Transcriptional profiling by array of human monocytes to study their involement in HIV-Tuberculosis associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome at week 2 of combined antiretroviral threapy
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis-associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) is a common complication in HIV-TB coinfected patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While monocytes/macrophages play major roles in both HIV- and TB-infection individually, a putative contribution of monocytes to the development of TB-IRIS remains unexamined. To investigate the possible functional contribution of monocytes to TB-IRIS pathogenesis, one of our first steps was to apply a genome-wide microarray analysis in monocytes of HIV-TB co-infected patients shortly after cART initiation. Based on the coparison of gene profiles between the TB-IRIS group and the control group, the modulated genes and pathways will be further investigated.
Project description:Tuberculosis-associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) is a common complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While monocytes/macrophages play major roles in both HIV- and TB-infection individually, a putative contribution of monocytes to the development of TB-IRIS remains unexamined. We performed a genome-wide array analysis on MOs purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained before initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) to verify whether the transcriptome of MOs was already significantly modulated (even before receiving cART) in HIV+/TB+ patients who later developed TB-IRIS compared to control HIV+/TB+ patients who did not develop the complication . The subjects under study included a subset of 18 TB-IRIS patients and controls matched for age, gender and CD4 count.
Project description:Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) frequently complicates combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tubercular therapy in HIV-1 co-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The immunopathological mechanism underlying TB-IRIS is incompletely defined. Differential transcript abundance in PBMC from IRIS and control patients stimulated with heat killed H37Rv was determined by microarray Blood samples were collected during longitudinal observational studies of TB-IRIS patients and controls (both groups HIV-infected patients placed on antiretroviral treatment). PBMC were stimulated with heat killed H37Rv and RNA extracted.
Project description:Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) frequently complicates combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tubercular therapy in HIV-1 co-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The immunopathological mechanism underlying TB-IRIS is incompletely defined. Differential transcript abundance in PBMC from IRIS and control patients stimulated with heat killed H37Rv was determined by microarray Overall design: Blood samples were collected during longitudinal observational studies of TB-IRIS patients and controls (both groups HIV-infected patients placed on antiretroviral treatment). PBMC were stimulated with heat killed H37Rv and RNA extracted.
Project description:the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages were studied by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. From each individual in the three cohorts: the healthy (n=3), the latent (n=4), and the active TB patients (n=3), whole blood specimens were collected for monocytes isolation. Monocytes were induced into macrophage in vitro and total RNA were extracted for miRNA profiles analysis.
Project description:Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the best prognostic indicator of disease progression. Suppressing HIV viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores normal immune response and effectively prolongs life. In HIV-infected individuals who are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) the immune system is activated despite effective HIV antiretroviral therapy controlling viral load. Here we examined CD14+ monocyte gene expression by high-density microarray analysis and T cell subsets, CD4 and CD8, by flow cytometry to characterize immune activation in monoinfected HCV, monoinfected HIV and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects with undetected HIV viral load. To determine the impact of coinfection on cognition, subjects were evaluated in 7 domains for neuropsychological (NP) performance, which was summarized as global deficit scores (GDS). Gene expression analysis of CD14+ monocytes from coinfected subjects revealed an elevated type 1 interferon (IFN) response profile unique to coinfection. For both CD4 and CD8 T cells, coinfection triggered significantly increased expression of activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. In the coinfected group, mild cognitive impairment was associated with a type 1 IFN monocyte response but not plasma lipopolysaccharide. These observations raise the possibility that cognitive impairment evident in the HIV/HCV population is associated with the IFN response detected in coinfected individuals. Monocytes isolated from healthy controls (n=17), HCV monoinfected (n=19) and HIV/HCV coinfected (n=17) were analyzed for gene expression using high-density microarrays. Whole blood was collected in Vacutainer CPT tubes (BD Biosciences) and PBMCs were enriched by centrifugation. Typically, three million CD14+ monocytes were isolated from 30 ml of whole blood using an anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody immunomagnetic - ferrous bead conjugate according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Miltenyi Biotech). Monocyte purity exceeded 97% with <1% T or B cell contamination as determined by flow cytometry. Monocyte RNA was isolated using a Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit with an RNA integrity value exceeding 9. Complementary DNA was synthesized and labeled with biotin (iExpress iAmplify kit, Applied Microarrays) and hybridized to Codelink Whole Human Genome Bioarrays (55K probes, Applied Microarrays). Slides were scanned (Axon GenePix 4000B, Molecular Devices), analyzed (CodeLink Expression Software Kit v4.1) and microarray data were normalized with loess normalization using R and Bioconductor package. Determination of differential gene expression and multiple testing correction / false discovery rate adjustments were performed using GeneSpring GX 7.3 software package (Agilent). Microarray data was analyzed using a variety of custom data analytic techniques for gene expression profile identification as described previously. Correlations were determined by Spearman rank correlation coefficient.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is able to control HIV-1 viral replication, however long-lived latent infection in resting memory CD4+ T-cells persist. The mechanisms for establishment and maintenance of latent infection in resting memory CD4+ T-cells remain unclear. Previously we have shown that HIV-1 infection of resting CD4+ T-cells co-cultured with CD11c+ myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) produced a population of non-proliferating T-cells with latent infection. Here we asked whether different antigen presenting cells (APC), including subpopulations of DC and monocytes, were able to induce post-integration latent infection in resting CD4+ T-cells, and examined potential cell interactions that may be involved using RNA-seq. RESULTS: mDC (CD1c+), SLAN+ DC and CD14+ monocytes were most efficient in stimulating proliferation of CD4+ T-cells during syngeneic culture and in generating post-integration latent infection in non-proliferating CD4+ T-cells following HIV-1 infection of APC-T-cell co-cultures. In comparison, plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and B-cells did not induce latent infection in APC-T-cell co-cultures. We compared the RNA expression profiles of APC subpopulations that could and could not induce latency in non-proliferating CD4+ T-cells. Gene expression analysis, comparing the mDC, SLAN+ DC and CD14+ monocyte subpopulations to pDC identified 53 upregulated genes that encode proteins expressed on the plasma membrane that could signal to CD4+ T-cells via cell-cell interactions (32 genes), immune checkpoints (IC) (5 genes), T-cell activation (9 genes), regulation of apoptosis (5 genes), antigen presentation (1 gene) and through unknown ligands (1 gene). CONCLUSIONS: APC subpopulations from the myeloid lineage, specifically mDC subpopulations and CD14+ monocytes, were able to efficiently induce post-integration HIV-1 latency in non-proliferating CD4+ T-cells in vitro. Inhibition of key pathways involved in mDC-T-cell interactions and HIV-1 latency may provide novel targets to eliminate HIV latency. mRNA profiles of sorted, pure antigen presenting cells including, CD1c+ myleoid dendirtic cells (mDC), SLAN+ mDC, CD14+ monocytes and plasmacytoid DC (pDC), were generated using next generation sequencing in triplicate, using Illumina Illumina Hiseq 2000.
Project description:Patients with HIV-associated TB are known to experience systemic hyperinflammation, clinically known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), following the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART). No prognostic markers or biomarkers have been identified to date and little is known about the mechanism mediating the hyperinflammation. We recruited a prospective cohort of 63 patients with HIV-associated TB, 33 of whom developed TB-IRIS. Of which transcriptomic profiling was performed using longitudinal whole blood RNA samples from 15 non-IRIS and 17 TB-IRIS patients. Transcriptomic signatures that distinguish patients who would eventually develop IRIS were identified as early as week 0.5 (2-5 days post-ART) and predicted a downstream activation of proinflammatory cytokines. At the peak of IRIS (week 2), transcriptomic signatures were overrepresented by innate receptor signaling pathways including toll-like receptor, IL-1 receptor and TREM-1. Overall design: Patients are classified either as TB-IRIS and non-IRIS and longitudinal samples (week 0, 0.5, 1 and 2) were analyzed. There are a total of 107 samples across all 4 timepoints. For normalization, week 0 samples were baseline transformed to the median of all samples. For all other weeks, samples were baseline transformed either to the median of all samples or to the corresponding week 0 values. Samples 5411298027_F and 5412485008_F do not have a corresponding baseline and were therefore excluded in the analysis for the latter.
Project description:Patients with HIV-associated TB meningitis (TBM) are known to experience systemic hyperinflammation, clinically known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), following the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART). No prognostic markers or biomarkers have been identified to date and little is known about the mechanism mediating the hyperinflammation. We recruited a prospective cohort of 33 patients with HIV-associated TBM, 16 of whom developed TBM-IRIS, and performed transcriptomic profiling. Transcriptomic signatures that distinguish patients who would eventually develop IRIS were identified and indicated neutrophil and inflammasome activation as being the predominant mediator of TBM-IRIS pathogenesis. Overall design: Patients are classified either as TBM-IRIS and non-IRIS and longitudinal samples (TBM-diagnosis, 2wpTBRx and 2wpART) were anlayzed. A control group of 17 patients HIV-1 infected patients without TBM and not on ART were also included. There are a total of 116 samples (33 TBM at 3 timepoints and 17 control at 1 timepoint). For noramlization, all samples were baseline transformed to the median of all samples.
Project description:Genome wide DNA methylation profiling of PBMC from South African patients either infected with HIV only or coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB). The Illumina Infinium 27k Human DNA methylation Beadchip was used to obtain DNA methylation profiles from PBMC samples. Samples included 19 HIV patients and 20 HIV/TB co-infected patients. Bisulphite converted DNA were hybridised to the Illumina Infinium 27k Human Methylation Beadchip v1.2
Project description:Non-specific protective effects against reinfection have been described following infection with Candida albicans. Here we show that mice defective in functional T and B lymphocytes were protected against reinfection with C. albicans in a monocyte-dependent manner. C. albicans and beta glucans induced functional programming of monocytes, leading to enhanced cytokine production in vivo and in vitro. The training required the beta glucan receptor dectin 1 and the non-canonical Raf 1 pathway. Monocyte training by beta-glucans was mediated by epigenetic mechanisms through genome-wide changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. Pathway analysis showed specific induction of epigenetic changes in genes of innate immunity. The functional programming of monocytes, reminiscent of similar properties of NK cells, has been termed “trained immunity” and may be employed for the design of improved vaccination strategies. Chromatin-IP at day7 followed by highthroughput sequencing to look at the differences in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 binding in Monocytes either cultured in RPMI only versus those trained for 24hrs with beta glucan. Additionally expression analysis was performed by doing strandspecific RNAseq also for both unstimulated and beta glucan trained monocytes for correlating the histone modification changes with the expression changes. Biological replicates were generated from independent samples for H3K4me3 and RNAseq. Additional H3K4me3 ChIP-seq assays were performed for day0 untreated, 24hrs control and beta glucan trained monocytes. H3K4me3 ChIP-seq was also performed for Mouse macrophages both saline(control) and low dose Candida treated.