Disease Severity and Immune Activity Relate to Inter-Kingdom Gut Microbiome States in Ethnically Distinct Ulcerative Colitis Patients
ABSTRACT: Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists amongst UC patients though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. European and South Asian UC patients exhibit distinct disease risk alleles, many of which regulate immune function and relate to variation in gut microbiota β-diversity. We hypothesized ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique luminal metabolic programming that influence adaptive immune responses and relate to clinical status. Using parallel bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC n=30; healthy n=13), we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated depletion of bacterial diversity and demonstrated significant gastrointestinal expansion of Saccharomycetales as a novel UC characteristic. We identified four distinct microbial community states (MCS 1-4), confirmed their existence using microbiota data from an independent UC cohort, and show they co-associate with patient ethnicity and degree of disease severity. Each MCS was predicted to be uniquely enriched for specific amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism pathways and exhibited significant luminal enrichment of metabolic products from these pathways. Using a novel in vitro human DC/T-cell assay we show that DC exposure to patient fecal water led to MCS -specific changes in T-cell populations, particularly the Th1:Th2 ratio, and that patients with the most severe disease exhibited the greatest Th2 skewing. Thus, based on ethnicity, microbiome composition, and associated metabolic dysfunction, UC patients may be stratified in a clinically and immunologically meaningful manner, providing a platform for the development of FMC-focused therapy. Fecal microbiome was assessed with Affymetrix PhyloChip arrays from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls.
Project description:We used a DNA microarray chip covering 369 resistance types to investigate the relation of antibiotic resistance gene diversity with humans’ age. Metagenomic DNA from fecal samples of 123 healthy volunteers of four different age groups, i.e. pre-school Children (CH), School Children (SC), High School Students (HSS) and Adults (AD) were used for hybridization. The results showed that 80 different gene types were recovered from the 123 individuals gut microbiota, among which 25 were present in CH, 37 in SC, 58 in HSS and 72 in AD. Further analysis indicated that antibiotic resistance genes in groups of CH, SC and AD can be independently clustered, and those ones in group HSS are more divergent. The detailed analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in human gut is further described in the paper DNA microarray analysis reveals the antibiotic resistance gene diversity in human gut microbiota is age-related submitted to Sentific Reports The antibiotic resistance gene microarray is custom-designed (Roche NimbleGen), based on a single chip containing 3 internal replicated probe sets of 12 probes per resistance gene, covering the whole 315K 12-plex platform spots.
Project description:Morphine causes microbial dysbiosis. In this study we focused on restoration of native microbiota in morphine treated mice and looked at the extent of restoration and immunological consequences of this restoration. Fecal transplant has been successfully used clinically, especially for treating C. difficile infection2528. With our expanding knowledge of the central role of microbiome in maintenance of host immune homeostasis17, fecal transplant is gaining importance as a therapy for indications resulting from microbial dysbiosis. There is a major difference between fecal transplant being used for the treatment of C. difficile infection and the conditions described in our studies. The former strategy is based on the argument that microbial dysbiosis caused by disproportionate overgrowth of a pathobiont can be out-competed by re-introducing the missing flora by way of a normal microbiome transplant. This strategy is independent of host factors and systemic effects on the microbial composition. Here, we show that microbial dysbiosis caused due to morphine can be reversed by transplantation of microbiota from the placebo-treated animals.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases encompass gastrointestinal illnesseses typified by chronic inflammation, loss of epithelial integrity and gastrointestinal microbiota dysbiosis. In an effort to counteract these characteristic perturbations, we used stem cells and/or a probiotic preparation in a murine model of Dextran Sodium Sulfate induced colitis to examine both their efficacy in ameliorating disease and impact on niche-specific microbial communities of the lower GI tract. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administering 3% DSS in drinking water for 10 days prior to administering one of three treatment plans: daily probiotic (VSL#3) supplementation for 3 days, a single tail vein injection of 1x106 murine mesenchymal stem cells, or both. Controls included DSS-untreated mice and DSS-treated mice that received no therapy. Ileal, cecal and colonic sections were collected for microbiota and histological analyses. Microbiota profiling revealed distinct bacterial community compositions in the ileum, cecum and colon of control untreated animals, all of which were predicted in silico to be enriched for a number of discrete KEGG pathways, indicating compositional and functional niche specificity in healthy animals. DSS- treatment perturbed community composition in all three niches with ileal communities exhibiting the greatest change relative to control animals. Stem cell, VSL#3 and the combination treated animals exhibited treatment-specific microbiota composition in the lower GI tract, though disease scores were only improved in VSL#3 treated animals. This VSL#3-associated shift in the ileal microbiota was characterized by significant Enterobacteriaceae enrichment compared to colitic animals (p<0.05), Mice (n=40) were randomly divided into five experimental groups, four of which received Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS; 3% solution in drinking water) for 10 days to induce colitis. Three of the DSS-treated groups received the following treatment modalities: VSL#3 (VSL#3, n=5), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, n=5), or VSL#3 + mesenchymal stem cells (DUAL, n=5). The fourth DSS-treated group received no intervention (DSS; n=10). The additional fifth group of animals received neither DSS nor any therapeutic intervention and acted as untreated controls (CNTL, n=15). Following colitis induction (Day 10), DSS administration was halted and mice in the VSL#3, MSC and DUAL groups received the following interventions respectively: daily oral supplementation with 5x106 CFUs per supplement of VSL#3 in 100ul PBS (VSL#3); a single tail vein injection of 1x106 murine mesenchymal stem cells in 100_l PBS on Day 10 (MSC) or a combination of both treatments To provide control data for comparison, CNTL mice (n=5 per time point) were euthanized and sampled on days 1, 10, and 14, while DSS mice (n=5 per time point) were euthanized on days 10 and 14. All MSC, VSL#3, and DUAL mice were euthanized on Day 14. Samples collected from each animal included terminal ileum (1cm proximal to the cecum), cecum (divided transversely and stored as two separate samples), and proximal colon. All samples were added to RNAlater, prior to storage at -80C for analysis. Additional colonic samples were obtained, proximal to the initial sample site for microbiome analyses, and were preserved in paraformaldehyde for histological analyses.
Project description:Objective Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Reliable diagnosis of these diseases requires a comprehensive examination of the patient, which include invasive endoscopy. This study assesses whether non-invasive LC-MS/MS based analysis of microbial and human proteins from feces may support the diagnosis of the diseases. Design In order to mimic a representative clinical background for this study, we investigated 17 healthy controls, 11 CD patients, 14 UC patients, also 13 Irritable Bowel Disease (IBS) patients, 8 Colon Adenoma (CA) patients, and 8 Gastric Carcinoma (GCA) patients. The proteins were extracted from the fecal samples with liquid phenol in a ball mill. Subsequently, the proteins were digested tryptically to peptides and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to an Orbitrap MS/MS. For protein identification and interpretation of taxonomic and functional results, the MetaProteomeAnalyzer software and the UniProtKB/SwissProt database and several metagenomes from human fecal samples were used. Results Cluster analysis and ANOSIM show a separation of healthy controls from patients with CD and UC as well as from patients with GCA. Among others, UC and CD correlated with an increase of neutrophil extracellular traps and immunoglobulins G (IgG) as well as a decrease of IgA. A specific marker metaprotein for CD was an increase of the human enzyme sucrose-isomaltase. IBS and CA patient’s fecal metaproteome showed only minor alterations. Conclusion Metaproteome analysis distinguished between patients with UC, CD and healthy controls and is therefore useful as a non-invasive tool for routine diagnostics in hospitals.
Project description:We found that mainstream cigarette smoking (4 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks using Kentucky Research Cigarettes 3R4F) resulted in >20% decrease in the percentage of normal Paneth cell population in Atg16l1 T300A mice but showed minimal effect in wildtype littermate control mice, indicating that Atg16l1 T300A polymorphism confers sensitivity to cigarette smoking-induced Paneth cell damage. We performed cohousing experiments to test if Paneth cell phenotype is horizontally transmissible as is microbiota. Atg16l1 T300A and littermate controls that were exposed to cigarette smoking were used as microbiota donors, and these donor mice were exposed to smoking for 2 weeks prior to cohousing. Separate groups of Atg16l1 T300A and littermate controls that were not exposed to cigarette smoking were used as microbiota recipients. The microbiota recipients were co-housed with microbiota donors of the same genotype for 4 weeks, during this period the donors continued to be exposed to cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was performed using smoking chamber with the dosage and schedule as described above. At the end of the experiment, the fecal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing.
Project description:We found that mainstream cigarette smoking (4 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks using Kentucky Research Cigarettes 3R4F) resulted in >20% decrease in the percentage of normal Paneth cell population in Atg16l1 T300A mice but showed minimal effect in wildtype littermate control mice, indicating that Atg16l1 T300A polymorphism confers sensitivity to cigarette smoking-induced Paneth cell damage. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing to identify potential microbiota changes associated with Paneth cell defect in Atg16l1 T300A mice exposed to cigarette smoking. Female mice were used at 4-5 weeks of age. Cigarette smoking was performed using smoking chamber with the dosage and schedule as described above. The fecal samples from the mice were collected for 16S rRNA sequencing analysis after completing 6 weeks of smoking.
Project description:The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that replenishing the microbiota with a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) can rescue a host from an advanced stage of sepsis. We developed a clinically-relevant mouse model of lethal polymicrobial gut-derived sepsis in mice using a 4-member pathogen community (Candida albicans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Enterococcus faecalis) isolated from a critically ill patient. In order to mimic pre-operative surgical patient condition mice were exposed to food restriction and antibiotics. Approximately 18 hours prior to surgery food was removed from the cages and the mice were allowed only tap water. Each mouse received an intramuscular Cefoxitin injection 30 minutes prior to the incision at a concentration of 25 mg/kg into the left thigh. Mice were then subjected to a midline laparotomy, 30% hepatectomy of the left lateral lobe of the liver and a direct cecal inoculation of 200 µL of the four pathogen community. On postoperative day one, the mice were administered rectal enema. Mice were given either 1 ml of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) or an autoclaved control (AC). This was again repeated on postoperative day two. Mice were then followed for mortality. Chow was restored to the cages on postoperative day two, approximately 45 hours after the operation. The injection of fecal microbiota transplant by enema significantly protected mice survival, reversed the composition of gut microflora and down-regulated the host inflammatory response. The cecum, left lobe of the liver, and spleen were isolated from mice for microarray processing with three or more replicates for six expermental conditions: non-treated control, SAHC POD1, SAHC.AC POD2, SAHC.FMT POD2, SAHC.AC POD7, SAHC.FMT POD7
Project description:Gut bacterial β-glucuronidases (GUS) promote the toxic side effects of therapeutics by reactivating drugs from their inactive glucuronide conjugates. It is increasingly clear that the interindividual variability of bacterial GUS-producing species in the gut microbiota contributes to differential drug responses. Indeed, the anticancer drug irinotecan exhibits variable clinical toxicity outcomes that have been linked to interindividual differences in the composition of the gut microbiota. However, identification of the specific GUS enzymes responsible for drug metabolism in the context of the complexity of the human fecal microbiota has not been achieved. Here we pinpoint the specific bacterial GUS enzymes that reactivate SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, from complex human fecal microbiota samples with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify and quantify gut bacterial GUS enzymes from human feces with ABPP-enabled proteomics and then integrate this information with ex vivo kinetics to reveal the specific GUS enzymes responsible for the reactivation of SN-38. The same ABPP approach also reveals the molecular basis for differential gut bacterial GUS inhibition between human fecal samples. Taken together, this work provides an unprecedented pipeline to identify the specific bacterial GUS enzymes responsible for drug-induced GI toxicity from the complexity of human feces, which may serve as highly precise biomarkers of clinical outcomes for irinotecan and other therapeutics.
Project description:Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the gut-brain axis, characterized by altered gut function and frequent psychiatric co-morbidity. Although altered intestinal microbiome profiles have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role of the microbiota, we colonized germ-free mice with fecal microbiota from healthy controls or IBS patients with accompanying anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior. Mouse microbiota profiles clustered according to their human donors. Despite having taxonomically similar composition as controls, mice with IBS microbiota had distinct serum metabolomic profiles related to neuro- and immunomodulation. Mice with IBS, but not control microbiota, exhibited faster gastrointestinal transit, intestinal barrier dysfunction, innate immune activation and anxiety-like behavior. These results support the notion that the microbiota contributes to both intestinal and behavioral manifestations of IBS and rationalize the use of microbiota-directed therapies in ameliorating IBS. Overall design: We extracted total RNA of colonic tissues extracted from germ-free NIH swiss mice (10-12 weeks) colonized with healthy human gut microbiota (10 mice per fecal sample, 5 fecal samples, total=50 mice), and mice colonized with human microbiota of IBS patients (10 mice per sample, 6 fecal samples, total =60 mice). We then pooled together all the RNA samples of all the mice colonized with the same microbiota, to form a representative sample for the colonization with that specific human fecal sample. We finally ran 11 samples in total through the NanoString nCounter® Gene Expression CodeSet for mouse inflammation genes.
Project description:Background and aims. The etiopathology of inflammatory bowel diseases is still poorly understood. To date, only few little data are available on the microbiota composition in ulcerative colitis (UC), representing a major subform of inflammatory bowel diseases. Currently, one of the main challenges is to unravel the interactions between genetics and environmental factors in the onset or during the progression and maintenance of the disease. The aim of the present study was to analyse twin pairs discordant for UC for both gut microbiota dysbiosis and host expression profiles at a mucosal level and to get insight into the functional genomic crosstalk between microbiota and mucosal epithelium in vivo. Methods. Biopsies were sampled from the sigmoid colon of both healthy and diseased siblings from UC discordant twin pairs but also from healthy twins. Microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rDNA libraries while mRNA expression profiles were analysed from the same volunteers using Affymetrix microarrays. Results. UC patients showed a dysbiotic microbiota with lower diversity and more species belonging to Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla. On the contrary, their healthy siblings’ microbiota contained more bacteria from the Lachnospiracea and Ruminococcaceae family than did healthy individuals . Sixty-three host transcripts significantly correlated with bacterial genera in healthy individuals whereas only 43 and 32 correlated with bacteria in healthy and UC siblings from discordant pairs, respectively. Several transcripts related to oxidative and immune responses were differentially expressed between unaffected and UC siblings. Conclusion. A loss of crosstalk between gut microbiota and host was highlighted in UC patients. This defect was also striking in healthy siblings from discordant pairs, as was the lower biodiversity within the microbiota. Our results suggest disease-relevant interactions between host transcriptome and microbiota. Moreover, unusual aerobic bacteria were noticed in UC mucosal microbiota, whereas healthy siblings from discordant pairs had higher percentages of potentially beneficialusual commensal bacterial species. Paired samples (twins) were analyzed to obtain data independent of genetic variation