Hypocotyl and cotyledon transcriptome in Arabidopsis thaliana treated with 1 ppm ethylene and shade (low PAR, low blue and low R:FR)
ABSTRACT: Plants have evolved shoot elongation mechanisms to escape from diverse environmental stresses such as flooding and vegetative shade. The apparent similarity in growth responses suggests possible convergence of the signalling pathways. Shoot elongation is mediated by passive ethylene accumulating in flooded plant organs and by changes in light quality and quantity under vegetation shade. Here we study hypocotyl elongation as a proxy for shoot elongation and delineated Arabidopsis hypocotyl length kinetics in response to ethylene and shade. Based on these kinetics, we further investigated ethylene and shade-induced genome-wide gene expression changes in hypocotyls and cotyledons separately. Both treatments induced a more extensive transcriptome reconfiguration in the hypocotyls compared to the cotyledons. Bioinformatics analyses suggested contrasting regulation of growth promotion- and photosynthesis-related genes. These analyses also suggested an induction of auxin, brassinosteroid and gibberellin signatures and the involvement of several candidate regulators in the elongating hypocotyls. Pharmacological and mutant analyses confirmed the functional involvement of several of these candidate genes and physiological control points in regulating stress-escape responses to different environmental stimuli. We discuss how these signaling networks might be integrated and conclude that plants, when facing different stresses, utilise a conserved set of transcriptionally regulated genes to modulate and fine tune growth. 1 day old Arabidopsis seedlings were subjected to control, ethylene and shade conditions. Hypocotyl and cotyledon tissues were harvested at 1.5 h, 13.5 h and 25.5 h of treatment time respectively. Microarray hybridization was carried out with 3 biological replicates (collected over 3 independent experiments) of each sample using the Affymetrix Arabidopsis Gene 1.1 ST platform.
Project description:Hypocotyl elongation is influenced by light and hormones, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully elucidated. We had previously suggested that the Arabidopsis DOF transcription factor DAG1 may be a negative component of the mechanism of light-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, as light-grown dag1 knock-out mutant seedlings show significant shorter hypocotyls than the wild type. By using high-throughput RNA-seq, we compared the transcriptome profile of dag1 and wild type hypocotyls and seedlings. We identified more than 250 genes differentially expressed in dag1 hypocotyls, and their analysis suggests that DAG1 is involved in the promotion of hypocotyl elongation through the control of ABA, ethylene and auxin signaling. Consistently, ChIP-qPCR results show that DAG1 directly binds to the promoters of WRKY18 encoding a transcription factor involved in ABA signaling, of the ethylene- induced gene ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF2), and of the SMALL AUXIN UP RNA 67 (SAUR67), an auxin-responding gene encoding a protein promoting hypocotyl cell expansion.
Project description:A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature.
Project description:Growth of a complex multicellular organism requires coordinated changes in diverse cell types. These cellular changes generate organs of the correct size, shape and functionality. During plant development, the growth hormone auxin induces stem elongation; however, which cell types of the stem perceive the auxin signal and contribute to organ growth is poorly understood. Here, we show that auxin signalling is required in many cell types for correct hypocotyl stem growth, with a key role for the epidermis. Combining genetic manipulations in Arabidopsis thaliana with transcriptional profiling of the hypocotyl epidermis from Brassica rapa, we show that auxin functions in the epidermis in part by inducing activity of the locally-acting, growth-promoting brassinosteroid pathway. Our findings clarify cell-specific auxin function in the hypocotyl, and highlight the complexity of cell-type interactions within a growing organ. We performed whole-genome transcriptome (mRNA-Seq) on 5 d-old W light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants (CER6pro>>axr3-1::mCit experimental plants and UAS::axr3-1::mCit hemizygous control plants; whole-seedling tissue) treated for 4 h W light or low R:FR shade. In addition, we performed mRNA-Seq on 4 d-old Brassica rapa plants (FPsc strain) treated for 9 h W light or shade. Brassica tissues collected were hypocotyl epidermal peels or whole hypocotyls.
Project description:In high density of vegetation, plants detect neighbors by perceiving changes in light quality through phytochrome photoreceptors. Close vegetation proximity might result in competition for resources, such as light. To face this challenge, plants have evolved two alternative strategies: to either tolerate or avoid shade. Shade-avoiding species generally adapt their development by inducing hypocotyl, stem, and petiole elongation, apical dominance and flowering, and decreasing leaf expansion and yield, a set of responses collectively known as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). The SAS responses have been mostly studied at the seedling stage, centered on the increase of hypocotyl elongation. After compiling the main findings about SAS responses in seedlings, this review is focused on the response to shade at adult stages of development, such as petioles of adult leaves, and the little information available on the SAS responses in reproductive tissues. We discuss these responses based on the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and components with a role in regulating the SAS response of the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. The transcriptional networks involved in this process, as well as the communication among the tissues that perceive the shade and the ones that respond to this stimulus will also be briefly commented.
Project description:When sun plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, are under canopy shade, elongation of stems/petioles will be induced as one of the most prominent responses. Plant hormones mediate the elongation growth. However, how environmental and hormonal signals are translated into cell expansion activity that leads to the elongation growth remains elusive. Through forward genetic study, we identified shade avoidance2 (sav2) mutant, which contains a P287L mutation in ?-TUBULIN 4. Cortical microtubules (cMTs) play a key role in anisotropic cell growth. Hypocotyls of sav2 are wild type-like in white light, but are short and highly swollen in shade and dark. We showed that shade not only induces cMT rearrangement, but also affects cMT stability and dynamics of plus ends. Even though auxin and brassinosteroids are required for shade-induced hypocotyl elongation, they had little effect on shade-induced rearrangement of cMTs. Blocking auxin transport suppressed dark phenotypes of sav2, while overexpressing EB1b-GFP, a microtubule plus-end binding protein, rescued sav2 in both shade and dark, suggesting that tub4(P287L) represents a unique type of tubulin mutation that does not affect cMT function in supporting cell elongation, but may affect the ability of cMTs to respond properly to growth promoting stimuli.
Project description:The reversibly red (R)/far-red (FR)-light-responsive phytochrome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light, and the shade-avoidance process in fully deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade. The intracellular signaling pathway from the light-activated photoreceptor conformer (Pfr) to the transcriptional network that drives these responses involves direct, physical interaction of Pfr with a small subfamily of bHLH transcription factors, termed Phy-Interacting Factors (PIFs), which induces rapid PIF proteolytic degradation. In addition, there is evidence of further complexity in light-grown seedlings, whereby phyB-PIF interaction reciprocally induces phyB degradation, in a mutually-negative, feedback-loop configuration. Here, to assess the relative contributions of these antagonistic activities to the net phenotypic readout in light-grown seedlings, we have examined the magnitude of the light- and simulated-shade-induced responses of a pentuple phyBpif1pif3pif4pif5 (phyBpifq) mutant and various multiple pif-mutant combinations. The data (1) reaffirm that phyB is the predominant, if not exclusive, photoreceptor imposing the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in deetiolating seedlings in response to prolonged continuous R irradiation and (2) show that the PIF quartet (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5) retain and exert a dual capacity to modulate hypocotyl elongation under these conditions, by concomitantly promoting cell elongation through intrinsic transcriptional-regulatory activity, and reducing phyB-inhibitory capacity through feedback-loop-induced phyB degradation. In shade-exposed seedlings, immunoblot analysis shows that the shade-imposed reduction in Pfr levels induces increases in the abundance of PIF3, and mutant analysis indicates that PIF3 acts, in conjunction with PIF4 and PIF5, to promote the known shade-induced acceleration of hypocotyl elongation. Conversely, although the quadruple pifq mutant displays clearly reduced hypocotyl elongation compared to wild-type in response to prolonged shade, immunoblot analysis detects no elevation in phyB levels in the mutant seedlings compared to the wild-type during the majority of the shade-induced growth period, and phyB levels are not robustly correlated with the growth phenotype across the pif-mutant combinations compared. These results suggest that PIF feedback modulation of phyB abundance does not play a dominant role in modulating the magnitude of the PIF-promoted, shade-responsive phenotype under these conditions. In seedlings grown under diurnal light-dark cycles, the data show that FR-pulse-induced removal of Pfr at the beginning of the dark period (End-of-Day-FR (EOD-FR) treatment) results in longer hypocotyls relative to no EOD-FR treatment and that this effect is attenuated in the pif-mutant combinations tested. This result similarly indicates that the PIF quartet members are capable of intrinsically promoting hypocotyl cell elongation in light-grown plants, independently of the effects of PIF feedback modulation of photoactivated-phyB abundance.
Project description:Plants use shade avoidance strategy to escape the canopy shade when grown under natural conditions. Previous studies showed that the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) is involved in shade avoidance syndrome. However, the mechanisms of ER in modulating SAR by promoting hypocotyl elongation are unknown yet. Here, we report that ER regulated hypocotyl elongation in shade avoidance requires auxin and gibberellins (GAs). The T-DNA insertional ER mutant er-3 shows a less hypocotyl length than that in Col-0 wild type. Promoter::GUS staining analysis shows that ER and its paralogous genes ERECTA-LIKE1 (ERL1) and ERECTA-LIKE2 (ERL2) are differentially expressed in the seedlings, of which only ER is most obviously upregulated in the hypocotyl by shade treatment. Exogenous feeding assay by using media-application with vertical-grown of Arabidopsis seedlings showed that the hypocotyl length of er-3 is partially promoted by indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), while it is relatively insensitive of er-3 to various concentrations of IAA than that of Col-0. Hypocotyl elongation of er-3 is promoted similar to that of Col-0 by high temperature in the white light condition, but the elongation was not significantly affected by the treatment of the auxin transport inhibitor 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Exogenous GA3 increased the hypocotyl elongation of both er-3 and the wild type in the shade condition, and the GA3 biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) severely inhibits the hypocotyl elongation of Col-0 and er-3. Further analysis showed that auxin biosynthesis inhibitors yucasin and L-kynurenine remarkably inhibited the hypocotyl elongation of er-3 while yucasin shows a more severe inhibition to er-3 than Col-0. Relative expression of genes regulating auxin homeostasis and signaling, and GA homeostasis is less in er-3 than that in Col-0. Furthermore, genetic evidences show that ER regulated hypocotyl elongation is dependent of PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB). Overall, we propose that ER regulated shade avoidance by promoting hypocotyl elongation is PHYB-dependent and requires auxin and GAs.
Project description:The auxin receptor ABP1 directly regulates plasma membrane activities including the number of PIN-formed (PIN) proteins and auxin efflux transport. Red light (R) mediated by phytochromes regulates the steady-state level of ABP1 and auxin-inducible growth capacity in etiolated tissues but, until now, there has been no genetic proof that ABP1 and phytochrome regulation of elongation share a common mechanism for organ elongation. In far red (FR)-enriched light, hypocotyl lengths were larger in the abp1-5 and abp1/ABP1 mutants, but not in tir1-1, a null mutant of the TRANSPORT-INHIBITOR-RESPONSE1 auxin receptor. The polar auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) decreased elongation in the low R:FR light-enriched white light (WL) condition more strongly than in the high red:FR light-enriched condition WL suggesting that auxin transport is an important condition for FR-induced elongation. The addition of NPA to hypocotyls grown in R- and FR-enriched light inhibited hypocotyl gravitropism to a greater extent in both abp1 mutants and in phyB-9 and phyA-211 than the wild-type hypocotyl, arguing for decreased phytochrome action in conjunction with auxin transport in abp1 mutants. Transcription of FR-enriched light-induced genes, including several genes regulated by auxin and shade, was reduced 3-5-fold in abp1-5 compared with Col and was very low in abp1/ABP1. In the phyB-9 mutant the expression of these reporter genes was 5-15-fold lower than in Col. In tir1-1 and the phyA-211 mutants shade-induced gene expression was greatly attenuated. Thus, ABP1 directly or indirectly participates in auxin and light signalling.
Project description:The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate.
Project description:The plant hormone ethylene plays a regulatory role in development in light- and dark-grown seedlings. We previously isolated a group of small-molecule compounds with a quinazolinone backbone, which were named acsinones (for ACC synthase inhibitor quinazolinones), that act as uncompetitive inhibitors of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). Thus, the triple response phenotype, which consists of shortened hypocotyls and roots, radial swelling of hypocotyls and exaggerated curvature of apical hooks, was suppressed by acsinones in dark-grown (etiolated) ethylene overproducer (eto) seedlings. Here, we describe our isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis revert to eto1 9 (ret9) mutant, which showed reduced sensitivity to acsinones in etiolated eto1 seedlings. Map-based cloning of RET9 revealed an amino acid substitution in CHITINASE LIKE1 (CTL1), which is required for cell wall biogenesis and stress resistance in Arabidopsis. Etiolated seedlings of ctl1ret9 showed short hypocotyls and roots, which were augmented in combination with eto1-4. Consistently, ctl1ret9 seedlings showed enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ACC to suppress primary root elongation as compared with the wild type. After introducing ctl1ret9 to mutants completely insensitive to ethylene, genetic analysis indicated that an intact ethylene response pathway is essential for the alterations in root and apical hook but not hypocotyl in etiolated ctl1ret9 seedlings. Furthermore, a mild yet significantly increased ethylene level in ctl1 mutants was related to elevated mRNA level and activity of ACC oxidase (ACO). Moreover, genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis (ACO1 and ACO2) and response (ERF1 and EDF1) were upregulated in etiolated ctl1ret9 seedlings. By characterizing a new recessive allele of CTL1, we reveal that CTL1 negatively regulates ACO activity and the ethylene response, which thus contributes to understanding a role for ethylene in root elongation in response to perturbed cell wall integrity.