Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse liver
ABSTRACT: To determine whether differences between background strains or housing conditions altered the hepatic methylome, We report the generation and analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles at nucleotide resolution in mouse liver from two male mice on a mixed background (mixed-1, mixed-2) and two males on a pure Black-6 (B6-1, B62) background. Using Enhanced high-throughput Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (ERRBS), we enriched CpG islands in mouse liver, and covered a representative sampling of conserved non-coding elements, transposons and other genomic features, for mouse liver. We found that the total CpG methylation of each methylome was strikingly similar among the 4 mouse liver samples from two different genetic backgrounds. Analysis of all CpG sites with at least 10x coverage showed a bimodal distribution of methylation, with all samples having 25% of hypermethylated CpG sites and 60% as hypomethylated CpG sites. Given the high percent of genome coverage and robust depth at single nucleotide level, these datasets provide a resource for investigation into changes in DNA methylation patterns in liver disease, tumorigenesis and regeneration. Ehanced reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (MspI 70~320bp size fraction) of liver tissue
Project description:DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene regulation and cellular specification without altering DNA sequences. The wide application of reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and whole genome bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) opens the door to study DNA methylation at single CpG site resolution. One challenging question is how best to test for significant methylation differences between groups of biological samples in order to minimize false positive findings. Current methods to analyze genome-wide bisulfite sequencing data use a smoothing approach or a simple statistical test based on the binomial distribution. Comparative DNA methylation profiling in AML blasts and normal CD34(+) control cells
Project description:Here we used Illumina NGS for high-throughput profiling of the DNA methylome in two human colon cancer derived cell lines, two human normal bone marrow CD34+ controls and in five human Acutre Myeloid Leukeima patient samples. These data can be used to determine the CpG cytosine methylation pattern at base pair resolution in each sample and to determine differentially methylated cytosines and regions between samples Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) and Extended Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (ERRBS) on genomic DNA. We used colon cancer cell lines (two) to establish reproducbility and range of assay sensitivity. We used Acute Myeloid Leukemia patient samples and CD34+ bone marrow cells as controls to determine the methylome pattern in the patient samples
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) are characterized by mutations in epigenetic modifiers and aberrant DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DMTis) are used to treat these disorders, but response is highly variable with few means to predict which patients will benefit. To develop a molecular means of predicting response at diagnosis, we examined baseline differences in mutations, DNA methylation, and gene expression in 40 CMML patients responsive and resistant to decitabine (DAC). While somatic mutations did not differentiate responders and non-responders, we were able to identify for the first time 158 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at baseline between responders and non-responders using next-generation sequencing. These DMRs were primarily localized to non-promoter regions and overlapped with distal regulatory enhancers. Using the methylation profiles, we developed an epigenetic classifier that accurately predicted DAC response at the time of diagnosis. We also found 53 differentially expressed genes between responders and non-responders. Genes up-regulated in responders were enriched in the cell cycle, potentially contributing to effective DAC incorporation. Two chemokines overexpressed in non-responders -- CXCL4 and CXCL7 -- were able to block the effect of DAC on normal CD34+ and primary CMML cells in vitro, suggesting their up-regulation contributes to primary DAC resistance. DNA methylation profiling in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNC) from 39 CMML patients (19 decitabine responders vs. 20 non-responders).
Project description:DNA methylation is a key epigenetic regulator of mammalian embryogenesis and somatic cell differentiation. Using high-resolution genome-scale maps of methylation patterns, we show that the formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system, proceeds with progressive DNA demethylation, which coincides with an upregulation of critical genes of the myelination process. More importantly, we found that, in addition to expression of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, the levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal biological methyl donor, could also play a critical role in regulating DNA methylation during myelination and in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. In summary, this study provides compelling evidence that SAMe levels need to be tightly controlled to prevent aberrant DNA methylation patterns, and together with recently published studies on the influence of SAMe on histone methylation in cancer and embryonic stem cell differentiation show that in diverse biological processes, the methylome, and consequently gene expression patterns, are critically dependent on levels of SAMe. DNA methylome maps of developmental Schwann cell myelination, GNMT-KO and diabetic mice were generated by Reduced-Representation Bisulfite Sequencing, with 2-3 replicates per sample group.
Project description:We used deep sequencinge technology to profile the transcriptome, gene copy number, and CpG island methylation status simultaneously in eight commonly used breast cell lines to develop a model for how these genomic features are integrated in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and negative breast cancer. Total mRNA sequence, gene copy number, and genomic CpG island methylation were carried out using the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Sequences were mapped to the human genome to obtain digitized gene expression data, DNA copy number in reference to the non-tumor cell line (MCF10A), and methylation status of 21,570 CpG islands to identify differentially expressed genes that were correlated with methylation or copy number changes. These were evaluated in a dataset from 129 primary breast tumors. Gene expression in cell lines was dominated by ER-associated genes. ER+ and ER- cell lines formed two distinct, stable clusters, and 1,873 genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Part of chromosome 8 was deleted in all ER- cells and part of chromosome 17 amplified in all ER+ cells. These loci encoded 30 genes that were overexpressed in ER+ cells; 9 of these genes were overexpressed in ER+ tumors. We identified 149 differentially expressed genes that exhibited differential methylation of one or more CpG islands within 5kb of the 5' end of the gene and for which mRNA abundance was inversely correlated with CpG island methylation status. In primary tumors we identified 84 genes that appear to be robust components of the methylation signature that we identified in ER+ cell lines. Our analyses reveal a global pattern of differential CpG island methylation that contributes to the transcriptome landscape of ER+ and ER- breast cancer cells and tumors. The role of gene amplification/deletion appears to more modest, although several potentially significant genes appear to be regulated by copy number aberrations. 8 commonly used breast cancer cell lines were sequenced for mRNA expression, CpG methylation and DNA copy number
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus causing hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The methylation status of the HBV DNA in its different forms can potentially provide insight into the pathogenesis of HBV-related liver diseases, including HCC, however this is unclear. The goal of this study is to obtain comprehensive DNA methylation profiles of the three putative CpG islands in the HBV DNA in infected livers, with respect to liver disease progression. The extent of methylation in these CpG islands was first assessed using bisulfite PCR sequencing with a small set of tissue samples, followed by analysis using both quantitative bisulfite-specific PCR and quantitative methylation-specific PCR assays in a larger sample size (n = 116). The level of HBV CpG island 3 methylation significantly correlated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We also obtained, for the first time, evidence of rare, non-CpG methylation in CpG island 2 of the HBV genome in infected liver. Comparing methylation of the HBV genome to three known HCC-associated host genes, APC, GSTP1, and RASSF1A, we did not identify a significant correlation between these two groups.
Project description:Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenases are frequent in human glioblastomas1 and cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemias (AML)2. These alterations are gain-of-function mutations in that they drive the synthesis of the “oncometabolite” R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG)3. It remains unclear how IDH1 and IDH2 mutations modify myeloid cell development and promote leukemogenesis. Here we report the characterization of conditional knock-in mice in which the most common IDH1 mutation, Idh1-R132H, is inserted into the endogenous murine Idh1 locus and is expressed in cells of the hematopoietic (Vav-KI) or more specifically in cells of the myeloid (LysM-KI) lineage. These mutants show increased numbers of early hematopoietic progenitors and develop splenomegaly and anemia with extramedullary hematopoiesis, suggesting a dysfunctional bone marrow niche. Furthermore, LysM-KI cells exhibit both hypermethylated histones and changes to DNA methylation similar to those observed in human IDH1/2-mutant AML. Thus, our study is the first to describe the generation of conditional Idh1-R132H-KI mice. Furthermore, our study is also the first report showing the induction of a leukemic DNA methylation signature in a modeled system and sheds light on the mechanistic links between IDH1 mutation and human AML. DNA methylation profiling in LSK cells from IDH1-R132H knock-in mice vs. control mice
Project description:DNA methylation is a key epigenetic regulator of mammalian embryogenesis and somatic cell differentiation. Using high-resolution genome-scale maps of methylation patterns, we show that the formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system, proceeds with progressive DNA demethylation, which coincides with an upregulation of critical genes of the myelination process. More importantly, we found that, in addition to expression of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, the levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal biological methyl donor, could also play a critical role in regulating DNA methylation during myelination and in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. In summary, this study provides compelling evidence that SAMe levels need to be tightly controlled to prevent aberrant DNA methylation patterns, and together with recently published studies on the influence of SAMe on histone methylation in cancer and embryonic stem cell differentiation show that in diverse biological processes, the methylome, and consequently gene expression patterns, are critically dependent on levels of SAMe. DNA methylome maps of mouse Schwann cells in which GNMT was silenced by lentiviral vectors, cultured in normal medium or low methionine medium.
Project description:DNA methylation in transcriptional regulatory regions is crucial for gene expression. The DNA methylation status of the edges of CpG islands, called CpG island shore, is involved in tissue/cell-type-specific gene expression. Haploinsufficiency diseases are caused by inheritance of one mutated null allele and are classified as autosomal dominant. However, in the same pedigree, phenotypic variances are observed despite the inheritance of the identical mutated null allele, including Fibrillin1 (FBN1), which is responsible for development of the haploinsufficient Marfan disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation patterns of the FBN1 CpG island shore focusing on transcriptionally active hypomethylated alleles (Hypo-alleles). No difference in the DNA methylation level of FBN1 CpG island shore was observed in porcine fetal fibroblast (PFF) and the liver, whereas FBN1 expression was higher in PFF than in the liver. However, Hypo-allele ratio of the FBN1 CpG island shore in PFF was higher than that in the liver, indicating that Hypo-allele ratio of the FBN1 CpG island shore likely correlated with FBN1 expression level. In addition, oocyte-derived DNA hypermethylation in preimplantation embryos was erased until the blastocyst stage, and re-methylation of the FBN1 CpG island shore was observed with prolonged in vitro culture of blastocysts. These results suggest that the establishment of the DNA methylation pattern within the FBN1 CpG island shore occurs after the blastocyst stage, likely during organogenesis. In conclusion, Hypo-allele ratios of the FBN1 CpG island shore correlated with FBN1 expression levels in porcine tissues.
Project description:The fibrinogen genes FGA, FGB and FGG show coordinated expression in hepatocytes. Understanding the underlying transcriptional regulation may elucidate how their tissue-specific expression is maintained and explain the high variability in fibrinogen blood levels. DNA methylation of CpG-poor gene promoters is dynamic with low methylation correlating with tissue-specific gene expression but its direct effect on gene regulation as well as implications of non-promoter CpG methylation are not clear. Here we compared methylation of CpG sites throughout the fibrinogen gene cluster in human cells and mouse and zebrafish tissues. We observed low DNA methylation of the CpG-poor fibrinogen promoters and of additional regulatory elements (the liver enhancers CNC12 and PFE2) in fibrinogen-expressing samples. In a gene reporter assay, CpG-methylation in the FGA promoter reduced promoter activity, suggesting a repressive function for DNA methylation in the fibrinogen locus. In mouse and zebrafish livers we measured reductions in DNA methylation around fibrinogen genes during development that were preceded by increased fibrinogen expression and tri-methylation of Histone3 lysine4 (H3K4me3) in fibrinogen promoters. Our data support a model where changes in hepatic transcription factor expression and histone modification provide the switch for increased fibrinogen gene expression in the developing liver which is followed by reduction of CpG methylation.