Transcription profiling by array of Clostridium acetobutylicum on glucose and xylose substrates under exponential, continuous and diauxie growth.
ABSTRACT: Clostridium acetobutylicum was grown in a batch-culture with minimal medium containing glucose and xylose as substrate. Diauxie growth was observed after glucose was consumed. Following the organism grows on xylose. Transcriptional analysis was done to pursue the cellular processes during the switch from growth on glucose to growth on xylose. We compared DNA-Microarray data from cells grown during the exponential phase on glucose (A), with cells growing during the start of diauxie growth lag (B), during the end of diauxie growth lag (C) and during exponential growth on xylose (D). We used cells grown in a continuous culture with glucose as substrate as common reference for the samples A-D.
Project description:In order to identify genes which contribute on the uptake of glucose into cells of the mutant R. eutropha G+1, a genome wide transcription analyses was done. Transcripts of strain H16 and the glucose-utilizing mutant R. eutropha G+1, cultivated in mineral salts medium supplemented with either fructose or glucose were compared.
Project description:Clostridium acetobutylicum is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium that is considered as a strict anaerobe. It ferments sugars to the organic acids acetate and butyrate or shifts to formation of the solvents - ethanol, butanol and acetone. In most bacteria the major regulator of iron homeostasis is Fur (ferric uptake regulator). Analysis of the genome of Clostridium acetobutylicum has revealed three genes encoding Fur-like proteins. The amino acid sequece of one of them showed 70% similarity to the Fur protein of the closely related Bacillus subtilis.<br>Thus, to gain insight into the role of Fur and the mechanisms for maintenance of iron homeostasis in this strict anaerobic organism, we determined its transcriptional profile in response to iron limitation and inactivation of fur.
Project description:Clostridium acetobutylicum is well-known for its butanol production. Butanol toxicity is a major drawback for the generation of high-butanol producing strains. Here, the transcriptional response a steady state, acidogenic (pH 6), phosphate-limited Clostridium acetobutylicum chemostat culture to different levels of n-butanol (0.25-1%) was investigated. For the butanol challenge experiments butanol (1-butanol) was added (a) to the supplying medium and (b) to the culture vessel to guarantee an immediate change in the butanol concentration. Addition of butanol to the culture was timed to match the supply of the new medium through the feedlines. The butanol concentration was increased stepwise in intervals of 66.6 h (5 volume changes) to moderate butanol concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1% (v/v).
Project description:The batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum is characterized by an acetogenic growth phase during exponential growth when mainly acetate and butyrate are fermentation products. Then, at the end of exponential growth and during stationary phase, the organism switches to solventogenic growth and large amounts of acetone, ethanol and butanol are produced. These growth phases can be studied independent from each other in a phosphate-limited continuous culture. In transcription analysis of continuous cultures using DNA microarrays it became evident that, among others, operons involved in sulfur assimilation are strongly up-regulated during solventogenesis. Using the ClosTron technique we constructed two knock-out mutants in the genes CAC0105 and CAC0930 annotated as involved in sulfate reduction and cysteine biosynthesis. Complementation experiments were carried out with sulfite and cysteine to prove the predicted function. The fermentation experiments of wild type and mutants using phosphate-limited and sulfur-limited continuous culture demonstrated that less sulfur source was consumed in solventogenic phase and the efficiency of cysteine uptake became lower. DNA microarrays were performed to study the difference of transcriptional expression when the wild type was challenged with insufficient sulfur source and the mccB (CAC0930) mutant was inactivated in the continuous culture. The result provided insights into understanding the sulfur metabolism regulatory.
Project description:Oxidative stress is harmful for organism and occurs when the cells exposed to superoxid, hydrogen peroxide and alkylhydroperoxides. In microorganism, the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent reduction systems are universal and play an important role in response to defending oxidative stress. The _-glutamylcysteine synthetase (_-GCS) is an essential enzyme to biosynthesize the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) in organism. Similarly, thioredoxin reductase is an important enzyme in thioredoxin-dependent reduction system. In Clostridium acetobutylicum, the _-glutamylcysteine synthetase (encoded by CAC1539, gcs) and thioredoxin reductase (encoded by CAC1548, trxB) were inactivated using ClosTron technology. The gcs mutant grew insufficiently and consumed less glucose in the phosphate-limited continuous culture and exhibited more sensitive to oxidative stress. The trxB mutant just exhibited lower growth rate and less glucose uptake in the solventogenic phase, compared to wild type. The DNA microarrays were performed to investigate the transcripome difference between wild type and the mutants. In gcs mutant, the genes related to chemotaxis and flagella biosynthesis proteins were induced significantly and in the trxB mutant, the sporulation genes were induced largely. Based on the phenotypes and transcriptome comparison results, the relationship between GSH- and Trx-dependent induction systems was discussed in Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Project description:Clostridium acetobutylicum is characterized by its acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation which <br>can be reproducibly established under continuous grow conditions in a chemostat. <br>At pH 5.7 cells show typical acidogenic metabolism and mainly produce the acids <br>acetate and butyrate. After lowering and further control the external pH at 4.5 <br>the exponentially growing cells switch towards stable solvent production with the <br>dominating fermentation products acetone and butanol. <br>Here we present a comprehensive comparison of proteome and transcriptome <br>data of continuously growing cells of C. acetobutylicum in a chemostat culture <br>under phosphate limitation at pH 5.7 (acidogenesis) and pH 4.5 (solventogenesis).
Project description:In this study the transcriptional behavior of the natural solvent producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum was investigated following n butanol stress using DNA microarray analysis. Therefore, a phosphate-limited chemostat culture was established and n-butanol stress (0.9%) was added to acidogenic cells at pH 5.7.
Project description:In this study the transcriptional behavior of the natural solvent producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum was investigated following n-butanol stress using DNA microarray analysis. Therefore, a phosphate-limited chemostat culture was established and n-butanol stress (0.9%) was added to acidogenic cells at pH 5.7.