Project description:Chronic early life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming, we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on adults. In adulthood, the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. 30 samples total were analyzed. 9 caudal fins samples (0, 2 and 4dpa), 3 blood samples and 3 muscle samples from adults exposed to DMSO control as embryos. 9 caudal fins samples (0, 2 and 4dpa), 3 blood samples and 3 muscle samples from adults exposed to cortisol (1 micromolar) as embryos.
Project description:Chronic early life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with 1 micromolar cortisol and examined the effects on larvae. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and up-regulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. 6 samples total were analyzed. 3 DMSO controls, and 3 cortisol treated (1 micromolar).
Project description:The present work was designed to assess the effects of high plasma cortisol levels induced by slow-release cortisol implants in the mRNA transcription of the GR in the different organs of the Sparus aurata, including liver. For that purpose fish were intraperitoneally injected with the implants containing two different concentrations of cortisol (50 or 200 µg/g body weight) and blood and organs were sampled after 7 and 14 days of implantation. Only fish with 200 µg/g implants exhibited a significant rise in the plasma cortisol. For microarray analysis we used livers of gilthead sea bream (N=36 fish). Fish were injected with 200 µg/g body weight of cortisol and sampled after 7 and 14 days (n=6 for each condition). RNA samples were grouped into pools of 2 animals for each time point. The analysis were carried out considering the transcripts differentially expressed in the group of fish implanted during 7 days with cortisol comparing to control group. Additionally, the transcripts differentially expressed at day 14 were compared with day 7.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of log and stationary phases of S. Typhimurium, comparing untreated controls with cortisol-treated samples. Each array used labelled cDNA against a common genomic DNA reference. Triplicate arrays were carried out for each of the 4 conditions: untreated log phase, untreated stationary phase, cortisol treated log phase and cortisol treated stationary phase.
Project description:We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol result in fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies in which we extended the duration of cortisol infusion (1mg/kg/d) to term, we found a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol and associated maternal hyperglycemia. To investigate the effects on the heart, transcriptomic analyses were performed on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the effects of 10 days of maternal cortisol infusion (130d-cortisol vs 130d control), ~25 days (term at ~140d-cortisol vs 140d control), normal maturation (140d-control vs 130d control) were performed. In all analyses gene ontology (GO) terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly over-represented. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly over-represented, consistent with our previous findings. We found significantly differentially regulated genes in the term fetuses (ie after ~25 days of cortisol) in pathways consistent with altered metabolism in the heart, particularly in mitochondria, associated with responses to hypoxia and to nutrient. Analysis of mitochondrial number by quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a significant decrease. These pathways were different from those modeled following the normal increase in cortisol in late gestation which contributes to normal maturation of the heart, and thus may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, Cushing’s disease and chronic stress. 2 cohorts of singleton sheep fetuses at 129-131d gestation or 139-144d gestation (approximately term) were used. The first cohort received maternal cortisol infusion of 1mg/kg/day or vehicle for 10 days until approximately day 130 of gestation (n=6/group), the second cohort received the same dose of cortisol for approximately 25 days until near term (n=7, cortisol; n=7ewes, n=8 fetuses due to one set of twins, control)
Project description:S. Typhimurium 112910a parental strain and an isogenic ΔscsA strain were grown to stationary phase in SPI2 inducing minimal medium (MM5.8 - Erikkson et al., 2006 Inf & Imm., 74:1243) with or without supplementation with 1µM cortisol 4 samples (stat phase wt, stat phase wt + 1µM cortisol, stat phase ΔscsA, stat phase ΔscsA + 1µM cortisol) and 3 biological replicates for each sample.
Project description:The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Atlantic salmon post smolts were exposed to stress hormone cortisol, lice and their combination. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment in salmon skin were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and liceBoth treatments equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9oC.
Project description:BAF57, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex conglomerate,modulates androgen receptor activity to promote prostate cancer. However the molecular consequences of tumor associated BAF57 elevation have remianed undefined in advanced disease such as castration resistant prostate cancer and/or metastasis Global gene expression analyses were performed in models mimicking tumor-associated BAF57 expression. These analyses demonstrated that BAF57 deregulation circumvented androgen mediated signaling and elicited upregulation of α2 integrin and other migration and metastasis related gene signatures. LNCaP cells were transfected to overexpress BAF57 and validated for BAF57 transcript induction. Appropriate vector control transfected cells were also used. Vector and BAF57 transfected samples were treated with 0.1% vehicle with a 1nM DHT vector control. Gene expression analyses were performed on biological duplicates.
Project description:To investigate miRNAs that implicate the process of adipogenesis by interacting with canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, we constructed two cell models at first, and then investigated the expression profile of microRNAs by using Microarray. Based on the data of high throughput microarray, we identified 18 miRNAs which might promote adipogenesis by repressing WNT signaling, including mir-210, mir-148a, mir-194, mir-322 etc. On the other hand, we also identified 29 miRNAs which might repress adipogenesis by activation of WNT signaling, including mir-344, mir-27, and mir-181. The target genes involved in WNT signaling pathway of these identified miRNAs were also predicted through online tools. Two cell models of 3T3-L1, i.e. activation and suppression of WNT signaling including four samples, i.e. preadipocytes, mature adipocytes (MDI induction), Lithium treated preadipocytes, MDI induction of Lithium treated preadipocytes. Each sample was replicated in triplicate.