Transcription profiling of mouse naive T cells from T-cell specific furin knockouts and wild type littermates
ABSTRACT: Purified naive (CD4+ CD62L+ CD44-) T cells from 10-11 weeks old T cell specific Furin knockout (CD4-cre fur flox/flox) and littermate wild type (fur flox/flox) control mice were profiled for gene expression using Affymetrix MOE 430 2.0 microarray platform.
Project description:Analysis of T-cells lacking the proprotein convertase furin. Proprotein convertases promote the proteolytic maturation of proproteins. Furin is induced in activated T-cells. Results provide insight into the function of furin in T-cells. CD4+CD62L+CD44- naive, CD4+CD62L-CD44+ memory and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were isolated from Fur flox/flox and CD4 cre Fur flox/flox mice. Naive T cells were activated via TCR. Total RNA was extracted from all cells and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Furin is a proprotein convertase induced in activated T cells, reported to processes the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGFb-1. Herein, we show that conditional deletion of furin in T cells allowed for normal T cell development but impaired the function of regulatory T cells and effector cells, which produced less TGFb-1. Furin-deficient Treg cells, were less protective in a T cell transfer colitis model and failed to induce Foxp3 in normal T cells. Furin-deficient effector cells were inherently overly active and were resistant to suppressive activity of wild-type Tregs. Thus, our results indicate that furin is indispensable in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is due, at least in part, to its nonredundant, essential function in regulating TGFb-1 production. Targeting furin has emerged as a strategy in malignant and infectious disease. The current work suggests that inhibiting furin might activate immune responses, but may result in a breakdown in peripheral tolerance. Overall design: Naive CD4+ CD62L+ CD44- T cells were isolated from Fur flox/flox and CD4 cre Fur flox/flox mice. Replicated samples were achieved for wild type and knockout conditions.
Project description:Furin is a proprotein convertase induced in activated T cells, reported to processes the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGFb-1. Herein, we show that conditional deletion of furin in T cells allowed for normal T cell development but impaired the function of regulatory T cells and effector cells, which produced less TGFb-1. Furin-deficient Treg cells, were less protective in a T cell transfer colitis model and failed to induce Foxp3 in normal T cells. Furin-deficient effector cells were inherently overly active and were resistant to suppressive activity of wild-type Tregs. Thus, our results indicate that furin is indispensable in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is due, at least in part, to its nonredundant, essential function in regulating TGFb-1 production. Targeting furin has emerged as a strategy in malignant and infectious disease. The current work suggests that inhibiting furin might activate immune responses, but may result in a breakdown in peripheral tolerance. Experiment Overall Design: Naive CD4+ CD62L+ CD44- T cells were isolated from Fur flox/flox and CD4 cre Fur flox/flox mice. Replicated samples were achieved for wild type and knockout conditions.
Project description:The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin and proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1) cleave substrates at dibasic residues along the eukaryotic secretory/endocytic pathway. PCs are evolutionarily related to bacterial subtilisin and are synthesized as zymogens. They contain N-terminal propeptides (PRO) that function as dedicated catalysts that facilitate folding and regulate activation of cognate proteases through multiple-ordered cleavages. Previous studies identified a histidine residue (His69) that functions as a pH sensor in the propeptide of furin (PRO(FUR)), which regulates furin activation at pH~6.5 within the trans-Golgi network. Although this residue is conserved in the PC1 propeptide (PRO(PC1)), PC1 nonetheless activates at pH~5.5 within the dense core secretory granules. Here, we analyze the mechanism by which PRO(FUR) regulates furin activation and examine why PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) differ in their pH-dependent activation. Sequence analyses establish that while both PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) are enriched in histidines when compared with cognate catalytic domains and prokaryotic orthologs, histidine content in PRO(FUR) is ~2-fold greater than that in PRO(PC1), which may augment its pH sensitivity. Spectroscopy and molecular dynamics establish that histidine protonation significantly unfolds PRO(FUR) when compared to PRO(PC1) to enhance autoproteolysis. We further demonstrate that PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) are sufficient to confer organelle sensing on folding and activation of their cognate proteases. Swapping propeptides between furin and PC1 transfers pH-dependent protease activation in a propeptide-dictated manner in vitro and in cells. Since prokaryotes lack organelles and eukaryotic PCs evolved from propeptide-dependent, not propeptide-independent prokaryotic subtilases, our results suggest that histidine enrichment may have enabled propeptides to evolve to exploit pH gradients to activate within specific organelles.
Project description:The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we evaluated the role of FURIN in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Mice with a conditional deletion of FURIN in their myeloid cells (LysMCre-fur(fl/fl)) were healthy and showed unchanged proportions of neutrophils and macrophages. Instead, LysMCre-fur(fl/fl) mice had elevated serum IL-1β levels and reduced numbers of splenocytes. An LPS injection resulted in accelerated mortality, elevated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulated numbers of pro-inflammatory macrophages. A genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed the overexpression of several pro-inflammatory genes in resting FURIN-deficient macrophages. Moreover, FURIN inhibited Nos2 and promoted the expression of Arg1, which implies that FURIN regulates the M1/M2-type macrophage balance. FURIN was required for the normal production of the bioactive TGF-β1 cytokine, but it inhibited the maturation of the inflammation-provoking TACE and Caspase-1 enzymes. In conclusion, FURIN has an anti-inflammatory function in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Overall design: Two biological replicates of FURIN KO and WT peritoneal macrophages were left unstimulated or were stimulated for 1, 4 and 24 hours with LPS.
Project description:The proprotein convertase PCSK9 plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis by binding the LDL receptor and targeting it toward degradation. PCSK9 is strongly expressed in the liver and is found in human and mouse plasma as mature (? 62 kDa) and inactivated (? 55 kDa) forms. Ex vivo data showed that human PCSK9 is inactivated by cleavage at Arg(218)? by the overexpressed convertases furin and PC5/6A. Analysis of the plasma of human heterozygotes for R218S and F216L mutations revealed a ? 50% reduction in the levels of the ? 55-kDa form. To identify the convertase(s) responsible for cleavage at Arg(218) in vivo, we inactivated the genes of furin and/or PC5/6 specifically in hepatocytes. The PCSK9-inactivated form was strongly reduced in mice lacking furin in hepatocytes (Fur-hKO) and only slightly reduced in PC5/6-hKO plasma. In agreement with a key role of furin in regulating PCSK9 activity in vivo, we observed an overall 26% drop in the LDL receptor protein levels of Fur-hKO livers, likely due to the compound effects of a 35% increase in PCSK9 mRNA levels and the loss of PCSK9 cleavage, suggesting a higher activity of PCSK9 in these mice. Overexpression of PCSK9 in primary hepatocytes obtained from these mice revealed that only full-length, membrane-bound, but not soluble, furin is the cognate convertase. We conclude that in hepatocytes furin regulates PCSK9 mRNA levels and is the key in vivo-inactivating protease of circulating PCSK9.
Project description:The process of follicular development involves communications between oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells. FURIN is a member of the family of proprotein convertases that is involved in the activation of a large number of zymogens and proproteins by cleavage at its recognition motif. To investigate the functions of FURIN in female fertility, furinflox/flox (furfl/fl) mice were crossed with Zp3-Cre mice and Gdf9-Cre, respectively, to achieve oocyte-specific disruption of FURIN. Here we report for the first time that FURIN is dispensable for primordial follicle maintenance and activation but important for early secondary follicular development, as ablation of FURIN in oocytes caused failure of follicle development beyond the type 4 and/or 5a follicles in mutant mice, resulting in increased number of early secondary follicles and the severely decreased number of mature follicles, thus anovulation and infertility. We also found that the developmental arrest of early secondary follicles might be rooted in the loss of the mature form of ADAMTS1 (85-kDa prodomain truncated) and compromised proliferation of granulosa cells in mutant mice. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of FURIN in follicle development beyond the early secondary follicle stage and indicate that compromised FURIN function leads to follicular dysplasia and female infertility in mice.
Project description:Furin is a proprotein convertase which activates a variety of regulatory proteins in the constitutive exocytic and endocytic pathway. The effect of genetic ablation of fur was studied in the endocrine pancreas to define its physiological function in the regulated secretory pathway. Pdx1-Cre/loxP furin KO mice show decreased secretion of insulin and impaired processing of known PC2 substrates like proPC2 and proinsulin II. Both secretion and PC2 activity depend on granule acidification, which was demonstrated to be significantly decreased in furin-deficient beta cells by using the acidotrophic agent 3-(2,4-dinitroanilino)-3'amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP). Ac45, an accessory subunit of the proton pump V-ATPase, was investigated as a candidate substrate. Ac45 is highly expressed in islets of Langerhans and furin was able to cleave Ac45 ex vivo. Furthermore, the exact cleavage site was determined. In addition, reduced regulated secretion and proinsulin II processing could be obtained in the insulinoma cell line betaTC3 by downregulation of either furin or Ac45. Together, these data establish an important role for furin in regulated secretion, particularly in intragranular acidification most likely due to impaired processing of Ac45.
Project description:The study was aimed at assessing T cell subsets of peripheral blood from recipients of long-term functioning (more than 60 months) biological and mechanical heart valve prostheses. The absolute and relative number of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets was analyzed: naïve (N, CD45RA(+)CD62L(+)), central memory (CM, CD45RA(-)CD62L(+)), effector memory (EM, CD45RA(-)CD62L(-)), and terminally differentiated CD45RA-positive effector memory (TEMRA, CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)) in 25 persons with biological and 7 with mechanical prosthesis compared with 48 apparently healthy volunteers. The relative and absolute number of central memory and naïve CD3(+)CD8(+) in patients with biological prosthesis was decreased (p < 0.001). Meanwhile the number of CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+) was increased (p < 0.001). Patients with mechanical prosthesis had increased absolute and relative number of CD45RA(+)CD62L(-)CD3(+)CD8(+) cells (p = 0.006). Also the relative number of CD3(+)CD4(+) cells was reduced (p = 0.04). We assume that altered composition of T cell subsets points at development of xenograft rejection reaction against both mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses.
Project description:To assess if the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+)CD62L(+) cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (here termed %CD62L) can predict risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and better inform the physician for benefit-risk assessment of natalizumab treatment decisions in a global setting.Cryopreserved PBMCs from 21 natalizumab-treated patients who developed PML and 104 matched natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) without PML collected as a part of Biogen clinical trials were retrospectively examined for CD3, CD4, CCR7, CD45RA, and CD62L by flow cytometry.In this cohort, %CD62L in natalizumab-treated patients did not predict PML risk. Natalizumab-treated patients with MS without PML showed highly variable %CD62L upon serial sampling. In the STRATA study, the distribution of %CD62L in samples collected more than 6 months before a PML diagnosis, at diagnosis, and in natalizumab-treated patients without PML overlapped. No statistical threshold for risk could be determined. In addition, we demonstrated that lymphocyte viability strongly affects %CD62L, supporting previous reports that %CD62L is inherently unstable following cryopreservation and is sensitive to sample collection.Data from this well-controlled cohort of natalizumab-treated patients indicate that %CD62L is not a biomarker of PML risk.