In vitro proteomic expression changes in Ewing sarcoma cell lines after IGF-1R or IGF-1R/IR blockade
ABSTRACT: Ewing Sarcoma is caused by a pathognomonic genomic translocation that places an N-terminal EWSR1 gene in approximation with one of several ETS genes (typically FLI1). This aberration, in turn, alters the transcriptional regulation of more than five hundred genes and perturbs a number of critical pathways that promote oncogenesis, cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Among them, translocation-mediated up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are of particular importance since they work in concert to facilitate IGF-1R expression and ligand-induced activation, respectively, of proven importance in ES transformation. When used as a single agent in Ewing sarcoma therapy, IGF-1R or mTOR inhibition leads to rapid counter-regulatory effects that blunt the intended therapeutic purpose. Therefore, identify new mechanisms of resistance that are used by Ewing sarcoma to evade cell death to single-agent IGF-1R inhibition might suggest a number of therapeutic combinations that could improve its clinical activity. TC32 and TC71 ES clones with acquired resistance to OSI-906 or NVP-ADW-742 were generated by maintaining the corresponding parental cell lines with increasing concentrations of the agents (up to 2.3 μM for OSI-906, 1.5 μM for NVP-ADW-742) for 7 months. All parental and acquired drug resistant cell lines were tested twice per year for mycoplasma contamination using the MycoAlert Detection Kit (Lonza Group Ltd.) according to the manufacturer’s protocol and validated using short-tandem repeat fingerprinting with an AmpFLSTR Identifier kit as previously described. Herein, we determine subtle differences in acquired mechanism of resistance by two promising small molecule inhibitors of IGF-1R/IR-α. OSI-906, which inhibits IGF-1R and IR, and NVP-ADW-742, which inhibits only IGF-1R, were evaluated using in vitro assays to decipher the mechanism(s) by which IGF-1R inhibition induces drug resistance in Ewing sarcoma cells. The preparation of extracted proteins from sensitive and acquired resistant Ewing sarcoma cells to OSI-906 and NVP-ADW-742 for reverse-phase protein lysate array (RPPA) analysis were prepared using the same array. Lysates were processed, spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated FAST slides, probed with 115 validated primary antibodies, and detected using a DakoCytomation-catalyzed system with secondary antibodies. MicroVigene software program (VigeneTech) was used for automated spot identification, background correction, and individual spot-intensity determination. Expression data was normalized for possible unequal protein loading, taking into account the signal intensity for each sample for all antibodies tested. Log2 values were media-centered by protein to account for variability in signal intensity by time and were calculated using the formula log2 signal – log2 median. Principal component analysis was used to check for a batch effect and feature-by-feature two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between sensitive and resistant cell lines to drug treatments. We also used feature-by-feature one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey test to perform pair comparisons for all groups. Beta-uniform mixture models were used to fit the resulting p value distributions to adjust for multiple comparisons. The cutoff p values and number of significant proteins were computed for several different false discovery rates (FDRs). Biostatistical analyses comparing two groups were performed using an unpaired t-test with Gaussian distribution followed by the Welch correction. To distinguish between treatment groups, we used one-way ANOVA with the Geisser-Greenhouse correction. Differences with p values <0.05 were considered significant. Within clustered image maps (CIM), unsupervised double hierarchical clustering used the Pearson correlation distance and Ward’s linkage method as the clustering algorithm to link entities (proteins) and samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Therapies cotargeting insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have demonstrated remarkable, albeit short-lived, clinical responses in a subset of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients. However, the mechanisms of resistance and applicable strategies for overcoming drug resistance to the IGF-1R/mTOR blockade are still undefined. METHODS:To elucidate predominant mechanism(s) of acquired drug resistance while identifying synergistic drug combinations that improve clinical efficacy, we generated more than 18 ES cell lines resistant to IGF-1R- or mTOR-targeted therapy. Two small-molecule inhibitors of IGF-1R were chosen, NVP-ADW-742 (IGF-1R-selective) and OSI-906 (a dual IGF-1R/insulin receptor alpha [IR-?] inhibitor). Reverse-phase protein lysate arrays (RPPAs) revealed proteomic changes linked to IGF-1R/mTOR resistance, and selected proteins were validated in cell-based assays, xenografts, and within human clinical samples. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:Novel mechanisms of resistance (MOR) emerged after dalotuzumab-, NVP-ADW-742-, and OSI-906-based targeting of IGF-1R. MOR to dalotuzumab included upregulation of IRS1, PI3K, and STAT3, as well as p38 MAPK, which was also induced by OSI-906. pEIF4E(Ser209), a key regulator of Cap-dependent translation, was induced in ridaforolimus-resistant ES cell lines. Unique drug combinations targeting IGF-1R and PI3K-alpha or Mnk and mTOR were synergistic in vivo and vitro (P < .001) as assessed respectively by Mantel-Cox and isobologram testing. CONCLUSIONS:We discovered new druggable targets expressed by chemoresistant ES cells, xenografts, and relapsed human tumors. Joint suppression of these newfound targets, in concert with IGF-1R or mTOR blockade, should improve clinical outcomes.
Project description:Ewing's Sarcoma cell lines were made resistant to different IGF-1R drugs to investigate mechanisms and pathways modulated by the resistance. EWS TC-71 cell line was exposed to increasing concentration to three different anti-IGF-1R drugs (HAb AVE1642, TKI NVP-AEW541, HAb CP-751,871, cell lines named respectively as TC/AVE, TC/AEW or TC/CP) for at least six months. Expression profile of resistant cell variants was compared either singularly for each resistance or commonly vs. parental cell line. Two technical replicates for resistant variants and three biological replicated for parental cell were present.
Project description:Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting children and young adults. Ewing Sarcoma is driven by EWS/Ets fusion oncoproteins, which cause widespread alterations in gene expression in the cell. Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, particularly involving IGF-1R, also plays an important role in Ewing Sarcoma pathogenesis. However, the basis of this dysregulation, including the relative contribution of EWS/Ets-dependent and independent mechanisms, is not well understood. In the present study, we identify variable expression of two modifiers of PI3K signaling activity, PIK3R3 and PTEN, in Ewing Sarcoma, and examine the consequences of this on PI3K pathway regulation and oncogenic phenotypes. Our findings indicate that PIK3R3 plays a growth-promotional role in Ewing Sarcoma, but suggest that this role is not strictly dependent on regulation of PI3K pathway activity. We further show that expression of PTEN, a well-established, potent tumor suppressor, is lost in a subset of Ewing Sarcomas, and that this loss strongly correlates with high baseline PI3K pathway activity in cell lines. In support of functional importance of PTEN loss in Ewing Sarcoma, we show that re-introduction of PTEN into two different PTEN-negative Ewing Sarcoma cell lines results in downregulation of PI3K pathway activity, and sensitization to the IGF-1R small molecule inhibitor OSI-906. Our findings also suggest that PTEN levels may contribute to sensitivity of Ewing Sarcoma cells to the microtubule inhibitor vincristine, a relevant chemotherapeutic agent in this cancer. Our studies thus identify PIK3R3 and PTEN as modifiers of oncogenic phenotypes in Ewing Sarcoma, with potential clinical implications.
Project description:New therapies are critically needed to improve the outcome for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibition is a potential treatment strategy for SCLC: the IGF-1R pathway is commonly upregulated in SCLC and has been associated with inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of proliferation through downstream signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase. To evaluate potential determinants of response to IGF-1R inhibition, we assessed the relative sensitivity of 19 SCLC cell lines to OSI-906, a small molecule inhibitor of IGF-1R, and the closely related insulin receptor. Approximately one third of these cell lines were sensitive to OSI-906, with an IC50 < 1 ?mol/L. Cell line expression of IGF-1R, IR, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP3, and IGFBP6 did not correlate with sensitivity to OSI-906. Interestingly, OSI-906 sensitive lines expressed significantly lower levels of baseline phospho-ERK relative to resistant lines (P = 0.006). OSI-906 treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of phospho-IGF-1R and phospho-Akt in both sensitive and resistant cell lines, but induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest only in sensitive lines. We tested the in vivo efficacy of OSI-906 using an NCI-H187 xenograft model and two SCLC patient xenografts in mice. OSI-906 treatment resulted in 50% tumor growth inhibition in NCI-H187 and 30% inhibition in the primary patient xenograft models compared with mock-treated animals. Taken together our data support IGF-1R inhibition as a viable treatment strategy for a defined subset of SCLC and suggest that low pretreatment levels of phospho-ERK may be indicative of sensitivity to this therapeutic approach.
Project description:Agents targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are being actively examined in clinical trials. Although there has been some initial success of single-agent targeting IGF-1R, attempts in later studies failed because of resistance. This study aimed to understand the effects of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) on the chemosensitivity of the IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism underlying this impact. Using OSI-906-resistant and -sensitive colorectal cancer cells, we found that the Pdcd4 level directly correlates with cell chemosensitivity to OSI-906. In addition, tumors derived from Pdcd4 knockdown cells resist the growth inhibitory effect of OSI-906 in a colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model. Moreover, Pdcd4 enhances the antiproliferative effect of OSI-906 in resistant cells through suppression of p70S6K1 activation. Knockdown of p70S6K1, but not p70S6K2, significantly increases the chemosensitivity of OSI-906 in cultured colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of OSI-906 and PF-4708671, a p70S6K1 inhibitor, efficiently suppresses the growth of OSI-906-resistant colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, activation of p70S6K1 that is inhibited by Pdcd4 is essential for resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in colon tumor cells, and the combinational treatment of OSI-906 and PF-4708671 results in enhanced antiproliferation effects in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel venue to overcome the resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in treating colorectal cancer.
Project description:Although Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1) signaling promotes tumor growth and cancer progression, IGF-1 Receptor-targeted therapies have shown poor clinical efficacy. The mechanistic basis for this is unclear as is our understanding of what distinguishes IGF-1R signaling from the closely related Insulin receptor (IR) signaling. This study illuminates both issues. A site in the IGF-1R C-terminal tail incorporating two tyrosines that are not present in the Insulin receptor (IR) was previously shown to be essential for IGF-1-mediated cancer cell survival, migration and tumorigenic growth. Here, we establish that the Y1250/Y1251 site is autophosphorylated in a cell adhesion-dependent manner.
Project description:Ewing Sarcoma is caused by a pathognomonic genomic translocation that places an N-terminal EWSR1 gene in approximation with one of several ETS genes (typically FLI1). This aberration, in turn, alters the transcriptional regulation of more than five hundred genes and perturbs a number of critical pathways that promote oncogenesis, cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Among them, translocation-mediated up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are of particular importance since they work in concert to facilitate IGF-1R expression and ligand-induced activation, respectively, of proven importance in ES transformation. When used as a single agent in Ewing sarcoma therapy, IGF-1R or mTOR inhibition leads to rapid counter-regulatory effects that blunt the intended therapeutic purpose. Therefore, identify new mechanisms of resistance that are used by Ewing sarcoma to evade cell death to single-agent IGF-1R or mTOR inhibition might suggest a number of therapeutic combinations that could improve their clinical activity. Male non-obese diabetic (NOD)-SCID-IL-2Rgnull mice were used to generate EW5 explants (2 mm). Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors were randomized into treatment and control groups when their tumors reached a diameter of 6 mm and received MK-8669 (mTOR inhibitor, 5mg/kg per dose, once weekly), MK-0646 (IGF-1R inhibitor monoclonal antibody, 0.5mg IP twice weekly), or a placebo control (sterile buffer). Animals were treated either until their tumors reached 1500 mm3 in volume. Affymetrix Geneship profiling of EW5 xenografts treated in vivo either with MK-0646, MK-8669, and control and compared each other using extracted RNA and hybridized on Affymetrix microrrays ( Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 cartridge arrays).
Project description:Proteasome inhibition with bortezomib is a validated approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma, but drug resistance often emerges and limits its utility in the retreatment setting. To begin to identify some of the mechanisms involved, we developed bortezomib-resistant myeloma cell lines that, unlike previously reported models, showed no ?5 subunit mutations. Instead, up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis was identified, with increased autocrine and paracrine secretion of IGF-1, leading to increased activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Exogenous IGF-1 reduced cellular sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas pharmacologic or small hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R suppression enhanced bortezomib sensitivity in cell lines and patient samples. In vitro studies with OSI-906, a clinically relevant dual IGF-1R and insulin receptor inhibitor, showed it acted synergistically with bortezomib, and potently resensitized bortezomib-resistant cell lines and patient samples to bortezomib. Importantly, OSI-906 in combination with bortezomib also overcame bortezomib resistance in an in vivo model of myeloma. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that signaling through the IGF-1/IGF-1R axis contributes to acquired bortezomib resistance, and provide a rationale for combining bortezomib with IGF-1R inhibitors like OSI-906 to overcome or possibly prevent the emergence of bortezomib-refractory disease in the clinic.
Project description:It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can have kinase independent activity. EGFR kinase-independent function maintains intracellular glucose levels via sodium glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1) and supports cell survival. It is plausible that this phenomenon can apply to other receptor tyrosine kinases. We found that transfection of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) siRNA into HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) and MCF7 (metastatic breast cancer) cells result in decreased intracellular glucose levels, whereas treatment with an IGF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor OSI-906 did not affect intracellular glucose levels. In addition, IGF-1R interacted with SGLT1 in a manner similar to that previously reported with EGFR. The combination of IGF-1R siRNA and OSI-906 resulted in decreased viability of HEK293 and MCF7 cell lines compared to either agent alone. Collectively, these experiments suggest that IGF-1R, has kinase-independent biologic functions and provide a rationale for combining anti-IGF-1R antibodies or siRNA and IGF-1R small molecule inhibitors.