Post-transcriptional manipulation of TERC reverses molecular hallmarks of telomere disease
ABSTRACT: The telomerase RNA component (TERC) is a critical determinant of cellular self renewal. Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) is required for post-transcriptional maturation of TERC. PARN mutations lead to incomplete 3′ end processing and increased destruction of nascent TERC RNA transcripts, resulting in telomerase deficiency and telomere diseases. Here, we determined that overexpression of TERC increased telomere length in PARN-deficient cells and hypothesized that decreasing post-transcriptional 3′ oligo-adenylation of TERC would counteract the deleterious effects of PARN mutations. Inhibition of the noncanonical poly(A) polymerase PAP-associated domain–containing 5 (PAPD5) increased TERC levels in PARN-mutant patient cells. PAPD5 inhibition was also associated with increases in TERC stability, telomerase activity, and telomere elongation. Our results demonstrate that manipulating post-transcriptional regulatory pathways may be a potential strategy to reverse the molecular hallmarks of telomere disease. mRNA sequencing of induced pluripotent stem cells and 293 cell line.
Project description:Mutations in the poly(A) ribonuclease (PARN) gene cause telomere diseases including familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and dyskeratosis congenita (DC)1,2, but how PARN deficiency impacts telomere maintenance is unclear. Here, using somatic cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from DC patients with PARN mutations, we show that PARN is required for the 3′ end maturation of the telomerase RNA component (TERC). Patient cells as well as immortalized cells in which PARN is disrupted show decreased levels of TERC. Deep sequencing of TERC RNA 3′ termini reveals that PARN is required for removal of posttranscriptionally acquired oligo(A) tails that target nuclear RNAs for degradation. Diminished TERC levels and the increased oligo(A) forms of TERC are normalized by restoring PARN, which is limiting for TERC maturation in cells. Our results reveal a novel role for PARN in the biogenesis of TERC, and provide a mechanism linking PARN mutations to telomere diseases. mRNA sequencing of fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells, and 293 cell line.
Project description:Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) and target of EGR1 protein 1 (TOE1) are nuclear granule-associated deadenylases, whose mutations are linked to multiple human diseases. Here, we applied mTAIL-seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to systematically identify the substrates of PARN and TOE1 and elucidate their molecular functions. We found that PARN and TOE1 do not modulate the length of mRNA poly(A) tails. Rather, they promote the maturation of nuclear small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). PARN and TOE1 act redundantly on some ncRNAs, most prominently small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs). scaRNAs are strongly downregulated when PARN and TOE1 are compromised together, leading to defects in small nuclear RNA (snRNA) pseudouridylation. They also function redundantly in the biogenesis of telomerase RNA component (TERC), which shares sequence motifs found in H/ACA box scaRNAs. Our findings extend the knowledge of nuclear ncRNA biogenesis, and they provide insights into the pathology of PARN/TOE1-associated genetic disorders whose therapeutic treatments are currently unavailable. Overall design: RNA-seq of short non-coding RNAs in siRNA-transfected HeLa cells
Project description:Mammalian telomeres are formed by tandem repeats of the TTAGGG sequence, and shorten with each round of cell division in the absence of telomerase. Telomere shortening and dysfunction has been implicated in the pathology of several age-related diseases and premature ageing syndromes. Telomerase is important for telomere length maintenance. Telomerase RNA component, also known as TERC, is a component of telomerase. Terc knockout leads to telomerase deficiency and telomere shortening. Heterozygous telomerase-deficient (Terc+/-) mice were housed and bred for homozygous generation. ESC lines were generated with high efficiency from wild-type (WT, Terc+/+), heterozygous (Het, Terc+/-) and early- to late-generation (G1, G3 and G4) Terc-/- mouse blastocysts. Telomeres were shorter in Terc+/- ES cells than in WT ES cells, and further shortened from G1 to G4 Terc-/- ES cells. We took advantage of ES cell lines with various telomere lengths to investigate roles of telomere length on differentiation capacity of ES cells. We found that telomere length, but not telomerase activity, is required for differentiation of ES cells into epidermis. We performed microarray analysis to investigate differential gene expression profile at genome-wide levels between WT and G3/G4 Terc-/- (KO) mouse ES cells and during differentiation in vitro of WT and G4 Terc-/- mouse ES cells. Overall design: We sought to find out the differentiated expressed genes between WT and G3/4 Terc KO ESCs during differentiation. WT or G3/4 Terc KO cells were selected at different stages (D0, D8 and D15) during ESCs differentiation for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Telomere shortening due to telomerase deficiency leads to accelerated senescence of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSC) in vitro. In order to study the role of telomere shortening in vivo, we studied the phenotype of telomerase deficient mice caused by absence of telomerase RNA component (TERC-/-). TERC-/- exhibited accelerated age-related bone loss starting at 3 months of age and during 12 months follow up. Bone histomorphometry revealed decreased mineralized surface and bone formation rate as well as increased osteoclast number and size in TERC-/-. Also, serum total deoxy-pyridinoline (tDPD) was increased in TERC-/-. MSC isolated from TERC-/- exhibited intrinsic defects with reduced total number, lower proliferation rate, decreased expression of osteoblastic (OB) differentiation markers and formed less in vivo ectopic bone compared to WT cells. The TERC-/--MSC cultures accumulated a larger proportion of senescent ß-galactosidase+ cells and cells exhibiting DNA damage positive for γ-H2AX. Micro-array analysis of bones of TERC-/- and WT revealed significant over-expression of a large number of pro-inflammatory genes and signaling pathways in TERC-/- known to control osteoclast (OC) differentiation. In accordance with that, serum from TERC-/- enhanced OC formation in control bone marrow cultures. Our data demonstrate two mechanisms for age-related bone loss caused by telomerase deficiency: intrinsic osteoblastic defects and creation of pro-inflammatory osteoclast-activating microenvironment. Approaches for re-telomerization of MSC may provide a novel approach for abolishing age-related bone loss. control (WT) and the test (G3 - mTERC-/-) samples
Project description:Telomere shortening due to telomerase deficiency leads to accelerated senescence of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSC) in vitro. In order to study the role of telomere shortening in vivo, we studied the phenotype of telomerase deficient mice caused by absence of telomerase RNA component (TERC-/-). TERC-/- exhibited accelerated age-related bone loss starting at 3 months of age and during 12 months follow up. Bone histomorphometry revealed decreased mineralized surface and bone formation rate as well as increased osteoclast number and size in TERC-/-. Also, serum total deoxy-pyridinoline (tDPD) was increased in TERC-/-. MSC isolated from TERC-/- exhibited intrinsic defects with reduced total number, lower proliferation rate, decreased expression of osteoblastic (OB) differentiation markers and formed less in vivo ectopic bone compared to WT cells. The TERC-/--MSC cultures accumulated a larger proportion of senescent ß-galactosidase+ cells and cells exhibiting DNA damage positive for γ-H2AX. Micro-array analysis of bones of TERC-/- and WT revealed significant over-expression of a large number of pro-inflammatory genes and signaling pathways in TERC-/- known to control osteoclast (OC) differentiation. In accordance with that, serum from TERC-/- enhanced OC formation in control bone marrow cultures. Our data demonstrate two mechanisms for age-related bone loss caused by telomerase deficiency: intrinsic osteoblastic defects and creation of pro-inflammatory osteoclast-activating microenvironment. Approaches for re-telomerization of MSC may provide a novel approach for abolishing age-related bone loss. Overall design: control (WT) and the test (G3 - mTERC-/-) samples
Project description:Haplo-insufficiency of telomerase genes in humans leads to telomere syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenital and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from telomerase haplo-insufficient donor cells would provide unique opportunities towards the realization of patient-specific stem cell therapies. Recently, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) have been efficiently achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We tested the hypothesis that SCNT could effectively elongate shortening telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells in the ntESCs using relevant mouse models. Indeed, telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient (Terc+/-) mouse cells are elongated in ntESCs. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/- cells exhibit naïve pluripotency as evidenced by generation of Terc+/-ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation (TEC), the most stringent test of naïve pluripotency. These data suggest that SCNT could offer a powerful tool to reprogram telomeres and to discover the factors for robust restoration of telomeres and pluripotency of telomerase haplo-insufficient somatic cells. Overall design: RNAs from Terc+/+, +/- and -/- contain 3 biological repeatsin each group.
Project description:RAP1 is one of the components of mammalian shelterin, the capping complex at chromosome ends or telomeres, although its role in telomere protection has remained elusive. RAP1 binds along chromosome arms, where it regulates gene expression and has been shown to function in metabolism control. Telomerase is the enzyme that elongates telomeres and its deficiency causes a premature aging in mice. We describe an unanticipated genetic interaction between RAP1 and telomerase. While RAP1 deficiency alone does not impact in mouse survival, mice lacking both RAP1 and telomerase show a progressive decreased survival with increasing mouse generation as compared to telomerase single mutants. Telomere shortening was more pronounced in Rap1-/- Terc-/- than in Terc-/- counterparts, leading to an earlier onset of DNA damage and its consequent DNA damage response as well as accelerated degenerative pathologies in the intestines. In its turn, telomerase deficiency abolishes RAP1-mediated obesity and liver pathologies. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with shorten telomeres present less amount of telomere-bound RAP1 but in contrast show higher numbers of RAP1 bound extratelomeric sites genomewide. Absence of RAP1 leads to deregulation of several metabolic pathways, and these changes were more pronounce in cells with short telomeres suggesting that RAP1 release from telomere foci could constitute a coordinated genomic response to telomere shortening. Our findings also demonstrate that although RAP1 is not a key factor in telomere capping under normal conditios, under stress situation such as critical telomere shortening RAP1 exerts an important function for telomere protection and justify its evolutionary conservation as a shelterin component in mammalian cells. Overall design: RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq
Project description:Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent two major approaches for somatic cell reprogramming. However, little attention has been paid to the ability of these two strategies in rejuvenating cells from donors with aging associated syndrome. Here, we utilized telomerase deficient (Terc-/-) mice to probe this question. SCNT-derived embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) and iPSCs were successfully derived from second generation (G2) and third generation (G3) of Terc-/- mice, and ntESCs showed better differentiation potential and self-renewal ability. Telomeres lengthened extensively in cloned embryos while remained or slightly increased in the process of iPSCs induction. Furthermore, G3 ntESCs exhibited improvement of telomere capping function as evidenced by decreased signal free ends and chromosome end-to-end fusion events. In contrast, there was a further decline of telomere capping function in G3 iPSCs. In addition to telomere dysfunction, mitochondria function was severely impaired in G3 iPSCs as evidenced by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decline, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and dramatically increased mitochondria genome mutations while these deficiencies were greatly mitigated in G3 ntESCs. Our data proved the principle that SCNT-mediated reprogramming appears more superior than transcription factors induced reprogramming in terms of the resetting of telomere quality and mitochondria function, and thus, providing valuable information for further improvement of transcription factors mediated reprogramming. We compared the gene expression profile of G3 Terc-/- ntES and G3 Terc-/- iPS. Three biological repeats were included for each cell line.
Project description:Critically short telomeres activate p53-mediated apoptosis, resulting in organ failure and causing malignant transformation. Mutations in genes responsible for telomere maintenance are linked to a number of specific human diseases. We derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with mutations in the TERT and TERC telomerase genes. Telomerase-mutant iPSCs elongated telomeres, but at a lower rate than healthy iPSCs, and the magnitude of the elongation deficit correlated with the specific mutation’s impact on telomerase activity. However, elongation significantly varied among iPSC clones harboring the same mutation, and was affected by genetic and environmental factors. iPSCs cultured in hypoxia showed increased telomere length. Potential influence of residual expression of reprogramming factors on telomerase regulation and telomere length was ruled out by excising the transgenes after successful reprogramming. Evidence for telomerase-independent telomere elongation was not observed in these cells. We demonstrate that telomerase is required for telomere elongation in iPSCs and uncover heterogeneity in telomere maintenance even between clones derived from individual patients or siblings with the same mutation, indicating that telomere phenotype may be influenced by acquired and environmental agents. Our data underscore the necessity of studying multiple clones when using iPSCs to model disease. The exon array were done to validate the pluripotent phenotype of the derived normal and telomerase mutant iPSC and to potentially identify differentially expressed genes in mutant iPSC. Objective: confirming pluripotency by comparing telomerase mutated-, control-iPSC to human ESC and to their parental somatic cells (fibroblast used for iPSC derivation) Overall design: 20 samples total, 5 different fibroblast cells, 13 iPSC lines, 1 ES line (H1) from different passages
Project description:Next-generation sequencing experiments have shown that microRNAs are expressed in many different isoforms (isomiRs), whose biological relevance is often unclear. We found that mature miR-21, the most widely researched microRNA because of its importance in human disease, is produced in two prevalent isomiR forms that differ by one nucleotide at their 3’ end, and moreover that the 3’ end of miR-21 is post transcriptionally adenylated by the noncanonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5. PAPD5 knockdown caused an increase in the miR-21 expression level, suggesting that PAPD5-mediated adenylation of miR-21 leads to its degradation. Exoribonuclease knockdown experiments followed by small RNA sequencing suggested that PARN degrades miR-21 in the 3’-to-5’ direction. In accordance with this model, microarray expression profiling demonstrated that PAPD5 knockdown results in a downregulation of miR-21 target mRNAs. We found that disruption of the miR-21 adenylation and degradation pathway is a general feature in tumors across a wide range of tissues, as evidenced by data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as in the non-cancerous proliferative disease psoriasis. We conclude that PAPD5 and PARN mediate degradation of oncomiR miR-21 through a tailing and trimming process, and that this pathway is disrupted in cancer and other proliferative diseases. Gene expression levels were profiled by Illumina microarrays using RNA produced previously (PMID 20719920). Briefly, total RNA was extracted from THP1 cells in four replicates 72 hours after transfection of siRNA against PAPD5 or GLD2, or of calibrator negative control siRNA. Gene expression levels were profiled in two of the PAPD5 knockdown replicates, two of the GLD2 knockdown replicates, and two of the negative control replicates.