Transcription profiling of rat uterine myometrium -effect of estrogen
ABSTRACT: Uterine tissue is highly responsive to estrogen, which plays a mayor role in sympathetic innervation remodeling in myometrium; Microarrays were used to investigate which estrogen resposive myometrial proteins can be involved in innervation modulation Experiment Overall Design: Mature female rats were ovariectomized, than treated with estradiol benzoate or vechicle, myometrial samples were analyzed 6 or 24 h after treatment
Project description:Uterine tissue is highly responsive to estrogen, which plays a mayor role in sympathetic innervation remodeling in myometrium Microarrays were used to investigate which estrogen resposive myometrial proteins can be involved in innervation modulation Keywords: control vs. treatment, timepoints Overall design: Mature female rats were ovariectomized, than treated with estradiol benzoate or vechicle, myometrial samples were analyzed 6 or 24 h after treatment
Project description:Context: Increased uterine stretch appears to increase the risk of preterm labour, but the mechanism is unknown. Objectives: To identify a targetable mechanism mediating the effect of stretch on human myometrium. Design: Myometrial explants, prepared from biopsies obtained at elective caesarean delivery, were either studied acutely, or were maintained in prolonged culture (up to 65 h) under tension with either a 0.6 g or 2.4 g mass, and compared using in vitro contractility, whole genome array, and qRT-PCR. Results: Increased stretch for 24 or 65 h increased potassium-induced and oxytocin-induced contractility. Gene array identified 62 differentially expressed transcripts after 65 h exposure to increased stretch. Two probes for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), a known stimulatory agonist of smooth muscle, were among the top five up-regulated by stretch (3.4-fold and 2.0-fold). Up-regulation of GRP by stretch was confirmed in a separate series of 10 samples using qRT-PCR (2.8-fold, P = 0.01). GRP stimulated contractions acutely when added to freshly obtained myometrial strips in 3 out of 9 cases, but Western blot demonstrated expression of the GRP receptor in 9 out of 9 cases. Prolonged incubation of stretched explants in the GRP antagonists PD-176252 or RC-3095 (65 and 24 h respectively) significantly reduced potassium chloride and oxytocin-induced contractility. Conclusion: Stretch of human myometrium increases contractility and stimulates the expression of a known smooth muscle stimulatory agonist, GRP. Incubation of myometrium in GRP receptor antagonists ameliorates the effect of stretch. GRP may be a target for novel therapies to reduce the risk of preterm birth in multiple pregnancy. 9 paired samples of human myometrium cultured under low (0.6g) or high (2.4g) tension
Project description:Context: Progesterone is important physiologically and therapeutically to maintain uterine quiescence during pregnancy. It acts in part through controlling myometrial gene expression. Objective: To use expression microarray and qRT-PCR validation to determine the changes in gene expression induced by prolonged exposure to a synthetic progestogen. Design: Myometrial explants, obtained at elective Caesarean section (n=9 patients), were maintained in culture, under 0.6g tension, for 3 days in the presence or absence of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 100nM). Expression array was performed using Illumina human-8 v3 beadchip arrays. Approximately 30% of differentially expressed transcripts were validated in biological replicates (n=10) using qRT-PCR. Results: Transcripts from 114 genes were significantly differentially expressed. These were significantly enriched in inflammatory response (P=0.00001), growth factor activity (P=0.0004) and cytokine activity genes (P=0.008). 34 transcripts were validated using qRT-PCR using an additional independent sample set obtained from 10 further women. There was very close agreement in the fold changes obtained by array and qRT-PCR analysis (r2=0.9, P<0.0001). We confirmed significant down-regulation of a number of genes which have been well characterized as progesterone sensitive, such as IL1B, IL6, PTGS2 and GJA1. However, the top and 6th most down-regulated genes encoded two cytokines, IL11 and IL24, respectively, not previously implicated in mediating the effects of progesterone in myometrium. Both were validated by qRT-PCR (4.3-fold and 2.2-fold down-regulated, both P<0.001). Conclusions: Progestogens control expression of multiple genes in myometrium, including many with no previously recognised role, including IL11 and IL24. It is plausible that proteins encoded by some of these genes may have important, but as yet uncharacterized effects in controlling human parturition. 9 paired samples of human myometrium treated with MPA (10-7M) or vehicle
Project description:Bacillus subtilis strain AG174 was grown in the presence and absence of benzoate (30 mM). Benzoate was used in order to equalize the external and internal pH. The cultures were grown at external pH 7.0, and the addition of benzoate did not change the external pH. Microarray analysis was performed on cDNA synthesized from bacterial RNA. Real-time PCR of highly up-regulated genes confirmed the results of the microarray. These data were compared to previous B.subtilis microarray results, where genes regulated by external pH were identified. Overnight cultures were diluted 1:500 in potassium-modified Luria-Bertani medium (LBK) buffered with 50 mM MOPS at pH 7.0. Bacteria were cultured in baffled flasks (less than 10% volume) with rotation at 220 rpm, incubated at 37 °C to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.2. Four cultures were grown in the presence of 30 mM benzoate and four cultures were grown without benzoate. One sample was taken from each of four replicate cultures of 0 mM benzoate and 30 mM benzoate. RNA was isolated using 10% saturated phenol-ethanol solution and the RNeasy Kit. Gene expression profiles were obtained with standard Affymetrix procedures.
Project description:Preterm birth is multifactorial in origin with several distinct clinical phenotypes of differing etiologies, including idiopathic preterm birth. Preterm birth involves the interaction of genetic, societal and environmental factors such as nutrition, lifestyle and stress that may modulate the length of gestation via the epigenome. DNA methylation is a well-studied epigenetic modification whereby promoter methylation commonly represses gene expression and vice versa. Myometrial tissue was obtained at cesarean section at term with or without labor, preterm without labor, idiopathic preterm labor, and twin gestations with labor. Differences in the myometrial epigenomes were identified at gene promoters, CpG islands, CpG island shores and shelves, gene bodies across the genome between the groups of women with preterm labor of different phenotypes vs. normal term labor. Functional clustering analysis indicated the significantly enriched pathways of hypomethylated genes (permissive) were related to acute inflammatory and acute-phase responses. By contrast, genes that are hypermethylated (repressive) revealed enrichment for contractile fibers and cell. This study provides the first high-resolution DNA methylome of human myometrium with evidence for differences in the methylome that may relate to idiopathic preterm birth via regulation of gene expression. The findings extend previous observations that idiopathic preterm labor is associated with subclinical intrauterine infection and inflammatory pathways and point to targets for further molecular characterization of preterm delivery. Comparison of the human myometrial epigenomes in pregnancies with preterm labor of different phenotypes vs. normal term labor
Project description:We used Progenika oligonucleotide arrays to monitore the gene expression of P. putida during carbon source stimulus experiments. After ensuring steady state conditions on benzoate, the stimuli were introduced by changing the carbon source from benzoate to glucose, from glucose to fructose and from fructose to benzoate, respectively. The single stimuli were monitored over a time period from 10 to 120 minutes after changing the carbon source by three representative timepoints. Moreover, the steady state conditions were compared among each other. Supplementary file: Individual normalized signal intensity VALUES for each channel of each array are provided in the FullNormalizedMatrix.txt file.
Project description:Sexual dimorphism of the behaviors or physiological functions in mammals is mainly due to the sex difference of the brain. The goal of this study is to identify genes mediating sexaul dimorphism of the brain. The large-scale analysis with microarray in the present study is an attempt to obtain the candidate gene(s) mediating the perinatal estrogen effect causing the brain sexual differentiation. Thirty female mice were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle on the day of birth, and the hypothalamus was collected at either 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after the EB injection.
Project description:Delaying first childbirth is associated with a range of pregnancy complications, but the mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We have hypothesized that prolonged, cyclical, pre-pregnancy exposure to estrogen and progesterone contributes to age-related deterioration of uterine function. We conducted a series of studies in virgin mice of varying age and exposure to hormonal manipulations. We compared the myometrial transcript profile from young (10-12 weeks, n=7) and old (28-30 weeks, n=7) mice. We validated this list using a second experiment of young versus old mice housed in a different animal facility and comparing animals of 10-12 (n=8) and 38-40 (n=7) weeks of age. The pattern of change in these transcripts was very similar. We determined whether removal of the ovaries in early life (8-10 weeks of age) prevented age-related changes. When we compared old animals (38-40 weeks) which had early ovariectomy (n=7) with sham operated controls of the same age (n=7), we found that the transcripts which had been down-regulated by age were upregulated in old animals that had an early ovariectomy. The converse was observed for genes which had been downregulated by age. Hence, early ovariectomy prevented changes in myometrial gene expression associated with aging. We then studied the effect of prolonged, continuous exposure to progesterone between 8 and 36 weeks of age. When we compared old animals (38-40 weeks) that received progesterone implants from 8 to 36-38 weeks (n=10) with old animals receiving implants containing only vehicle (n=5), transcripts which had been down-regulated by age were upregulated by prolonged exposure to progesterone. The converse was observed for genes which had been downregulated by age. Hence, prolonged exposure to progesterone also ameliorated changes in myometrial gene expression associated with aging. Overall design: Mouse myometrium from young, old, control or treated groups. 5 to 10 replicates per group
Project description:Insight into the mechanisms for the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Ferroglobus placidus is expected to improve understanding of the degradation of aromatics in hot (> 80 °C) environments and to identify enzymes that might have biotechnological applications. Analysis of the F. placidus genome revealed genes predicted to encode enzymes homologous to those previously identified as playing a role in benzoate and phenol metabolism in mesophilic bacteria. Surprisingly, F. placidus lacks genes for an ATP-independent class II benzoyl-CoA reductase found in all strictly anaerobic bacteria, but instead has two sets of genes for ATP-consuming class I benzoyl-CoA reductases, similar to those found in facultative bacteria. The lower portion of the benzoate degradation pathway appears to be more similar to that found in the phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris, than the pathway reported for all heterotrophic anaerobic benzoate degraders. Many of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate metabolism were found in one of two gene clusters. Genes for a phenol carboxylation proceeding through a phenylphosphate intermediate and for conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to benzoyl-CoA were identified in a single gene cluster. Analysis of transcript abundance with a whole-genome microarray and quantitative PCR demonstrated that most of the genes predicted to be involved in benzoate or phenol metabolism had higher transcript abundance during growth on those substrates versus growth on acetate. These results suggest that the general strategies for benzoate and phenol metabolism may be highly conserved between microorganisms living in moderate and hot environments, and that anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds might be analyzed in a wide range of environments with similar molecular targets. A four chip study using total RNA recovered from two separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown with 1 mM sodium benzoate (experimental condition) and two separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown on 10 mM acetate (control condition). Each chip measures the expression level of 2613 genes from Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 with nine 45-60-mer probe pairs (PM/MM) per gene, with three-fold technical redundancy.
Project description:Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]-benzene to [14C]-carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism and [14C]-benzoate was produced from [14C]-benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not up-regulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- versus benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. placidus. This is the first demonstration of a microorganism in pure culture that can grow on benzene under strict anaerobic conditions and for which there is strong evidence for degradation of benzene via clearly defined anaerobic metabolic pathways. Thus, F. placidus provides a much needed pure culture model for further studies on the anaerobic activation of benzene in microorganisms. A five-chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown with 0.5 mM phenol (experimental condition) and two separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown on 1 mM benzoate (control condition). Each chip measures the expression level of 2,613 genes from Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 with nine 45-60-mer probe pairs (PM/MM) per gene, with three-fold technical redundancy.