation cooperates with Pten+/- and Ink4a/Arf-/- to increase melanoma penetrance and promote metastasis. Correspondingly, gain- and loss-of-function studies established that Pten loss increases invasion and migration of melanoma cells and non-transformed melanocytes, and such biological activity correlates with a shift to phosphorylation of AKT2 isoform and E-cadherin down-regulation. Thus, Pten inactivation can drive the genesis and promote the metastatic progression of RAS activated Ink4a/Arf deficient melanomas.
Project description:Combinatorial activation of PI3-kinase and RAS signaling occurs frequently in advanced prostate cancer and is associated with adverse patient outcome. We now report that the oncogenic Ets variant 4 (Etv4) promotes prostate cancer metastasis in response to coactivation of PI3-kinase and Ras signaling pathways in a genetically engineered mouse model of highly penetrant, metastatic prostate cancer. Using an inducible Cre driver to simultaneously inactivate Pten while activating oncogenic Kras and a fluorescent reporter allele in the prostate epithelium, we performed lineage tracing in vivo to define the temporal and spatial occurrence of prostate tumors, disseminated tumor cells, and metastases. These analyses revealed that though disseminated tumors cells arise early following the initial occurrence of prostate tumors, there is a significant temporal lag in metastasis, which is temporally coincident with the up-regulation of Etv4 expression in primary tumors. Functional studies showed that knockdown of Etv4 in a metastatic cell line derived from the mouse model abrogates the metastatic phenotype but does not affect tumor growth. Notably, expression and activation of ETV4, but not other oncogenic ETS genes, is correlated with activation of both PI3-kinase and Ras signaling in human prostate tumors and metastases. Our findings indicate that ETV4 promotes metastasis in prostate tumors that have activation of PI3-kinase and Ras signaling, and therefore, ETV4 represents a potential target of therapeutic intervention for metastatic prostate cancer.
Project description:Activation of c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor receptor induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, which drives epithelial cell scattering and motility and is exploited by pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes to invade nonepithelial cells. However, the precise contributions of distinct Rho-GTPases, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, and actin assembly regulators to c-Met-mediated actin reorganization are still elusive. Here we report that HGF-induced membrane ruffling and Listeria invasion mediated by the bacterial c-Met ligand internalin B (InlB) were significantly impaired but not abrogated upon genetic removal of either Cdc42 or pharmacological inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). While loss of Cdc42 or PI3-kinase function correlated with reduced HGF- and InlB-triggered Rac activation, complete abolishment of actin reorganization and Rac activation required the simultaneous inactivation of both Cdc42 and PI3-kinase signaling. Moreover, Cdc42 activation was fully independent of PI3-kinase activity, whereas the latter partly depended on Cdc42. Finally, Cdc42 function did not require its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor N-WASP. Instead, actin polymerization was driven by Arp2/3 complex activation through the WAVE complex downstream of Rac. Together, our data establish an intricate signaling network comprising as key molecules Cdc42 and PI3-kinase, which converge on Rac-mediated actin reorganization essential for Listeria invasion and membrane ruffling downstream of c-Met.
Project description:Reelin is an essential glycoprotein for the establishment of the highly organized six-layered structure of neurons of the mammalian neocortex. Although the role of Reelin in the control of neuronal migration has been extensively studied at the molecular level, the mechanisms underlying Reelin-dependent neuronal layer organization are not yet fully understood. In this study, we directly showed that Reelin promotes adhesion among dissociated neocortical neurons in culture. The Reelin-mediated neuronal aggregation occurs in an N-cadherin-dependent manner, both in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, however, in a rotation culture of dissociated neocortical cells that gradually reaggregated over time, we found that it was the neural progenitor cells [radial glial cells (RGCs)], rather than the neurons, that tended to form clusters in the presence of Reelin. Mathematical modeling suggested that this clustering of RGCs could be recapitulated if the Reelin-dependent promotion of neuronal adhesion were to occur only transiently. Thus, we directly measured the adhesive force between neurons and N-cadherin by atomic force microscopy, and found that Reelin indeed enhanced the adhesiveness of neurons to N-cadherin; this enhanced adhesiveness began to be observed at 30 min after Reelin stimulation, but declined by 3 h. These results suggest that Reelin transiently (and not persistently) promotes N-cadherin-mediated neuronal aggregation. When N-cadherin and stabilized ?-catenin were overexpressed in the migrating neurons, the transfected neurons were abnormally distributed in the superficial region of the neocortex, suggesting that appropriate regulation of N-cadherin-mediated adhesion is important for correct positioning of the neurons during neocortical development.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) mediates gastrulation cell migration in zebrafish via its regulation of PIP(2)/PIP(3) balance. Although PI3 kinase counter enzyme PTEN has also been reported to be essential for gastrulation, its role in zebrafish gastrulation has been controversial due to the lack of gastrulation defects in pten-null mutants. To clarify this issue, we knocked down a pten isoform, ptenb by using anti-sense morpholino oligos (MOs) in zebrafish embryos and found that ptenb MOs inhibit convergent extension by affecting cell motility and protrusion during gastrulation. The ptenb MO-induced convergence defect could be rescued by a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 and by overexpressing dominant negative Cdc42. Overexpression of human constitutively active akt1 showed similar convergent extension defects in zebrafish embryos. We also observed a clear enhancement of actin polymerization in ptenb morphants under cofocal microscopy and in actin polymerization assay. These results suggest that Ptenb by antagonizing PI3 kinase and its downstream Akt1 and Cdc42 to regulate actin polymerization that is critical for proper cell motility and migration control during gastrulation in zebrafish.