The Long Noncoding RNA SNHG1 Regulates both the Local and Distal Genes in Cancer
ABSTRACT: lncRNAs play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs act are still incomplete. Here, we functionally characterized the nuclear-enriched lncRNA SNHG1 which is highly expressed in several types of cancer relative to surrounding normal tissues. SNHG1 was regulated by oncogenic factor c-Myc and could promote tumor growth. We found that SNHG1 was involved in the Akt signaling pathway through promoting the neighboring transcription of protein-coding gene SLC3A2 in cis, by binding to the Mediator complex to facilitate enhancer-promoter interaction. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that several stress response genes, as well as signaling pathways, were regulated by SNHG1. Importantly, SNHG1 coordinated the expression of ATF3 through preventing FUBP1 from binding to its upstream regulatory region. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that lncRNA SNHG1 can function both in cis and in trans with distinct mechanisms to promote tumorigenesis and progression. Even, Odd probes targeting SNHG1 sequence, and control probes targeting LacZ. Probes was coupled with biotin, the captured DNA was prepared for library then sequencing.
Project description:While thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in higher eukaryotes, the potential regulatory roles of lncRNAs in regulated gene transcription programs remain rather poorly understood. Here, we report that two lncRNAs highly overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer, PRNCR1 and PCGEM1, bind successively to the androgen receptor (AR) and strongly enhance both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent AR-mediated gene activation programs and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Binding of PRNCR1 to the C-terminally acetylated AR on enhancers and its association with DOT1L appear to be required for recruitment of the second lncRNA, PCGEM, to the N-terminally methylated AR. Unexpectedly, recognition of the H3K4me3 promoter mark by the PHD finger-domain of Pygopus2, recruited by PCGEM1, proves to enhance selective looping of AR-bound enhancers to target gene promoters in these cells, revealing a novel aspect of ligand-induced enhancer-promoter interactions. In “resistant” prostate cancer cells, these overexpressed lncRNAs can interact with, and are required for the robust activation of both truncated and full length AR, causing DHT-independent activation of the AR transcriptional program and cell proliferation. Conditionally-expressed short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated targeting of these lncRNAs in these resistant cancer cell lines strongly suppressed xenograft growth in vivo. Together, these results suggest that these overexpressed lncRNAs can potentially serve as a required component of castration-resistance in prostatic tumors. Global Run On (GRO) assay followed by high throughput sequencing (GRO-seq); ChIRP-seq data for a lincRNA (PCGEM1). LNCaP cells were grown to 30-50% confluence and siRNA/ASO transfections were carried out using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Control samples were transfected with scramble ASO and control siRNA, respectively. On the following day of transfection, the cells were cultured in UltraCULTURE (Phenol red free) + 5% Charcoal Dextran Stripped (CDS) serum for 48 hours. For androgen induction, we treat cells with DHT from a 100 uM stock in 70% ethanol to a final concentration of 100 nM for 1 hour we have sequenced the DNA sequences that are associated with the presence of a RNA molecule on a genome wide scale. PCGEM1 probe, -DHT PCGEM1 probe, +DHT
Project description:Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations in visceral organs. HHT is predominantly caused by mutations in ENG and ACVRL1, which both belong to the TGF-? signalling pathway. The exact mechanism of how haploinsufficiency of ENG and ACVRL1 leads to HHT manifestations remains to be identified. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulators of gene expression and constitute a sizable fraction of the human transcriptome, we wanted to assess whether lncRNAs play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of HHT manifestations. By microarray technology, we profiled lncRNA transcripts from HHT nasal telangiectasial and non-telangiectasial tissue using a paired design. The microarray probes were annotated using the GENCODE v.16 dataset, identifying 4,810 probes mapping to 2,811 lncRNAs. Comparing HHT telangiectasial tissue with HHT non-telangiectasial tissue, we identified 42 lncRNAs that are differentially expressed (q<0.001). Using GREAT, a tool that assumes cis-regulation, we showed that differently expressed lncRNAs are enriched for genomic loci involved in key pathways concerning HHT. Our study identified lncRNAs that are aberrantly expressed in HHT telangiectasia and indicates that lncRNAs may contribute to regulate protein-coding loci in HHT. These results suggest that the lncRNA component of the transcriptome deserves more attention in HHT. A deeper understanding of lncRNAs and their role in telangiectasia formation possesses potential for discovering therapeutic targets in HHT.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can exhibit cell-type or even cancer-type specific expression profiles, making them highly attractive as therapeutic targets. PAN cancer RNA sequencing data revealed sustained expression of the SAMMSON lncRNA in uveal melanoma (UM), the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Currently, there are no effective treatments for UM patients with metastatic disease, resulting in a median survival time of 6-12 months. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of SAMMSON inhibition in UM.
Project description:Transcriptomic analyses have identified tens of thousands of intergenic, intronic, and cis-antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are expressed from mammalian genomes. Despite progress in functional characterization, little is known about the post-transcriptional regulation of lncRNAs and their half-lives. Although many are easily detectable by a variety of techniques, it has been assumed that lncRNAs are generally unstable, but this has not been examined genome-wide. Utilizing a custom noncoding RNA array, we determined the half-lives of ?800 lncRNAs and ?12,000 mRNAs in the mouse Neuro-2a cell line. We find only a minority of lncRNAs are unstable. LncRNA half-lives vary over a wide range, comparable to, although on average less than, that of mRNAs, suggestive of complex metabolism and widespread functionality. Combining half-lives with comprehensive lncRNA annotations identified hundreds of unstable (half-life < 2 h) intergenic, cis-antisense, and intronic lncRNAs, as well as lncRNAs showing extreme stability (half-life > 16 h). Analysis of lncRNA features revealed that intergenic and cis-antisense RNAs are more stable than those derived from introns, as are spliced lncRNAs compared to unspliced (single exon) transcripts. Subcellular localization of lncRNAs indicated widespread trafficking to different cellular locations, with nuclear-localized lncRNAs more likely to be unstable. Surprisingly, one of the least stable lncRNAs is the well-characterized paraspeckle RNA Neat1, suggesting Neat1 instability contributes to the dynamic nature of this subnuclear domain. We have created an online interactive resource (http://stability.matticklab.com) that allows easy navigation of lncRNA and mRNA stability profiles and provides a comprehensive annotation of ~7200 mouse lncRNAs.
Project description:A novel class of transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), has recently emerged as a key player in several biological processes, and important roles for these molecules have been reported in a number of complex human diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, neurological disorders, and various cancers. However, the aberrant lncRNAs implicated in myasthenia gravis (MG) remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the abnormal expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and examine mRNA regulatory relationship networks among MG patients with or without thymoma.Microarray assays were performed, and the outstanding differences between lncRNAs or mRNA expression were verified through RT-PCR. The lncRNAs functions were annotated for the target genes using Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathway. The potential regulatory relationships between the lncRNAs and target genes were analyzed using the 'cis' and 'trans' model. Outstanding lncRNAs were organized to generate a TF-lncRNA-gene network using Cytoscape software.The lncRNA and mRNA expression profile analysis revealed subsets of differentially expressed genes in MG patients with or without thymoma. A total of 12 outstanding dysregulated expression lncRNAs, such as lncRNA oebiotech_11933, were verified through real-time PCR. Several GO terms including the cellular response to interferon-?, platelet degranulation, chemokine receptor binding and cytokine interactions were very important in MG pathogenesis. The chromosome locations of some lncRNAs and associated co-expression genes were demonstrated using 'cis' analysis. The results of the 'trans' analysis revealed that some TFs (i.e., CTCF, TAF1and MYC) regulate lncRNA and gene expression. The outstanding lncRNAs in each group were implicated in the regulation of the TF-lncRNA-target gene network.The results of the present study provide a perspective on lncRNA expression in MG. We identify a subset of aberrant lncRNAs and mRNAs as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of MG. The GO and KEGG pathway analysis provides an annotation to determine the functions of these lncRNAs. The results of the 'cis' and 'trans' analyses provide information concerning the modular regulation of lncRNAs.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in regulating immunological functions. Their impact on the chronic inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS), however, remains unknown. We investigated the expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with MS and try to explain their possible role in the process of MS. we recruited 26 MS patients according to the revised McDonald Criteria. Then we chosen 6 patients for microarray analysis randomly. Microarray assays identified outstanding differences in lncRNA expression, which were verified through real-time PCR. LncRNA functions were annotated for target genes using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses, and regulatory relationships between lncRNAs and target genes were analyzed using the “cis” and “trans” model.
Project description:Despite growing appreciation of the importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in normal physiology and disease, our knowledge of cancer-related lncRNAs remains limited. By repurposing microarray probes, we constructed expression profiles of 10,207 lncRNA genes in approximately 1,300 tumors over four different cancer types. Through integrative analysis of the lncRNA expression profiles with clinical outcome and somatic copy-number alterations, we identified lncRNAs that are associated with cancer subtypes and clinical prognosis and predicted those that are potential drivers of cancer progression. We validated our predictions by experimentally confirming prostate cancer cell growth dependence on two newly identified lncRNAs. Our analysis provides a resource of clinically relevant lncRNAs for the development of lncRNA biomarkers and the identification of lncRNA therapeutic targets. It also demonstrates the power of integrating publically available genomic data sets and clinical information for discovering disease-associated lncRNAs.
Project description:To investigate the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in gastric cancer.Two publicly available human exon arrays for gastric cancer and data for the corresponding normal tissue were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We re-annotated the probes of the human exon arrays and retained the probes uniquely mapping to lncRNAs at the gene level. LncRNA expression profiles were generated by using robust multi-array average method in affymetrix power tools. The normalized data were then analyzed with a Bioconductor package linear models for microarray data and genes with adjusted P-values below 0.01 were considered differentially expressed. An independent data set was used to validate the results.With the computational pipeline established to re-annotate over 6.5 million probes of the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array, we identified 136053 probes uniquely mapping to lncRNAs at the gene level. These probes correspond to 9294 lncRNAs, covering nearly 76% of the GENCODE lncRNA data set. By analyzing GSE27342 consisting of 80 paired gastric cancer and normal adjacent tissue samples, we identified 88 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in gastric cancer, some of which have been reported to play a role in cancer, such as LINC00152, taurine upregulated 1, urothelial cancer associated 1, Pvt1 oncogene, small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 and LINC00261. In the validation data set GSE33335, 59% of these differentially expressed lncRNAs showed significant expression changes (adjusted P-value < 0.01) with the same direction.We identified a set of lncRNAs differentially expressed in gastric cancer, providing useful information for discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been found to play important roles in various cancer types. The elucidation of genome-wide lncRNA expression patterns in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) could reveal novel mechanisms underlying NPC carcinogenesis and progression. In this study, lncRNA expression profiling was performed on metastatic and primary NPC tumors, and the differentially expressed lncRNAs between these samples were identified. A total of 33,045 lncRNA probes were generated for our microarray based on authoritative data sources, including RefSeq, UCSC Knowngenes, Ensembl, and related literature. Using these probes, 8,088 lncRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed (?2-fold). To identify the prognostic value of these differentially expressed lncRNAs, four lncRNAs (LOC84740, ENST00000498296, AL359062, and ENST00000438550) were selected; their expression levels were measured in an independent panel of 106 primary NPC samples via QPCR. Among these lncRNAs, ENST00000438550 expression was demonstrated to be significantly correlated with NPC disease progression. A survival analysis showed that a high expression level of ENST00000438550 was an independent indicator of disease progression in NPC patients (P = 0.01). In summary, this study may provide novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for NPC, as well as a novel understanding of the mechanism underlying NPC metastasis and potential targets for future treatment.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms by which they regulate skeletal muscle development in the chicken. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to profile the leg muscle transcriptome (lncRNA and mRNA) at three stages of skeletal muscle development in the chicken: embryonic day 11 (E11), embryonic day 16 (E16), and 1 day after hatching (D1). In total, 129, 132, and 45 differentially expressed lncRNAs, and 1798, 3072, and 1211 differentially expressed mRNAs were identified in comparisons of E11 vs. E16, E11 vs. D1, and E16 vs. D1, respectively. Moreover, we identified the cis- and trans-regulatory target genes of differentially expressed lncRNAs, and constructed lncRNA-gene interaction networks. In total, 126 and 200 cis-targets, and two and three trans-targets were involved in lncRNA-gene interaction networks that were constructed based on the E11 vs. E16, and E11 vs. D1 comparisons, respectively. The comparison of the E16 vs. D1 lncRNA-gene network comprised 25 cis-targets. We determined that lncRNA target genes are potentially involved in cellular development, and cellular growth and proliferation using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The gene networks identified for the E11 vs. D1 comparison were involved in embryonic development, organismal development and tissue development. The present study provides an RNA sequencing based evaluation of lncRNA function during skeletal muscle development in the chicken. Comprehensive analysis facilitated the identification of lncRNAs and target genes that might contribute to the regulation of different stages of skeletal muscle development.