A Pro-Asthmatic IL-4 Receptor Allele Promotes Airway Inflammation by Programming TH17 Cell-Like Regulatory T cells
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms by which regulatory T (Treg) cells fail to control inflammation in asthma remain poorly understood. We show that a severe asthma-associated polymorphism in the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα-R576) biases induced Treg (iTreg) cells towards a T helper 17 (TH17) cell fate. This skewing reflects the recruitment by IL-4Rα-R576 of the adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), which drives IL-17 expression by an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-, IL-6- and STAT3-dependent mechanism. We showed that the IL-4Rα-R576 mutation elicits TH17 airway responses in vivo, in a house dust mite (HDM)- or ovalbumin (OVA)-driven model of airway inflammation in the mice carry the IL-4Rα-R576 mutation (Il4raR576 mice). Treg cell-specific deletion of genes encoding IL-6Rα or the master TH17 cell regulator Retinoid-related Orphan Receptor γt (RORγt), but not IL-4 and IL-13, protected mice against exacerbated airway inflammation induced by IL-4Rα--576. Analysis of lung tissue Treg cells revealed that the expression of IL-17 and the TH17 cell-associated chemokine receptor CCR6 was largely overlapping and highly enriched in Treg and conventional T (Tconv) cells of allergen-treated Il4raR576 mice. To further characterize the subset of IL-17 producing Foxp3+ Treg in the lung of OVA-treated mice we utilized CCR6 as a marker of Treg cells committed towards the TH17 cell lineage to examine their functional, epigenetic and transcriptional profiles. CCR6+Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells isolated from OVA-sensitized and challenged Il4raR576 mice, by FACS (Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting) exhibited decreased methylation of the Foxp3 CNS2 locus comparing to CCR6–Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells from same animals, indicative of decreased stability. They also exhibited profoundly decreased suppressive function as compared to CCR6– WT and CCR6– Il4raR576 counterparts. Transcriptional profiling of CCR6+Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells revealed increased relative expression in CCR6+ Il4raR576 Treg cells of genes associated with a TH17 cell signature, including Rorc, Ccr6, Il23r, Il17a, Il17f, Il1r1, Nr1d1, Cstl, and Ahr comparing to CCR6–Foxp3EGFP+ Treg cells from same animals. Three CCR6+Foxp3EGFP+ Il4raR576 replicates and four CCR6–Foxp3EGFP+ Il4raR576 Treg replicates (controls) were sampled
Project description:In this study, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in effector Th1, Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4- T cell subsets. We observed a marked enrichment for increased gene expression in effector CD4+ T cells compared to naive CD4+ among immune-mediated disease oci genes. Within effector T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. We used microarray to examine the gene expresssion profile and level of human naïve, Th1 and effector T cell subsets. Human PBMCs were isolated and sorted to naïve, CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells. Naïve T cells were differentiatied to Th1 cells, and CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells were in vitro expanded for Th17-negative and Th17-enriched effector T cells. The gene profile was compared among naive, Th1, Th17-negative, and Th17-enriched cell subsets.
Project description:Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) is widely used as an immunomodulatory therapy. We have recently demonstrated that IVIg protects against airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) and inflammation in mouse models of allergic airway disease (AAD), associated with induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). Using DEREG (DEpletion of REGulatory T cell) mice, in which endogenous Treg can be ablated with Diphtheria toxin (DTx) treatment, we demonstrate that IVIg generates a de novo population of induced Treg (iTreg) in the absence of endogenous Treg. IVIg-generated iTreg were sufficient for inhibition of ovalbumin-induced AHR in an antigen-driven murine model of AAD. In the absence of endogenous Treg, IVIg failed to confer protection against AHR and airway inflammation. Adoptive transfer of purified IVIg-generated iTreg prior to antigen challenge effectively prevented airway inflammation and AHR in an antigen-specific manner. The goal of this study was to characterize the gene expression profile of a pure population of IVIg-generated induced Treg (iTreg). Treg were isolated from mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Animals were treated with IVIg to generate iTreg with or without DTx endogenous Treg pre-depletion. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as a control protein treatment. RNA was isolated from 4 biological replicates for each condition. 12 samples in total were hybridized to Affymetrix gene expression microarrays. variable: treatment: OVA-HSA-OVA - DTx: BMR133, BMR134, BMR135, BMR136 variable: treatment: OVA-IVIg-OVA - DTx: BMR137, BMR138, BR139, BMR140 variable: treatment: OVA-IVIg-OVA + DTx: BMR141, BMR142, BMR143, BMR144 repeat: biological replicate: eTreg: BMR133, BMR134, BMR135, BMR136 repeat: biological replicate: e_iTreg: BMR137, BMR138, BR139, BMR140 repeat: biological replicate: IVIg-iTreg: BMR141, BMR142, BMR143, BMR144
Project description:Allergen exposure was thought to play a critical role in the etiology of AR. And allergen avoidance, the practice of avoiding exposure to allergens, has been generally advised as the management of AR. However, the effect is uncertain and the underlying mechanism is far from known. We used gene expression microarrays to identify genes differentially regulated by allergen avoidance in allergic rhinitis mouse model. Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST arrays were used to identify the expression profiling of nasal mucosa in three groups of mice: (1) mice sensitized and challenged with saline (control group); (2) mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) and sacrificed 2 hours after the last challenge (OVA group); (3) mice sensitized and challenged with OVA and sacrificed 4 weeks after the last challenge (4w-after group).
Project description:Samples in this study probe the gene expression kinetics in human CCR6+ Th17 memory T cells activated under Th17 condition. Human CCR6+ Th17 memory T cells were purified from PBMC and gene expression was studied over a time course of 3 days after activation under Th17 condition. RNA from these samples was also profiled using RNA-Seq to compare different transcriptome profiling technologies. PBMCs were purified from whole blood from a healthy donor. CD4+ cells were isolated by negative selection, followed by CCR6+ purification by positive selection. Two replicates of 6 time points were taken following stimulation in Th17 polarizing conditions. This submission represents microarray component of study.
Project description:Human IL-10– and IL-10+ TH17 clones maintained their pro- or anti-inflammatory characteristics after long-term culture. There were similarities between human IL-10– vs. IL-10+ TH17 clones and mouse pathogenic vs. non-pathogenic TH17 cells. Overall design: From healthy donors (n=5), CD4+ T cells clones were established from CCR6+CCR4+CXCR3– memory CD4+ T cells that were enriched for TH17 cells 14, 18 and screened for clones producing IL-17 with or without co-secretion of IL-10.
Project description:There remains a need for analysis of CD4 helper T cells differentiation in vivo. To this end ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 (OTII) T cells transferred into congenic mice were studied. Live attenuated OVA-expressing Salmonella (SalOVA) induce T-bet and IFN-g in OTII cells, while alum-precipitated OVA (alumOVA) induces GATA-3 and IL-4. Although 70% of alumOVA-responding OTII cells express GATA-3, only 7% produce IL-4. Thus Th2-polarization defined solely by IL-4 production does not recognize the diversity of GATA-3-expressing effectors. Low-density arrays were designed to assess the expression of 384 genes by real-time RT-PCR. Extensive early diversification occurred in both responses. SalOVA selectively induced many chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, while alumOVA induced few Th2-associated cytokines. Several cytokines and molecules associated with Th17 cells and follicular helper cells were also induced by both antigens. The transcription factor Helios was exclusively induced in alumOVA-responding OTII cells, and critically not in standard in vitro Th2-polarization systems. Early synchronous up-regulation of Helios and GATA-3 mRNA is paralleled at protein level with largely coincident localization in specific nuclear foci of OTII cells responding to alumOVA. This appears to be consistent with a key role for both transcription regulators in the direction of Th2 responses in vivo. Keywords: In vivo T cell polarization Ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 (OTII) T cells were transferred into C57BL/6 mice that were immunized either with live attenuated OVA-expressing Salmonella (Sal) or with alum-precipitated OVA (alum), or not (Naïve). Gene expression assay was performed on FACS sorted OTII cells (Naïve, Sal, Alum). OTII cells were purified from three independent groups of ten naïve, or SalOVA-immunized or alumOVA-immunized mice.
Project description:To detect the miRNA expression profile in CCR6+ regulatory T cells In this study, the total RNA was extracted from CCR6+ regulatory T cells and CCR6- regulatory T cells. Then, the expression profile of miRNA on these cells was detected by microarray.
Project description:TL1A contributes to the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including Inflammatory Bowel Diseases by enhancing TH1, TH17, and TH2 responses. TL1A mediates a strong co-stimulation of these TH subsets particularly of mucosal CCR9+ T cells. However, the signaling pathways that TL1A induces in different TH subsets are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the function of TL1A on human TH17 cells. TL1A together with TGF- IL-6, and IL-23 enhanced the secretion of IL-17 and IFN- from human CD4+ memory T cells. TL1A induced the expression of the transcription factors BATF and T-bet that correlated with the secretion of IL-17 and IFN-. In contrast, TL1A alone induced high levels of IL-22 in memory CD4+ T cells and committed TH17 cells. However, TL1A did not enhance expression of IL-17A in TH17 cells. Expression of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor that regulates expression of IL-22 was not affected by TL1A. We performed transcriptome analysis of TH17 cells to determine genes that are transcriptionally regulated by TL1A. transcriptome analysis revealed increased expression of IL-9 in response to TL1A. Overall design: Total RNA was obtained from human TH17 cells (sorted by flow cytometry for CD4+ CD45RO+ CCR6+) that were untreated (control) or treated with TL1A (TL1A) for 24, 48, or 72 h. Total RNA was extracted from 5 healthy donors (5 independent experiments).
Project description:Myelin-reactive T cells have been identified in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy subjects with comparable frequencies, but the contribution of these autoreactive T cells to disease pathology remains unknown. A total of 13,324 T cell libraries generated from blood of 23 patients and 22 healthy controls were interrogated for reactivity to myelin antigens. Libraries derived from CCR6+ myelin-reactive T cells from patients with MS exhibited significantly enhanced production of IFN-γ, IL-17, and GM-CSF compared to healthy controls. Single-cell clones isolated by MHC/peptide tetramers from CCR6+ T cell libraries also secreted more pro-inflammatory cytokines while clones isolated from controls secreted more IL-10. The transcriptomes of myelin-specific CCR6+ T cells from patients with MS were distinct from those derived from healthy controls, and of note, were enriched in Th17-induced experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) gene signatures and gene signatures derived from Th17 cells isolated other human autoimmune diseases. These data, although not casual, imply that functional differences between antigen specific T cells from MS and healthy controls is fundamental to disease development and support the notion that IL-10 production from myelin-reactive T cells may act to limit disease progression, or even pathogenesis. Overall design: Four conditions of purified T cells with between 3 and 5 replicates per condition
Project description:SHS exposure during pregnancy has adverse effects on offspring. We used microarrays to characterize the gene expression changes caused by in-utero SHS exposure and adult (19-23 weeks) OVA challenge in 23-week mouse lungs. Left lungs from Balb/c male and female mice were collected at 23 weeks of age for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 microarrays. Based on the gender differences and in-utero exposure status, there are 4 groups of mice, females and males, exposed in-utero to filtered-air or SHS. All were exposure to OVA (19-23 weeks). We extracted RNA from 4 animals from each group for microarray analysis (total N = 16 samples).