Transcription profiling by array of five isolated size matched populations of preantral follicles from normal human ovaries to evaluate the expression of TGF-beta superfamily growth factors, their receptors and downstream SMAD signalling molecules during early human folliculogenesis
ABSTRACT: In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-beta superfamily growth factors, their receptors and downstream SMAD signalling molecules during early human folliculogenesis. Human preantral follicles were enzymatically isolated from surplus ovarian tissue obtained from women having ovarian cortical tissue frozen for fertility preservation. A total of 348 human preantral follicles, ranging from 40 to 200 um in diameter, were isolated from ovarian tissue obtained from 15 women, aged 2434 years. Isolated preantral follicles were grouped according to diameter in five size-matched populations spanning the primordial, primary and secondary stage follicles, and analyzed by whole-genome microarray analysis. Selected proteins/genes were analysed by immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. TGF-beta superfamily genes with overall highest mRNA expressions levels included growth differentiation factors 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15), BMP6, BMP-receptor-2 (BMPR2), anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), TGFbetaR3, inhibin-alpha (INHA), and intracellular SMAD3 and SMAD4. Moreover, genes which were differentially expressed from the primordial to the late secondary stage follicles included GDF9 (p<0.01), BMP15 (p<0.001), AMH (p<0.0001), INHBB (p<0.05), TGFbetaR3 (p<0.05) and SMAD4 (p<0.05). Collectively, these data indicate that the active TGF-beta superfamily pathways in early human folliculogenesis consist of primarily GDF9 combined with synergistic effects of BMP15 through the BMPR2 and intracellular activation of SMAD3 and SMAD4, and that AMH and Inhibin B are engaged in intrafollicular events from the onset of follicular growth.
Project description:Mouse oocytes control cumulus cell metabolic processes that are deficient in the oocytes themselves and this delegation is necessary for oocyte development. Oocyte-derived bone morphogenetic factor 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) appear to be key regulators of follicular development. The effect of these factors on cumulus cell function before the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assessed by analysis of the transcriptomes of cumulus cells from wildtype (WT), Bmp15-/-, and Bmp15-/- Gdf9+/- double mutant (DM) mice using microarray analysis. The biological themes associated with the most highly-affected transcripts were identified using bioinformatic approaches, IPA and GenMAPP/MAPPFinder. There were 5,332, 7,640, and 2,651 transcripts identified to be significantly changed in the comparisons of Bmp15-/- vs. WT, DM vs. WT, and DM vs. Bmp15-/- respectively by the criteria of FC (fold change) p <0.01. Among theses changed transcripts, 744 were commonly changed in all three pair-wise comparisons, and hence were considered to be the most highly affected transcripts by mutation of Bmp15 and Gdf9. IPA Analyses revealed that metabolism was the major theme associated with the most highly-changed transcripts: glycolysis and sterol biosynthesis were the two most significantly affected pathways. Most of the transcripts encoding enzymes for sterol biosynthesis were down-regulated in both mutant cumulus cells and in WT cumulus cell after oocytectomy. Similarly, there was a reduction of de novo-synthesized cholesterol in these cumulus cells. This suggests that oocytes regulate cumulus cell metabolism, particularly sterol biosynthesis, by promoting the expression of corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, in WT-mice, Mvk, Pmvk, Fdps, Sqle, Cyp51, Sc4mol, and Ebp, which encode enzymes in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, were found to be expressed robustly in cumulus cells, but expression was barely detectable in oocytes. Levels of de novo-synthesized cholesterol were significantly higher in cumulus–enclosed oocytes than denuded oocytes. These results indicate that mouse oocytes are deficient in their ability to synthesize cholesterol and require cumulus cells to provide them with products of the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Oocyte-derived BMP15 and GDF9 may promote this metabolic pathway in cumulus cells as compensation for their own deficiencies. Experiment Overall Design: Three sets of independent cumulus cell samples were collected for each genotype (wild type, Bmp15-/-, and Bmp15-/-Gdf9+/-) of mice, and were used for the array study as shown below. Experiment Overall Design: Array Genotype Sample Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0161_033105_1.CEL WT 1 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0162_033105_1.CEL WT 2 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0163_033105_1.CEL WT 3 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0164_033105_1.CEL Bmp15-/- 4 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0165_033105_1.CEL Bmp15-/- 5 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0166_033105_1.CEL Bmp15-/- 6 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0167_033105_1.CEL DM 7 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0168_033105_1.CEL DM 8 Experiment Overall Design: GC_430_2_GES05_0169_033105_1.CEL DM 9
Project description:The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling protein SMAD4 is lost in 60% of PDAC, and this has been associated with poorer prognosis. We expressed SMAD4 in human PDAC cell lines BxPC3, by selection of stable clones containing an inducible SMAD4 Tet-ON construct. After 24h of SMAD4 expression, TGF-β signaling-dependent G1-arrest was observed in BxPC3 cells with an increase in the G1-phase fraction from 48.9% to 71.5%. Microarray analysis of gene expression at 8h, 24h, and 48h after SMAD4 expression characterized the regulatory impact of SMAD4 expression in a SMAD4-null PDAC cell line and identified novel targets of TGF-β signaling. We used BxPC3 cells infected by pINDCUER-SMAD4-Puro virus. After 24h, 1µg/ml doxycycline was added to experimental wells. We profiled the gene expression after 8hr, 24hr and 48hr treatment with doxycycline as well as control at 8hr.
Project description:TGF-β signaling is known to be very much dependent on the formation of Smad2/3-Smad4 transcription regulatory complexes. However, the signaling functions of Smad2/3-Smad4 in TGF-β-induced responses are obscure as TGF-β also initiates a number of other signaling pathways. In this study, we systematically assessed the contribution of TGF-β-Smad2/3-Smad4 signaling to target gene transcription. Individual Smads were selectively knocked down in Hep3B cells by stable RNA interference (RNAi). We identified TGF-β-responsive genes using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed their dependency on Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 by the combination of RNAi and microarray assay. The major finding from our microarray analysis was that of the 2039 target genes seen to be regulated via TGF-β induction, 190 were differentially transcriptionally controlled by Smad2-Smad4 and Smad3-Smad4 signaling and the latter control mechanism appeared to be functionally more important. We also found evidence of competition between Smad2 and Smad3 for their activation when controlling the transcription of target genes. Keywords: cell type comparison Overall design: Large-scale microarray analysis was employed for comparison between the responses of wild-type Hep3B cell line and each knockdown cell line, with and without TGF-β induction, to identify target genes and any false positive genes.
Project description:The vertebrate homologues of Drosophila dachsund, DACH1 and DACH2, have been implicated as important regulatory genes in development. DACH1 plays a role in retinal and pituitary precursor cell proliferation and DACH2 plays a specific role in myogenesis. DACH proteins contain a domain (DS-domain) that is conserved with the proto-oncogenes Ski and Sno. Since the Ski/Sno proto-oncogenes repress AP-1 and SMAD signaling, we hypothesized that DACH1 might play a similar cellular function. Herein, DACH1 was found to be expressed in breast cancer cell lines and to inhibit TGF-beta induced apoptosis. DACH1 repressed TGF-beta induction of AP-1 and Smad signaling in gene reporter assays and repressed endogenous TGF-beta responsive genes by microarray analyses. DACH1 bound to endogenous NCoR and Smad4 in cultured cells and DACH1 co-localized with NCoR in nuclear dot-like structures. NCoR enhanced DACH1 repression and the repression of TGF-beta-induced AP-1 or Smad-signaling by DACH1 required the DACH1 DS domain. The DS-domain of DACH was sufficient for NCoR-binding at a Smad4-binding site. Smad4 was required for DACH1 repression of Smad signaling. In Smad4 null HTB-134 cells, DACH1 inhibited the activation of SBE-4 reporter activity induced by Smad2 or Smad3 only in the presence of Smad4. DACH1 participates in the negative regulation of TGF-beta signaling by interacting with NCoR and Smad4.
Project description:The aim of the study was to describe and characterise the phosphodiesterases in the human ovary. Part of the study included results from analysis of mRNA microarray data from follicles and granulosa cells from three previously published studies(E-MEXP-3783, E-MTAB-2203, E-MTAB-1670). In addition, we used data from two unpublished studies with granulosa cells isolated from 4-6 mm antral follicles and preantral follicles. The included studies covered the folliculogenesis from the preantral stage to after induction of ovulation. For comparison, previously published dataset from heart (E-GEOD-22253, E-MEXP-2654), parietal cortex (E-GEOD-35977), cerebellum (E-GEOD-35974), lung (E-GEOD-43458), and peripheral blood mononucleated cells(E-GEOD-23832) were included in addition to various tissues from Affymetrix's sample data set.
Project description:TGF-β is a major tumor suppressor in gastrointestinal (GI) and squamous carcinomas, which exhibit frequent genetic inactivation of Smad4, a key TGF-β signaling component. Apoptosis is implicated as an important mediator of the tumor suppressive function of TGF-β, although this process remains poorly understood. To address this long-standing question, we dissected the tumor suppressive action of TGF-β in naïve pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Here we show that TGF-β/Smad4 signaling triggers an EMT in Kras-mutant pancreatic progenitor cells but turns this process into a trigger of apoptosis by converting the progenitor cell transcription factor Sox4 from an enforcer of epithelial progenitor identity into an activator of apoptosis. This occurs as a result of the EMT-linked repression of the endodermal master regulator Klf5, which cooperates with Sox4 to promote epithelial progenitor identity, and loss of which unmasks a latent apoptotic transcriptional program driven by Sox4. By losing Smad4, Kras-mutant PDA cells avoid this fate and instead use Sox4 as a TGF-β-dependent enforcer of the epithelial progenitor cell state. In this study, 16 RNA-Seq samples and 6 ChIP-Seq samples are included.
Project description:We investigated Smad4-mediated TGF-beta signaling in the development of occipital somite-derived myogenic progenitors during tongue morphogenesis by comparing the transcriptomes of tongue derived from Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/flox mutant and Myf5-Cre;Smad4flox/+ control mice at day E13.5. Based on gene expression profiles and functional studies, we elucidated the influences Smad4 activity and TGF-beta signaling have on the gene expression profiles underlying tongue development. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that TGF-beta-Smad4-FGF6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis. We obtained RNA samples from tongue tissues of mutant and control mouse embryos (C57BL/6J) at day E13.5 RNA and subjected them to analysis on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays.
Project description:New findings demonstrate that transcriptional factors alternative to Smad4 can bind to Smad2/3 and mediate different transcriptional effects. In this study, we detected constitutively phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in Smad4-null pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3. Both pan-specific TGF-β-neutralizing antibody and specific TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I) inhibitor, SB-431542, can decrease steady-state p-Smad2/3 levels. Moreover, exogenous TGF-β strongly stimulated translocation of phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) into the nucleus. Therefore, we identified TGF-β-responsive genes using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays and confirmed their dependency on Smad2/3 by the combination of RNA interference (RNAi) and microarray assay. The major finding from our microarray analysis was that of the 262 target genes seen to be regulated via TGF-β induction, 87 were differentially transcriptionally controlled by Smad2/3 signaling and 175 were Smad2/3-independent. Our results showed that integrin β6 was transcriptionally up-regulated via TGF-β induction in a Smad3-dependent manner, which was validated by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. We also provide evidence that αVβ6 integrin can activate TGF-β-Smad2/3 signaling. Thus, we for the first time suggest the positive feedback loop compose of TGF-β-Smad3 signaling and integrin β6. Functional analysis revealed that exogenous TGF-β can amplify the invasive property of Smad4-deficient pancreatic cancer cells; however, TGF-β-neutralizing antibody, specific TβR-I inhibitor, and anti-αVβ6 integrin antibody can reduce it. Therefore, integrin β6 mediated the invasion of BxPC-3 cells induced by TGF-β signaling. Keywords: cell type comparison Overall design: Large-scale microarray analysis was employed for comparison between the responses of wild-type BxPC-3 cell line and each knockdown cell line, with and without TGF-β induction, to identify target genes.
Project description:Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) has an inhibitory effect on ovarian follicle development. However, the mechanism by which AMH regulates folliculogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study we aimed to investigate the changes in transcriptome of preantral to small antral mice follicles after culturing with AMH and thereby identify candidate genes to be involved. Preantral to small antral follicles were collected from dissected ovaries from six to eight weeks old female C57BL/6Tac mice. Twelve hour as well as 24 hour experiments were performed in two different concentrations of AMH. The experiments were performed in triplicate. In total 18 samples: 3 x conc. of AMH, 2 x time points, 3 x experiments (triplicate). Samples are comparable within each experiment, that is, sample 1-3 or 4-6 or 7-9 or 10-12 or 13-15 or 16-18.
Project description:Purpose: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized systems-based analysis of Y95 phosphorylation on SMAD4-mediated transcription in response to TGF-b signals. The goals of this study are to compare transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) methods and to evaluate protocols for optimal high-throughput data analysis Methods: mRNA profiles of HaCaT parental and SMAD4 KO cells stably expressing wild-type SMAD4 (WT), Y95E or Y95F mutant, and GFP (as control) under with or without TGF-b were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina HiSeq X Ten. qRT–PCR validation was performed using TaqMan and SYBR Green assays Conclusions: hierarchical clustering of the global gene expression profiles of TGF-β treated cells revealed that wild-type-SMAD4- and Y95F-mutant-rescued SMAD4-null cells were highly similar to the parental HaCaT cells, whereas GFP- and Y95E-mutant-rescued cells formed a separate cluster Overall design: Wild Type and SMAD4 Y95 Mutation