ChIP-chip profiling of human gammaH2AX spreading around DNA double strand breaks
ABSTRACT: Chromatin acts as a key regulator of DNA related processes such as DNA damage repair. While ChIP-chip is a powerful technique to provide high-resolution maps of protein-genome interactions, its use to study DNA Double Strand Break (DSB) repair has been hindered by the limitations of the available damage induction methods. We have developed a human cell line that permits induction of multiple DSBs randomly distributed and unambiguously positioned within the genome. Using this system, we have generated the first genome-wide mapping of gammaH2AX around DSBs. We found that all DSBs trigger large gammaH2AX domains, which extend from the DSB in a bidirectional, discontinuous and not necessarily symmetrical manner. Strikingly we uncovered that, within domains, gammaH2AX distribution is highly influenced by gene transcription since parallel mapping of RNA Polymerase II and strand specific expression revealed that ?H2AX does not propagate on active genes. In addition, we demonstrate that transcription is accurately maintained within gammaH2AX domains, indicating that mechanisms may exist to protect genes transcription from gammaH2AX spreading and from the chromatin rearrangements induced by DSBs.
Project description:Chromatin undergoes major remodeling around DNA double strand breaks (DSB) to promote repair and DNA damage response (DDR) activation. We recently reported a high resolution map of gammaH2AX around multiple breaks on the human genome, using a new cell-based DSB inducible system. In an attempt to further characterize the chromatin landscape induced around DSBs, we now report the profile of SMC3, a subunit from the cohesin complex, previously characterized as required for repair by homologous recombination. We found that the recruitment of cohesin is moderate and restricted to the immediate vicinity of DSBs. In addition, we show that the cohesin complex, which was also recently proposed to be a key player in chromosome organisation and chromatin looping, controls gammaH2AX distribution within domains. Indeed, as we reported for transcription, cohesin binding antagonizes gammaH2AX spreading. Remarkably, depletion of cohesin leads to an increase of gammaH2AX at cohesin-bound genes (revelead by gammaH2AX mapping in upon SCC1 siRNA), associated with a decrease in their expression level after DSB induction. Thus our study identifies a novel role for the cohesin complex in protecting the genes located in gammaH2AX domains from both gammaH2AX spreading and transcriptional shut-down after DSB induction.
Project description:DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions that require rapid detection and repair in order to avoid toxic genomic rearrangements. DSBs elicit the so called DNA Damage Response (DDR), largely relying on ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA Protein Kinase (DNAPK), two members of the PI3K-like kinase family, whose respective functions during the sequential steps of the DDR remains controversial. Using the DIvA cell line, expressing the AsiSI restriction enzyme, we have investigated the role of ATM and DNAPK in several aspects of the DDR upon induction of multiple clean DSBs throughout the human genome. High resolution mapping revealed that they are activated and spread in cis on a confined region surrounding all DSBs, independently of the pathway used for repair. However, a thorough analysis of repair kinetics, H2AX domain establishment and H2AX foci structure and dynamics revealed non overlapping functions for the two kinases once recruited at DSBs. Our results suggest that ATM is not solely acting on chromatin marks but also on chromatin organisation in order to ensure repair accuracy and survival.
Project description:To test the effects of uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) loss on the formation of double strand breaks (DSBs) by the anti-cancer agent pemetrexed, we performed ChIP-seq for serine 139-phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX), a marker of DSBs, in human cells wild-type or deficient for UNG in combination with pemetrexed treatment. UNG deficiency results in an increase in DSBs upon pemetrexed treatment, and we found that pemetrexed treatment induces DSBs at different genomic locations in UNG wild-type and knockout cells. Similar results were observed upon cisplatin treatment of UNG wild-type and knockout cells, and the genomic locations of DSBs were distinct between pemetrexed-treated and cisplatin-treated samples. Taken together, our results suggst differential mechanisms for DSB formation in UNG-competent and UNG-deficient cells. The genomic distribution of gammaH2AX in UNG WT and KO cells treated with pemetrexed or cisplatin was determined by ChIP-seq
Project description:Cells have developed effective mechanisms, namely homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered to be the most deleterious type of damage that can challenge genome integrity. While these pathways coexist to repair DSBs, the mechanisms by which one of these pathways is chosen to repair a particular DSB remain unclear. Here, we show that the chromatin context in which a break occurs participates in this choice and that transcriptionnaly active chromatin channels repair to HR. By using a human cell line expressing a restriction enzyme fused to the ligand binding domain of the oestrogen receptor (AsiSI-ER)2,3, together with a genome wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, we establish that distinct DSBs induced across the genome are not necessarily repaired by the same pathway. Indeed, we identify an HR-prone subset of DSBs that recruit the HR protein RAD51, undergo resection, and rely on RAD51 for efficient repair. These DSBs are located in actively transcribed genes, and repair at such DSBs can be switched to RAD51-independent repair pathway upon transcriptional inhibition. Moreover, we show that HR is targeted to transcribed loci thanks to the elongation-associated H3K36me3 histone mark. Indeed depletion of HYPB, the main H3K36 tri methyltransferase severally impedes the use of HR at those DSBs. Our study, thereby demonstrates a clear role for chromatin in DSB repair pathway choice in human cells.
Project description:Chromatin immunoprecipitation and hybridization to a chromosome-wide DNA tiling array (ChIP-chip)was performed to compare the distribution of H3K4me2 in nrpd1a-4_nrpd1b-11 double mutant and in the wild type. Experiments were done using two independent biological replicates.<br><br>
Project description:Chromatin immunoprecipitation and hybridization to a chromosome-wide DNA tiling array (ChIP-chip)was performed to compare the distribution pattern of H3K9me2 between nrpd1a-4_nrpd1b-11 and wild type. Experiments were done using two independent biological replicates.<br>