A genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of radiation-responsive genes in the radiation-resistant fungus, C. neoformans
ABSTRACT: The basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus has been known as radiation resistant fungi and is found in highly radioactive environments such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. Although Cryptococcus exhibits greater resistant for gamma radiation than the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the resistant mechanism of gamma radiation remains elusive. To elucidate a unique regulatory system for radiation-resistance in C. neoformans, we performed genome-wide comparative analysis through DNA microarray analysis using C. neoformans WT strain (serotype A, H99 strain) responding gamma radiation. Based on the transcriptome analysis, genes involved in DNA damage repair systems (RAD51, RDH54, and RAD54) were significantly increased in response to gamma radiation. Actually, rad54∆ and rdh54∆ mutants exhibited sensitivity against both gamma radiation and DNA damage inducers. Furthermore, genes regarding to molecular chaperone and ubiquitination systems were strongly induced. In contrast, expression levels of genes related to protein synthesis, fatty acids/sterols synthesis, and other cellular molecules. Especially, ergosterol homeostasis is required for gamma radiation resistance. Furthermore, radiation-induced genes such as RIG4, RIG5, and RIG6 in C. neoformans play critical roles in gamma radiation resistance. Taken together, the transcriptome analysis contributes to understanding unique molecular mechanism of radiation-resistant fungus C. neoformans. To elucidate transcriptome change during recovery process post irrdiation, samples were taken at three time interval (30 min, 60 min, and 120 min). The three independent DNA microarry with three independent biological replicates were analyzed to obtain high reliability.
Project description:Metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum strains were constructed for the enhanced production of L-arginine, and their gene expression profiles were investigated Gene expression profiles of two C. glutamicum strains AR2 and AR6 were examined for the 3043 genes twice.
Project description:RGS protein encoding genes gprK and rgsC deletion mutant microarray To identify the function of RGSs of A. fumigatus Biological replicates: WT vs. three deletion mutants, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC17978 cells comparing treated ethanol cells with oleanolic acid treated. Based on the gene expression, we performed experiments to confirm the therapeutic effect and mechanism of OA in A. baumannii. We performed a transcriptome anaylsis of 2 samples that are OA and ethanol treatment, respectively.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Corynebacterium glutamicum cells comparing wild-type cells with cg0196 deletion mutant cells by site-specific gene deletion using the non-replicable integration vector. cg0196 is gene conding transcriptional regulator related carbon metabolism. Two-condition experiment, Wild vs. Δcg0196 cells. Independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
Project description:The cAMP-pathway plays a central role in regulation of growth, differentiation, and virulence of human pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans. Three major upstream signaling regulators of the adenylyl cyclase (Cac1), Ras, Aca1 (Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1) and G-alpha subunit protein (Gpa1), have been identified to control the cAMP-pathway in C. neoformans, but their functional relationship remains elusive. Here we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis with C. neoformans ras1, gpa1, cac1, aca1, and pka1 pka2 mutants by DNA microarray. The aca1, gpa1, cac1, and pka1 pka2 mutants displayed similar transcriptome patterns to each other whereas the ras1 mutant exhibited distinctive transcriptome patterns compared to WT and the cAMP mutants. Interestingly, a number of environmental stress response genes are differentially modulated in the ras1 and cAMP mutants. In fact, the Ras1-signaling pathway was found to be involved in osmotic and genotoxic stress response, and maintenance of cell wall integrity via the Cdc24-dependent signaling pathway. Through this microarray analysis, we have identified a number of cAMP-dependent genes, including GRE2, HSP12, ENA1, TCO2, PKP2, CAT1, in C. neoformans. Notably, a majority of ergosterol biosynthesis genes were found to be upregulated in the cAMP mutants. Interestingly, the gpa1, cac1, and pka1 mutants, but not the aca1 and pka2 mutants were hypersensitive to amphotericin B, but resistant to fluconazole. In conclusion, we demonstrated in this study that the Ras1- and cAMP-signaling pathways are involved in stress response and sterol biosynthesis of C. neoformans. There are more than 95% of genome homology between JEC21 and H99. Therefore 100 slides of JEC21 (cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype D) 70-mer oligo are used in this analysis, 3 biological replicate experiments are performed, total RNAs are extracted with 6 strains from H99 (H99 Wild type strain (Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A), ras1Δ, aca1Δ, gpa1Δ, cac1Δ, pka1Δpka2Δ), We use the mixed all of total RNAs from this experiment as a control RNA. We use Cy5 as Sample dye and Cy3 as a control dye. several sample are dye swaped.
Project description:A 13-(4-isopropylbenzyl)berberine derivative (named KR-72) was synthesized and examined for antifungal activities against various human pathogenic fungi. The synthesized compound exhibited remarkably enhanced antifungal activity than berberine and berberrubine. Regardless of the potent antifungal activity of KR-72, its mode of action and the physiological impacts of the drug on fungal metabolism remain elusive. In this study, we performed the DNA microarray-based transcriptome analysis to identify KR-72 responsive genes and employed reverse genetics approaches to characterize their functions in Cryptococcus neoformans, which causes fatal meningoencephalitis in humans. First, KR-72 treatment altered in remodeling of transcriptome profiles in C. neoformans. Genes involved in translation and transcription were mostly upregulated, while those involved in cytoskeleton, intracellular trafficking, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and energy production were downregulated. Supporting this, KR-72 has a strong synergistic effect with a calcineurin inhibitor FK506, while it has an antagonistic effect with polyene drug. Finally, KR-72 treatment promoted expression of ECM16, NOP14, HSP10, and MGE1, which we proved to be essential for the growth of C. neoformans. Among them, KR-72 mediated induction of MGE1 also appeared to hamper the viability of C. neoformans, potentially through impaired cell cycle or DNA repair system. This study will proposed mode of action for KR-72. The six slides of Cryptococcus_neoformans 3X20K are used in this analysis, 3 biological replicate experiments are performed, total RNAs are extracted under 2 conditions (with or without treatment of KR-72 with H99 (H99 Wild type strain (Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A). We use the KR-72 non-treated RNAs from this experiment as a control RNA. We use Cy5 as Sample dye and Cy3 as a control dye.
Project description:miRNAs are not well known their expression and function in tooth development. To identify the miRNAs expression during tooth development, tooth germs were dissected from the initiation bud, cap and bell stages. miRNA-chip expression analysis was performed with RNAs of the molar tooth germs from embryos of pregnant mice at emrbryonic day 11, 12, 14, and 16, using Agilent's miRNA microarray.
Project description:Otitis media, pneumonia, sinusitis and as well as severe diseases such as meningitis and bacteraemia are related to biofilm-like diseases, in which Streptococcus pneumoniae demonstrated differential and tissue specific gene expressions. In this study, we reported the differential gene expression profile of early in vitro biofilm and planktonic cell in c-DNA microarray analysis. The microarray analysis was performed on total RNA extracted from biofilms grown in 24-well microtiter plate and mid-log grown planktonic cells. To validate the results of microarray, real-time RT-PCR was performed on 13 differentially expressed genes and one constitutively expressed gene from six different functional groups. cDNA-microarray analyses indicated 89 genes that were significantly differentially expressed in biofilm and planktonic cells. Among total differentially expressed gene, almost 50% were hypothetical genes. Of the 46 protein coding genes, 34 showed up-regulation and 16 showed down-regulation in biofilm. The functional annotation showed that many functional categories were differentially regulated in biofilm and planktonic cells, such as genes involve in purine, pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism, RNA/DNA metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, translation, transporter protein, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, isoprenoid biosynthesis, transcription regulator and cellular process. Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 strain used in this is an unencapsulated and avirulent strain derived from encapsulated serotype 2 pathogenic strain D39. In vitro biofilm formation was carried out in 24-well, flat-bottom, polystyrene microtiter plate (BD falcon, MD, USA) in static model. S. pneumoniae grown up to mid-logarithmic phase in TSB medium was diluted 1:100 with fresh sterile TSB medium supplied with 1% glucose, inoculated 1.5 mL in 24-well microtiter plate and, incubated for 15 hours at 37°C in 5% CO2. After incubation medium was discarded, and the plates were gently washed three times with 1.5 mL sterile, cold phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Adherent cell were scraped and immediately processed for RNA extraction. For planktonic cells RNA extraction, five ml of mid-logarithmic phase cell suspension was pelleted by centrifugation and wash three times with sterile PBS and immediately processed for RNA extraction. All experiments were performed in triplicate (3 independent biological replicates)
Project description:We aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in Y79 cells, which are from a representative retinoblastoma cell line. We prepared 3 independent sets of cell lysates of Y79 cells in normal culture conditions. Total RNA was prepared from each set of cell lysates using Trizol reagent.
Project description:WD40 motif-containing Msi1-like (MSIL) proteins play pleiotropic cellular functions as a negative regulator of the Ras/cAMP-pathways and a component of chromatin assembly factor-I (CAF-I), and yet have not been studied in fungal pathogens. Here we identified and characterized an MSIL protein, Msl1, in Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in humans. Notably, Msl1 was not a functional ortholog for the yeast Msi1 but played pleiotropic roles in C. neoformans in both cAMP-dependent and -independent manners but mainly Ras-independently. Msl1 negatively controlled antioxidant melanin production and sexual differentiation, which can be repressed by inhibiting the cAMP-signaling pathways. In contrast, Msl1 controlled thermotolerance, diverse stress responses, and antifungal drugs resistance in Ras/cAMP-independent manners. Cac2, which is the second CAF-I component, appeared to play both redundant and distinct function with Msl1. Msl1 is required for full virulence of C. neoformans. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis identified a group of Msl1-regulated genes or -interacting proteins, respectively, which mostly include stress-related genes, including HSP12, HSP78, SSA1, SSA4, and STM1. Furthermore, we identified the third putative component of CAF-1, Rlf2, in C. neoformans. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pleiotropic roles of Msl1 in human fungal pathogen C. neoformans, providing a novel antifungal therapeutic target. There is more than 95% genome homology between JEC21 and H99. Therefore, 6 slides of JEC21 (Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype D) 70-mer oligos are used in this analysis. Total RNAs are extracted from 2 strains from H99 (H99 wild-type strain (Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A), msl1Δ). 3 biological replicate experiments are performed for each strain. We use the mix of all total RNAs from this experiment as the control RNA. We use Cy3 as the test sample dye and Cy5 as the control dye.