RNA-SEQ assay for wild type and CRISPR induced endoglin knockout human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC)
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to investigate the differential transcripted genes affected by CRISPR induced endoglin knockout in PASMC cells. Total RNA was purified from NTC or ENG-/- PASMC cells using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). RNA quality and concentration were assessed with Agilent Tapestation 200 (Agilent Technologies) and Qubit 2.0 (ThermoFisher Scientific). ~250-500 ng RNA were used for library construction. The NGS libraries were constructed using the KAPA Stranded mRNA-Seq Kits (KapaBioSystems). mRNA was captured using magnetic oligo-dT beads and 1st strand cDNA was synthesized using random priming. In order to preserve strand-specificity, 2nd strand synthesis, which converts the cDNA:RNA hybrid to double-stranded cDNA (dscDNA), was marked by dUTP incorporation. cDNA framents were A-tailed by adding dAMP to the 3'-ends of the dscDNA library fragments. dsDNA Illumina TruSeq "forked” adapters 3'-dTMP overhangs were then ligated to A-tailed library insert fragments. Each of the six libraries were ligated with a unique Truseq 6bp barcode. Library fragments were amplified using the KAPA HiFi HotStart polymerase. The strand marked with dUTP was not amplified, allowing strand-specific sequencing. Fragment length and library quality was assessed on a 2100 Bioanalyzer using the High Sensitivity DNA Kit (Agilent Technologies). Libraries were diluted to 10nM and pooled at equimolar ratios. The pool was then diluted to 2nM and denatured in NaOH following Illumina recommendations. 10pM of denatured library pool was loaded in one HiSeq lane and flowcell was clustered on the Illumina C-bot. 5% PhiX control was spiked-in. The flowcell was sequenced on a HiSeq 2500 V4 chemistry with 50bp Single read protocol. Data was demultiplexed and Fastq files were generated using BcptoFastq 1.8.4 script provided by Illumina.
Project description:We report an alternative approach to transcriptome sequencing for the Illumina Genome Analyzer, in which the reverse transcription reaction takes place on the flowcell. No amplification is performed during the library preparation, so PCR biases and duplicates are avoided, and because the template is poly(A)(+) RNA rather than cDNA, the resulting sequences are necessarily strand-specific. The method is compatible with paired- or single-end sequencing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized almost all fields of biology, agriculture and medicine, and is widely utilized to analyse genetic variation. Over the past decade, the NGS pipeline has been steadily improved, and the entire process is currently relatively straightforward. However, NGS instrumentation still requires upfront library preparation, which can be a laborious process, requiring significant hands-on time. Herein, we present a simple but robust approach to streamline library preparation by utilizing surface bound transposases to construct DNA libraries directly on a flowcell surface. RESULTS:The surface bound transposases directly fragment genomic DNA while simultaneously attaching the library molecules to the flowcell. We sequenced and analysed a Drosophila genome library generated by this surface tagmentation approach, and we showed that our surface bound library quality was comparable to the quality of the library from a commercial kit. In addition to the time and cost savings, our approach does not require PCR amplification of the library, which eliminates potential problems associated with PCR duplicates. CONCLUSIONS:We described the first study to construct libraries directly on a flowcell. We believe our technique could be incorporated into the existing Illumina sequencing pipeline to simplify the workflow, reduce costs, and improve data quality.
Project description:Purpose: The goals of this study are to compare NGS-derived transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of U251 cells with endogenous Gcn5 depletion and reconstituted expression of WT Flag-rGcn5 or Flag-rGcn5 Y645A / endogenous DLST depletion and reconstituted expression of WT V5-rDLST or V5-rDLST R224A/K226E Transcriptomes. And quantitatively analyze the cell signaling pathways that regulated by the studied mutants. Methods: total mRNA was extracted from U251 cells with endogenous Gcn5 depletion and reconstituted expression of WT Flag-rGcn5 or Flag-rGcn5 Y645A / endogenous DLST depletion and reconstituted expression of WT V5-rDLST or V5-rDLST R224A/K226E.llumina compatible libraries were prepared by using the KAPA Stranded mRNA-Seq Library Preparation Kit for Illumina® platforms (KAPA Biosystems). In brief, 250 ng of total RNA was enriched for poly-A-tailed mRNA by using Kapa’s mRNA Capture beads. Poly-A-enriched RNA was fragmented to a median size of 150 bp by using chemical fragmentation and converted into double-stranded cDNA with dUTP incorporated into the second cDNA strand. The ends of the double-stranded cDNA were polished, 5’-phosphorylated, and 3’-A-tailed for the ligation of indexed adapters. Adapter-ligated DNA fragments were amplified by 8 cycles of PCR. The strand with incorporated dUTP was not amplified. The resulting libraries were quantified by qPCR and assessed for size distribution by using the 4200 TapeStation (Agilent Technologies), and then multiplexed, 4 per pool, and sequenced on the Illumina’s NextSeq500 by using the mid-output, 75-bp paired-end read format. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, we mapped about 50 million sequence reads per sample to the human genome and quantified the expression of protein coding genes in the U251 cells of WT Gcn5 and Gcn5 Y645A mutant/WT DLST and DLST R224A/K226E mutant. Altered expression of 3 genes was confirmed with qRT–PCR, demonstrating the high degree of sensitivity of the RNA-seq method. Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of U251 cells with endogenous Gcn5 depletion and reconstituted expression of WT Flag-rGcn5 or Flag-rGcn5 Y645A / endogenous DLST depletion and reconstituted expression of WT V5-rDLST or V5-rDLST R224A/K226E Transcriptomes. The optimized data analysis workflows reported here should provide a framework for comparative investigations of expression profiles. Our results show that Gcn5 Y45A mutant and DLST R224A/K226E mutant, which reduce histone H3 K79 succinylation, can regulate several cell signaling pathways that important for cancer cell proliferation. Overall design: mRNA profiles of U251 cells with endogenous Gcn5 depletion and reconstituted expression of WT Flag-rGcn5 or Flag-rGcn5 Y645A / endogenous DLST depletion and reconstituted expression of WT V5-rDLST or V5-rDLST R224A/K226E
Project description:Environmental microbial community analysis typically involves amplification by PCR, despite well-documented biases. We have developed two methods of PCR-independent microbial community analysis using the high-density microarray PhyloChip: direct hybridization of 16S rRNA (dirRNA) or rRNA converted to double-stranded cDNA (dscDNA). We compared dirRNA and dscDNA communities to PCR-amplified DNA communities using a mock community of eight taxa, as well as experiments derived from three environmental sample types: chromium-contaminated aquifer groundwater, tropical forest soil, and secondary sewage in seawater. Community profiles by both direct hybridization methods showed differences that were expected based on accompanying data but that were missing in PCR-amplified communities. Taxon richness decreased in RNA compared to that in DNA communities, suggesting a subset of 20% in soil and 60% in groundwater that is active; secondary sewage showed no difference between active and inactive populations. Direct hybridization of dscDNA and RNA is thus a viable alternative to PCR-amplified microbial community analysis, providing identification of the active populations within microbial communities that attenuate pollutants, drive global biogeochemical cycles, or proliferate disease states.
Project description:Intent of the experiment: evaluate whether copy number gains and losses occur throughout the processing of passaging, i.e. test the genomic stability of the patient-derived xenograft models. DNA was extracted from frozen xenograft samples of different passages. KAPA DNA Library Preparation Kit was used to prepare DNA libraries, which were sequenced at low coverage on a HiSeq2000 (Illumina) with a V3 flowcell generating 50bp reads. Raw reads were aligned to the human reference genome version hg19 with Burrows-Wheeler Aligner software package and after duplicate removal further analyzed with QDNAseq to exclude known regions with low mapping quality, correct for the genomic wave and to count the reads per bin. Binned data were further segmented with the ASCAT (Allele-Specific Copy number Analysis of Tumours) algorithm.
Project description:cDNA depleted RNA (500ng total RNA input) was fragmented to 150-200 nucleotides in first strand buffer for 3 minutes at 94°C. Random hexamer primed first strand was generated in presence of dATP, dGTP, dCTP and cTTP. Second strand was generated using dUTP instead of dTTP to tag the second strand. Subsequent steps to generate the sequencing libraries were performed with the KAPA HTP Library Preparation Kit for Illumina sequencing with minor modifications, i.e., after indexed adapter ligation to the dsDNA fragments, the library was treated with USER enzyme (NEB_M5505L) in order to digest the second strand derived fragments. After amplification of the libraries, samples with unique sample indexes were pooled and sequenced paired-end 2x50bp on a HiSeq2500 system following standard Illumina guidelines.
Project description:We have constructed a library of DNA fragments heavily methylated in human adenocarcinomas of the lung to permit the comprehensive isolation of methylated CpG islands in cancer. Heavily methylated genomic DNA fragments from tumors of nine male patients were enriched using a methylated DNA binding column and used for construction of the library. From this library, DNA fragments having properties of CpG islands were isolated on the basis of their reduced rate of strand dissociation during denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Approximately 1,000 clones, corresponding to 0.3% of the library were analyzed, and nine DNA fragments were identified as being associated with CpG islands that were methylated in tumor DNA. One CpG island was methylated specifically in tumor DNA, whereas the remaining eight CpG islands were methylated both in normal and tumor DNA derived from the same patients. Our results suggest that the number of CpG islands methylated specifically in tumors is not large. The library, which contains DNA fragments from methylated CpG islands comprehensively, is expected to be valuable when elucidating epigenetic processes involved in carcinogenesis.
Project description:Background:Physical inactivity contributes to disability and falls in older adults. Falls prevention exercise (FaME) programmes improve physical activity and physical function and reduce falling rates. Improvements in physical function are reduced, and falls rates increase, if physical activity is not maintained. This research investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention that aimed to maintain physical activity in older adults exiting FaME. Methods:The Keeping Adults Physically Active (KAPA) intervention comprised of six group sessions of motivational interviewing, delivered monthly by trained and mentor-supported postural stability instructor's after the FaME programme ceased. The KAPA intervention included participant manuals, illustrated exercise books, physical activity diaries and pedometers. A feasibility study was conducted in 8 FaME classes. The study design was a two-arm, cluster randomised, multi-site feasibility study comparing the KAPA intervention with usual care. A sample of 50 community-dwelling adults aged 65?years old or older were recruited. Recruitment, retention and attendance rates, self-reported physical activity and participant interviews were used to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the KAPA intervention. Results:Fifty of the sixty-seven (74.6%) participants invited into the study agreed to take part, 94.2% of the available KAPA sessions were attended and 92.3% of the recruited participants provided outcome data. The KAPA participants expressed positive views about the venues and postural stability instructors and reported enjoying the group interactions. Intervention participants discussed increasing their physical activity in response to the peer-support, illustrated home exercise booklet, physical activity diaries and pedometers. Most discussed the written tasks to be the least enjoyable element of the KAPA intervention. The proportion of participants reporting at least 150?minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week rose from 56.3 to 62.5% in the intervention arm and from 41.4 to 52.0% in the usual care arm. Conclusions:The participants found the KAPA intervention acceptable. Participants reported the exercise booklet, peer support and the physical activity monitoring tools encouraged them to keep active. A full-scale trial is needed to assess whether physical activity can be significantly maintained in response to the KAPA intervention. Trial registration:Retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03824015).
Project description:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is fundamental to the current biological and biomedical research. Construction of sequencing library is a key step of NGS. Therefore, various library construction methods have been explored. However, the current methods are still limited by some shortcomings.This study developed a new NGS library construction method, Single strand Adaptor Library Preparation (SALP), by using a novel single strand adaptor (SSA). SSA is a double-stranded oligonucleotide with a 3' overhang of 3 random nucleotides, which can be efficiently ligated to the 3' end of single strand DNA by T4 DNA ligase. SALP can be started with any denatured DNA fragments such as those sheared by Tn5 tagmentation, enzyme digestion and sonication. When started with Tn5-tagmented chromatin, SALP can overcome a key limitation of ATAC-seq and become a high-throughput NGS library construction method, SALP-seq, which can be used to comparatively characterize the chromatin openness state of multiple cells unbiasly. In this way, this study successfully characterized the comparative chromatin openness states of four different cell lines, including GM12878, HepG2, HeLa and 293T, with SALP-seq. Similarly, this study also successfully characterized the chromatin openness states of HepG2 cells with SALP-seq by using 105 to 500 cells.This study developed a new NGS library construction method, SALP, by using a novel kind of single strand adaptor (SSA), which should has wide applications in the future due to its unique performance.
Project description:Shotgun metagenomics is a low biased technology for assessing environmental microbial diversity and function. However, the requirement for a sufficient amount of DNA and the contamination of inhibitors in environmental DNA leads to difficulties in constructing a shotgun metagenomic library. We herein examined metagenomic library construction from subnanogram amounts of input environmental DNA from subarctic surface water and deep-sea sediments using two library construction kits: the KAPA Hyper Prep Kit and Nextera XT DNA Library Preparation Kit, with several modifications. The influence of chemical contaminants associated with these environmental DNA samples on library construction was also investigated. Overall, shotgun metagenomic libraries were constructed from 1 pg to 1 ng of input DNA using both kits without harsh library microbial contamination. However, the libraries constructed from 1 pg of input DNA exhibited larger biases in GC contents, k-mers, or small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene compositions than those constructed from 10 pg to 1 ng DNA. The lower limit of input DNA for low biased library construction in this study was 10 pg. Moreover, we revealed that technology-dependent biases (physical fragmentation and linker ligation vs. tagmentation) were larger than those due to the amount of input DNA.