Elucidating Combinatorial Chromatin States at Single-Nucleosome Resolution
ABSTRACT: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been instrumental to our current view of chromatin structure and function. It allows genome-wide mapping of histone marks, which demarcate biologically relevant domains. However, ChIP-seq is an ensemble measurement reporting the average occupancy of individual marks in a cell population. Consequently, our understanding of the combinatorial nature of chromatin states relies almost exclusively on correlation between the genomic distributions of individual marks. Here, we report the development of Combinatorial-iChIP to determine the genome-wide co-occurrence of histone marks at single nucleosome resolution. By comparing to null model, we show that certain combinations of overlapping marks (H3K36me3 and H3K79me3) co-occur more frequently than expected by chance, while others (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3) do not, reflecting differences in the underlying chromatin pathways. We further use combinatorial-iChIP to illuminate aspects of the Set2-RPD3S pathway. This approach promises to improve our understanding of the combinatorial complexity of chromatin. Combinatorial iChIP in yeast.
Project description:Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been instrumental to our current view of chromatin structure and function. It allows genome-wide mapping of histone marks, which demarcate biologically relevant domains. However, ChIP-seq is an ensemble measurement reporting the average occupancy of individual marks in a cell population. Consequently, our understanding of the combinatorial nature of chromatin states relies almost exclusively on correlation between the genomic distributions of individual marks. Here, we report the development of combinatorial-iChIP to determine the genome-wide co-occurrence of histone marks at single-nucleosome resolution. By comparing to a null model, we show that certain combinations of overlapping marks (H3K36me3 and H3K79me3) co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance, while others (H3K4me3 and H3K36me3) do not, reflecting differences in the underlying chromatin pathways. We further use combinatorial-iChIP to illuminate aspects of the Set2-RPD3S pathway. This approach promises to improve our understanding of the combinatorial complexity of chromatin.
Project description:Mot1 is a conserved and essential Swi2/Snf2 ATPase that can remove TATA-binding protein (TBP) from DNA using ATP hydrolysis, and in so doing exerts global effects on transcription. Spt16 is also essential and functions globally in transcriptional regulation as a component of the FACT histone chaperone complex. Here we demonstrate that Mot1 and Spt16 regulate a largely overlapping set of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As expected, Mot1 was found to control TBP levels at co-regulated promoters. In contrast, Spt16 did not affect TBP recruitment. On a global scale, Spt16 was required for Mot1 promoter localization, and Mot1 also affected Spt16 localization to genes. Interestingly, we find that Mot1 has an unanticipated role in establishing or maintaining the occupancy and positioning of nucleosomes at the 5’ ends of genes. Spt16 has a broad role in regulating chromatin organization in gene bodies, including those nucleosomes affected by Mot1. These results suggest that the large-scale overlap in Mot1 and Spt16 function arises from a combination of both their unique and shared functions in transcription complex assembly and chromatin structure regulation. ChIP was performed for Spt16-myc in WT cells and mot1-42 cells in duplicate with input DNA from WT as control. ChIP was performed for Mot1-myc in WT cells and spt16-197 cells in dublicate with input DNA from WT as control. Micrococcal nuclease digested chromatin from WT, mot1-42, spt16-197, and mot1-42 spt16-197 cells were immunoprecipitated with H3 antibody in duplicate. All samples were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq.
Project description:Post-translational modification of histones and DNA methylation are important components of chromatin-level control of genome activity in eukaryotes. However, principles governing the combinatorial association of chromatin marks along the genome remain poorly understood. Here, we have generated epigenomic maps for eight histone modifications (H3K4me2 and 3, H3K27me1 and 2, H3K36me3, H3K56ac, H4K20me1 and H2Bub) in the model plant Arabidopsis and we have combined these maps with others, produced under identical conditions, for H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and DNA methylation. Integrative analysis indicates that these 12 chromatin marks, which collectively cover ∼90% of the genome, are present at any given position in a very limited number of combinations. Moreover, we show that the distribution of the 12 marks along the genomic sequence defines four main chromatin states, which preferentially index active genes, repressed genes, silent repeat elements and intergenic regions. Given the compact nature of the Arabidopsis genome, these four indexing states typically translate into short chromatin domains interspersed with each other. This first combinatorial view of the Arabidopsis epigenome points to simple principles of organization as in metazoans and provides a framework for further studies of chromatin-based regulatory mechanisms in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the most widely used method for characterizing the epigenetic states of chromatin on a genomic scale. With the recent availability of large genome-wide data sets, often comprising several epigenetic marks, novel approaches are required to explore functionally relevant interactions between histone modifications. Computational discovery of "chromatin states" defined by such combinatorial interactions enabled descriptive annotations of genomes, but more quantitative approaches are needed to progress towards predictive models. RESULTS: We propose non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) as a new unsupervised method to discover combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks that frequently co-occur in subsets of genomic regions. We show that this small set of combinatorial "codes" can be effectively displayed and interpreted. NMF codes enable dimensionality reduction and have desirable statistical properties for regression and classification tasks. We demonstrate the utility of codes in the quantitative prediction of Pol2-binding and the discrimination between Pol2-bound promoters and enhancers. Finally, we show that specific codes can be linked to molecular pathways and targets of pluripotency genes during differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: We have introduced and evaluated a new computational approach to represent combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks as quantitative variables suitable for predictive modeling and supervised machine learning. To foster widespread adoption of this method we make it available as an open-source software-package - epicode at https://github.com/mcieslik-mctp/epicode.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme Fun30 has recently been shown to play important roles in heterochromatin silencing and DNA repair. However, how Fun30 remodels nucleosomes is not clear. Here we report a nucleosome sliding activity of Fun30 and its role in transcriptional repression. We observed that Fun30 repressed the expression of genes involved in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, the stress response, and meiosis. In addition, Fun30 was localized at the 5′ and 3′ ends of genes and within the open reading frames of its targets. Consistent with its role in gene repression, we observed that Fun30-target genes lacked histone modifications often associated with gene activation and showed an increased level of ubiquitinated histone H2B. Furthermore, genome-wide nucleosome mapping analysis revealed that the length of the nucleosome-free region at the 5′ end of a subset of genes was changed in Fun30-depleted cells. In addition, the positions of the -1, +2 and +3 nucleosomes at the 5′ end of target genes were significantly shifted, while position of the +1 nucleosome remained largely unchanged in the fun30Δ mutant. Finally, we demonstrated that affinity purified single-component Fun30 exhibited nucleosome sliding activity in an ATP-dependent manner. These results define a role for Fun30 in regulation of transcription and indicate that Fun30 remodels chromatin at the 5′ end of genes by sliding promoter proximal nucleosomes. Micrococcal nuclease digested mononucleosome DNA from wild type and fun30D cells were sequenced by illumina Genome Analyzer. Genome-wide nucleosome positioning and occupancy were analyzed.
Project description:Methylation of cytosines (5meC) is a widespread heritable DNA modification. During mammalian development, two global demethylation events are followed by waves of de novo DNA methylation. In vivo mechanisms of DNA methylation establishment are largely uncharacterized. Here we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a system lacking DNA methylation to define the chromatin features influencing the activity of the murine DNMT3B. Our data demonstrate that DNMT3B and H3K4 methylation are mutually exclusive and that DNMT3B is co-localized with H3K36 methylated regions. In support of this observation, DNA methylation analysis in yeast strains without Set1 and Set2 show an increase of relative 5meC levels at the TSS and a decrease in the gene-body, respectively. We extend our observation to the murine male germline, where H3K4me3 is strongly anti-correlated while H3K36me3 correlates with accelerated DNA methylation. These results show the importance of H3K36 methylation for gene-body DNA methylation in vivo. Nucleosome mapping in yeast
Project description:Comprehensive understanding of mechanisms of epigenetic regulation requires identification of molecules bound to genomic regions of interest in vivo. However, non-biased methods to identify molecules bound to specific genomic loci in vivo are limited. Here, we applied insertional chromatin immunoprecipitation (iChIP) to direct identification of components of insulator complexes, which function as boundaries of chromatin domain. We found that the chicken β-globin HS4 (cHS4) insulator complex contains an RNA helicase protein, p68/DDX5; an RNA species, steroid receptor RNA activator 1; and a nuclear matrix protein, Matrin-3, in vivo. Binding of p68 and Matrin-3 to the cHS4 insulator core sequence was mediated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). Thus, our results showed that it is feasible to directly identify proteins and RNA bound to a specific genomic region in vivo by using iChIP.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests that Pax5 plays essential roles in B cell lineage commitment. However, molecular mechanisms of B cell-specific expression of Pax5 are not fully understood. Here, we applied insertional chromatin immunoprecipitation (iChIP) combined with stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) (iChIP-SILAC) to direct identification of proteins interacting with the promoter region of the endogenous single-copy chicken Pax5 gene. By comparing B cells with macrophage-like cells trans-differentiated by ectopic expression of C/EBPβ, iChIP-SILAC detected B cell-specific interaction of a nuclear protein, Thy28/Thyn1, with the Pax5 1A promoter. Trans-differentiation of B cells into macrophage-like cells caused down-regulation of Thy28 expression. Loss-of-function of Thy28 induced decrease in Pax5 expression and recruitment of myosin-9 (MYH9), one of Thy28-interacting proteins, to the Pax5 1A promoter. Loss-of-function of MYH9 also induced decrease in Pax5 expression. Thus, our analysis revealed that Thy28 is functionally required for B cell-specific expression of Pax5 via recruitment of MYH9 to the Pax5 locus in chicken B cells.
Project description:Experiments performed over the past three decades have shown that nucleosomes are transcriptional repressors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, depletion of histone H4 results in the genome-wide transcriptional de-repression of hundreds genes. The mechanism of de-repression is hypothesized to be rooted directly in chromatin changes. To test this, we reproduced classical H4 depletion experiments by conditional repression of all histone H3 transcription, which depletes the supply of nucleosomes in vivo. RNA-seq results were consistent with the earlier studies, but much more sensitive, revealing nearly 2500 de-repressed genes. Changes in chromatin organization were determined by MNase-seq. Nucleosomes that were preferentially retained occurred in regions of high DNA-encoded nucleosome affinity, and were marked with H3K36me2, which is linked to transcription elongation. Nucleosomes harboring acetyl marks or that contained the variant histone H2A.z were preferentially lost. Genes that were de-repressed lost or rearranged nucleosomes at their promoter, but not in the gene body. Therefore, a combination of DNA-encoded nucleosome stability and nucleosome composition dictates which nucleosomes will be lost under conditions of limiting histone protein. This, in turn, governs which genes will experience a loss of regulatory fidelity. MNase-seq experiments consist of three wildtype (1 single-end and 2 paired-end) and four mutant (DCB200.1/H3 shutoff; 2 single-end, 2 paired-end) replicates. Each replicate contains two timepoints reflecting chromatin immediately after ("O hours") and 3 hours after transition to media containing dextrose. RNA-seq data includes three replicates from wildtype or H3 depleted cells after 3 hours in media containing dextrose.
Project description:ISWI-family chromatin remodelers organize nucleosome arrays, while SWI/SNF-family remodelers (RSC) disorganize and eject nucleosomes, implying an antagonism that is largely unexplored in vivo. Here, we describe two independent genetic screens for rsc suppressors that yielded mutations in the promoter-focused ISW1a complex, or mutations in the ‘basic patch’ of histone H4 (an epitope that regulates ISWI activity), strongly supporting RSC-ISW1a antagonism in vivo. RSC and ISW1a largely co-localize, and genomic nucleosome studies using rsc isw1 mutant combinations revealed opposing functions: promoters classified with a nucleosome-deficient region (NDR) gain nucleosome occupancy in rsc mutants, but this gain is attenuated in rsc isw1 double mutants. Furthermore, promoters lacking NDRs have the highest occupancy of both remodelers, consistent with regulation by nucleosome occupancy, and decreased transcription in rsc mutants. Taken together, we provide the first genetic and genomic evidence for RSC-ISW1a antagonism, and reveal different mechanisms at two different promoter architectures. Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy maps in RSC and rsc null strains were generated by paired-end sequencing of mononucleosomal DNA. Strains carrying the Sth1 degron allele and either pGal-UBR1 (YBC3386) or ubr1 null (YBC3387) represent RSC null and RSC wildtype, respectively.