Enterococcus faecium has become a nosocomial pathogen of major importance, causing infections that are difficult to treat owing to its multi-drug resistance. In particular, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin has become ubiquitous among clinical isolates. Mutations in the low-affinity penicillin binding protein PBP5 have previously been shown to be important for ampicillin resistance in E. faecium, but the existence of additional resistance determinants has been suggested. Here, we ...[more]
Project description:Epidemiologic studies have shown a significant inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Procyanidins are polymeric flavanols found in many fruits and vegetables, and have been shown to possess anti-carcinogenic/chemopreventive properties. We previously showed that an oligomeric procyanidin extracted from apples with an average degree of polymerisation of 3.9 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line OE33. In order to understand the mechanism of action of this procyanidin we determined genome-wide transcriptomic changes induced by procyanidin treatment of OE33 cells. Pathway analysis of these data implicated the MAP kinase signalling pathways in eliciting these responses. An investigation into the role of these pathways showed that procyanidin specifically induced the activation of the stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases JNK1/2 and p38-? and ? leading to the increased expression of JUN and the phosphatases DUSP1 and -10. Gene-specific knockdown of the expression of JNK1, JNK2, p38-?, p38-? or JUN diminished procyanidin-induced effects on apoptosis demonstrating a clear role for these pathways. JUN is a component of the transcription factor AP-1 and AP-1 binding sites are over-represented in the promoters of procyanidin-induced genes, which together with the demonstration that JUN occupies several such promoters highlight the importance of this transcription factor in mediating the cellular response to procyanidin. These data provide a mechanistic understanding of how procyanidin specifically targets distinct pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells and will inform future studies investigating its use as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent.
Project description:In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance of biofilm-grown <br>Burkholderia cenocepacia cells against high concentrations of disinfectants, the present <br>study focussed on the transcriptional response in sessile B. cenocepacia J2315 cells<br> following exposure to high levels of H2O2, NaOCl or chlorhexidine. In addition differences<br> in gene expression were examined between untreated B. cenocepacia sessile cells and <br>B. cenocepacia planktonic cells.
Project description:BSA pooling experiment for methionine content in a segrating diploid potato population (CxE). RNA of constrasting individuals for methionine content are pooled together based on their tuber methionine content and marker association with either or both of the identified QTLs for methionine content
Project description:Methanococcoides burtonii is member of the Archaea that is a valuable model for studying cold adaptation. We developed a Agilent microarray for determing which genes are expressed in operons, and which are differentially expressed at low (4°C) or high (23°C) temperature. Agilent 8 x 15K custom gene expression microarrays containing 15128 probes were designed based on the M. burtonii genome sequence. The Microarrays were constructed using 60-mer oligonucleotides covering 2236 genes (86.7% of the total number) on the coding strand (10153 oligonucleotides) and the complementary strand (3671 oligonucleotides), and a large number of intergenic regions (707 oligonucleotides) (Table 1). Each gene and intergenic region was covered by 1 to 6 oligonucleotides (average of 4 per gene). Eight independent replicates were performed using competitive hybridization comparing 8 cultures grown at 4°C vs 8 grown at 23°C. Due to the fact that different ORFs have different numbers of oligonucleotides (ranging from one to six) and that experiments were performed in 8 different replicates, each gene (or intergenic region) has 8 48 measures of fluorescence.
Project description:We observed extensive neurite formation in NG108-15 cells cultured in the presence of the flavonoid, isoquercitrin. To help determine the mechanism of neuritogenesis, microarray analysis was performed on samples treated with 40 uM isoquercitrin for 24 hrs.
Project description:The well-known colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence suggests that a normal epithelial cell, through accumulations of genetic lesion and epigenetic disregulation can transform into a benign adenoma then further develop into a cancer. Using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we reveal genome-wide copy number variations in colorectal cancer and polyp and use them to determine the tissues clonal relationship.
Project description:BSA expression profiling for tuber flesh color. Extreme individuals segregating for tuber flesh color are selected and RNA is pooled together. Gene expression is profiled using microarray technology. Genes displaying differential expression between the constrasting bulks are considered as candidate genes responsible for the targeted trait and further analyzed using the individual genotypes.
Project description:G. max plants was grown in plastic pots filled with soil for 3 weeks under a 12 h light/12 h dark at 28°C. Cold treatment: The 3-week-old plants were transferred from 28°C to 4°C and were grown for 1 day. Dehydration treatment: The 3-week-old plants were grown for 4 days without watering.