Transcription profiling of wild type dorsal root ganglia (DRG) taken from mice 10-12 weeks, DRG taken from NT-4 -/- mice of 4-5 weeks, NT-4 -/- mice of 12 weeks
ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling was carried out to compare labeled cRNA derived from 3 experimental groups. Group 1 was mRNA extracted from wild type dorsal root ganglia (DRG) taken from mice 10-12 weeks of age, Group 2 was mRNA extracted from DRG taken from NT-4 -/- mice of 4-5 weeks of age. Group 3 was mRNA extracted from DRGs taken from NT-4 -/- mice of 12 weeks of age. In all cases mRNA was extracted from 6-10 mice per group. The experiment was carried out a total of three times.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms governing the maintenance and proliferation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) progenitors are largely unknown. Here we reveal that the Hippo pathway regulates the expansion of DRG progenitors and glia during mammalian DRG development. The key effectors of this pathway, transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz, are expressed in DRG progenitors and glia during DRG development but are at least partially inhibited from activating transcription. Aberrant YAP activation leads to overexpansion of DRG progenitor and glial populations. We further show that the Neurofibromatosis 2 (Nf2) tumor suppressor inhibits Yap during DRG development. Loss of Nf2 leads to similar phenotypes as does YAP hyperactivation, and deleting Yap suppresses these phenotypes. Our study demonstrates that Nf2-Yap signaling plays important roles in controlling the expansion of DRG progenitors and glia during DRG development.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system. Approximately half of the patients with MS experience severe pain; however, currently available therapeutics provide only insufficient relief. The mechanisms underlying the generation of neuropathic pain in patients with MS are not fully understood. Recently, we found that neutrophil elastase from accumulated neutrophils in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensitizes DRG neurons and induces mechanical allodynia in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanism underlying neutrophil accumulation in the DRG after myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55, immunogenic peptide) immunization remains unclear. Here, we found that C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) was upregulated in DRG neurons after MOG35-55 immunization. Increased expression of CXCL1 protein was also observed in primary cultured DRG neurons treated with MOG35-55, which was mediated through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Gene silencing of TLR4 or CXCL1 in DRG neurons significantly attenuated neutrophil accumulation in the DRG and mechanical allodynia during the preclinical phase of EAE (around day 5 after immunization). Our results thus suggest that a TLR4-CXCL1 pathway in DRG neurons triggers neutrophil recruitment in the DRG and subsequent mechanical allodynia in response to MOG35-55.
Project description:In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via ?(3) adrenoceptors linked to G(s) protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel.
Project description:In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons.
Project description:Although DNA methylation plays a critical role in the development and function of mammalian central nervous system (CNS), its role in peripheral neurons has not been elucidated. To address this issue, we produced conditional knockout mice (CKO) specifically deleting the gene for maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) during the development of neural crest cells. Despite global hypomethylation in the embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the CKO mice, the number of sensory neurons was relatively unaffected. However, expression of many genes required for sensory neuron development was altered in embryonic mutant DRG, including down-regulation of Runx1 and TrkA genes as well as up-regulation of Id1 and Dtx1, two negative regulators for neurogenesis. Accompanied with the downregulation of an NGF receptor TrkA, the peripheral axonal projection and the branching of sensory neurons were impaired. Furthermore, the expression of the neuropeptide Galanin and several vanilloid receptors such as TrpV1 and TrpM8 were not detected in the DRG of the CKO mice during late embryonic and neonatal stages, suggesting that DNA methylation regulates the differentiation program for a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons. Taken together, our findings suggest that through transcriptional regulation of key developmental genes in sensory neurons, DNA methylation play a key role in the control of the axonal projection and fate specification of peripheral sensory neurons. We compared gene expression patterns in Wildtype and DNA methylation deficient (Wnt1-cre; Dnmt1 mutant) mouse dorsal cortex. We performed 4 replicates using different each individual mouse strain. The Sample GSM565172 table is the average log ratio for the 4 replicatesArrays were performed.
Project description:Dictyostelium discoideum DdRacGap1 (DRG) contains both Rho-GEF and Rho-GAP domains, a feature it shares with mammalian Bcr and Abr. To elucidate the physiological role of this multifunctional protein, we characterized the enzymatic activity of recombinant DRG fragments in vitro, created DRG-null cells, and studied the function of the protein in vivo by analysing the phenotypic changes displayed by DRG-depleted cells and DRG-null cells complemented with DRG or DRG fragments. Our results show that DRG-GEF modulates F-actin dynamics and cAMP-induced F-actin formation via Rac1-dependent signalling pathways. DRG's RacE-GAP activity is required for proper cytokinesis to occur. Additionally, we provide evidence that the specificity of DRG is not limited to members of the Rho family of small GTPases. A recombinant DRG-GAP accelerates the GTP hydrolysis of RabD 30-fold in vitro and our complementation studies show that DRG-GAP activity is required for the RabD-dependent regulation of the contractile vacuole system in Dictyostelium.
Project description:The neural crest is a migratory, multipotent cell lineage that contributes to myriad tissues, including sensory neurons and glia of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). To identify genes affecting cell fate specification in neural crest, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutations causing DRG deficiencies in zebrafish. This screen yielded a mutant lacking all DRG, which we named sensory deprived (sdp). We identified a total of four alleles of sdp, all of which possess lesions in the gene coding for reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein containing Kazal motifs (Reck). Reck is an inhibitor of metalloproteinases previously shown to regulate cell motility. We found reck function to be both necessary for DRG formation and sufficient to rescue the sdp phenotype. reck is expressed in neural crest cells and is required in a cell-autonomous fashion for appropriate sensory neuron formation. In the absence of reck function, sensory neuron precursors fail to migrate to the position of the DRG, suggesting that this molecule is crucial for proper migration and differentiation.
Project description:The vast majority of cold sensitive DRG neurons from mice do not express the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.8. Therefore, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of NaV1.8 and non-NaV1.8-expressing neurons using microarray analysis. Fluorescent activated cell sorting was performed at 4 degrees centigrade on acutely dissociated DRG neurons from mice expressing NaV1.8-Cre, Pirt-GCaMP3 and a Cre-dependent global reporter (td tomato). NaV1.8-expressing neurons were sorted based on their reporter fluorescence (td tomato; red) and putative cold sensing neurons were sorted based on their GCaMP3 fluorescence at 4 degrees centigrade and absence of Cre-dependent reporter fluorescence. A total of three mice were used (samples one, two and three) with GCaMP3 only and NaV1.8-expressing neurons forming two relative populations within each sample (eg. GC3 one is the experimental counterpart of Tom one).
Project description:Mechanical properties such as force generation are fundamental for neuronal motility, development and regeneration. We used optical tweezers to compare the force exerted by growth cones (GCs) of neurons from the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), such as Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons, and from the Central Nervous System (CNS) such as hippocampal neurons. Developing GCs from dissociated DRG and hippocampal neurons were obtained from P1-P2 and P10-P12 rats. Comparing their morphology, we observed that the area of GCs of hippocampal neurons was 8-10 µm(2) and did not vary between P1-P2 and P10-P12 rats, but GCs of DRG neurons were larger and their area increased from P1-P2 to P10-P12 by 2-4 times. The force exerted by DRG filopodia was in the order of 1-2 pN and never exceeded 5 pN, while hippocampal filopodia exerted a larger force, often in the order of 5 pN. Hippocampal and DRG lamellipodia exerted lateral forces up to 20 pN, but lamellipodia of DRG neurons could exert a vertical force larger than that of hippocampal neurons. Force-velocity relationships (Fv) in both types of neurons had the same qualitative behaviour, consistent with a common autocatalytic model of force generation. These results indicate that molecular mechanisms of force generation of GC from CNS and PNS neurons are similar but the amplitude of generated force is influenced by their cytoskeletal properties.
Project description:The present study evaluated the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in the inflammatory sensitization of peripheral nociceptor terminals to mechanical stimulation. Injection of NMDA into the fifth lumbar (L5)-DRG induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw with a profile similar to that of intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which was significantly attenuated by injection of the NMDAR antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP-5) in the L5-DRG. Moreover, blockade of DRG AMPA receptors by the antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione had no effect in the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw, showing specific involvement of NMDARs in this modulatory effect and suggesting that activation of NMDAR in the DRG plays an important role in the peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia. In following experiments we observed attenuation of PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw by the knockdown of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B, NR2D, and NR3A with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in the DRG. Also, in vitro experiments showed that the NMDA-induced sensitization of cultured DRG neurons depends on satellite cell activation and on those same NMDAR subunits, suggesting their importance for the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, fluorescent calcium imaging experiments in cultures of DRG cells showed induction of calcium transients by glutamate or NMDA only in satellite cells, but not in neurons. Together, the present results suggest that the mechanical inflammatory nociceptor sensitization is dependent on glutamate release at the DRG and subsequent NMDAR activation in satellite glial cells, supporting the idea that the peripheral hyperalgesia is an event modulated by a glutamatergic system in the DRG.