ABSTRACT: Tet3 was deleted in smooth muscle cells by tamoxifen-induced Cre-recombination in 8 weeks old mice. Laser-capture microdissection was used to isolate bronchiolar or vascular tissue from lung sections of 16 weeks old mice for transcriptome analysis.
Project description:Tet3 was deleted in smooth muscle cells by tamoxifen-induced Cre-recombination in 8 weeks old mice. Laser-capture microdissection was used to isolate bronchiolar or vascular tissue from lung sections of 16 weeks old mice for transcriptome analysis.
Project description:PGC7 is a primordial germ cell (PGCs)-specific protein involved in epigenetic chromatin reprogramming in the zygote following fertilization. TET3 is a dioxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of the modified genomic base 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and plays a key role in epigenetic chromatin reprogramming in the zygote following fertilization. PGC7 participates in protection of DNA methylation in the maternal pronucleus by preventing conversion of 5mC to 5hmC by TET3 oxidization subsequent DNA demethylation. Thus we tested the co-localization of PGC7 and TET3 in specific loci by ChIP-seq assays.
Project description:The 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) epigenetic modification is highly enriched in the CNS and a critical modulator of neuronal function and development. We found that cortical 5hmC was enhanced from 5 min to three days of reperfusion following focal ischemia in adult mice. Blockade of the 5hmC-producing enzyme ten-eleven translocase 3 (TET3) increased edema, infarct volume, and motor function impairments. To determine the mechanism by which TET3 provides ischemic neuroprotection, we assessed the genomic regions where TET3 modulates 5hmC. Genome-wide sequencing analysis of differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) revealed that focal ischemia robustly increased 5hmC at the promoters of thousands of genes in a TET3-dependent manner. TET3 inhibition reduced 5hmC at the promoters of neuroprotective genes involved in cell survival, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, antioxidant defense, DNA repair, and metabolism demonstrating a role for TET3 in endogenous protection against stroke. The mRNA expression of several genes with known involvement in ischemic neuroprotection were also reduced with TET3 knockdown in both male and female mice, establishing a correlation between decreased promoter 5hmC levels and decreased gene expression. Collectively, our results indicate that TET3 globally increases 5hmC at regulatory regions and overwhelmingly modulates 5hmC in several neuroprotective pathways that may improve outcome after ischemic injury.
Project description:Pathological activation of TGF-? signaling is universal in fibrosis. Aberrant TGF-? signaling in conjunction with transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into fibrogenic myofibroblasts plays a central role in liver fibrosis. Here we report that the DNA demethylase TET3 is anomalously upregulated in fibrotic livers in both humans and mice. We demonstrate that in human HSCs, TET3 promotes profibrotic gene expression by upregulation of multiple key TGF-? pathway genes, including TGFB1. TET3 binds to target gene promoters, inducing demethylation, which in turn facilitates chromatin remodeling and transcription. We also reveal a positive feedback loop between TGF-?1 and TET3 in both HSCs and hepatocytes. Furthermore, TET3 knockdown ameliorates liver fibrosis in mice. Our results uncover a TET3/TGF-?1 positive feedback loop as a crucial determinant of liver fibrosis and suggest that inhibiting TET3 may represent a therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis and perhaps other fibrotic diseases.
Project description:Tet proteins are emerging as major epigenetic modulators of cell fate and plasticity. However, little is known about how Tet proteins are targeted to selected genomic loci in distinct biological contexts. Previously, a CXXC-type zinc finger domain in Tet1 was shown to bind CpG-rich DNA sequences. Interestingly, in human and mouse the Tet2 and Tet3 genes are adjacent to Cxxc4 and Cxxc10-1, respectively. The CXXC domains encoded by these loci, together with those in Tet1 and Cxxc5, identify a distinct homology group within the CXXC domain family. Here we provide evidence for alternative mouse Tet3 transcripts including the Cxxc10-1 sequence (Tet3(CXXC)) and for an interaction between Tet3 and Cxxc4. In vitro Cxxc4 and the isolated CXXC domains of Tet1 and Tet3(CXXC) bind DNA substrates with similar preference towards the modification state of cytosine at a single CpG site. In vivo Tet1 and Tet3 isoforms with and without CXXC domain hydroxylate genomic 5-methylcytosine with similar activity. Relative transcript levels suggest that distinct ratios of Tet3(CXXC) isoforms and Tet3-Cxxc4 complex may be present in adult tissues. Our data suggest that variable association with CXXC modules may contribute to context specific functions of Tet proteins.
Project description:The TET3 CXXC domain has unique DNA binding properties. It binds to DNA in a cytosine-dependent manner that prefers binding to CpG dinucleotides but is not restricted by the CpG-content, distinct from other well-characterized CXXC domains. To map the TET3 CXXC domain binding sites across the human genome, we purified the GST-tagged TET3 CXXC domain protein and performed the GST pull-down assay using the genomic DNA purified from HEK293T cells. The enriched DNA fragments were then sequenced and aligned to human genome(hg19). We used the GST pull-down assay followed by DNA deep sequencing to map the DNA bound by the TET3 CXXC domain in vitro.
Project description:Contrary to the long-held belief that DNA methylation of terminally differentiated cells is permanent and essentially immutable, post-mitotic neurons exhibit extensive DNA demethylation. The cellular function of active DNA demethylation in neurons, however, remains largely unknown. Tet family proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine to initiate active DNA demethylation through the base-excision repair (BER) pathway. We found that synaptic activity bi-directionally regulates neuronal Tet3 expression. Functionally, knockdown of Tet or inhibition of BER in hippocampal neurons elevated excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, whereas overexpressing Tet3 or Tet1 catalytic domain decreased it. Furthermore, dysregulation of Tet3 signaling prevented homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Mechanistically, Tet3 dictated neuronal surface GluR1 levels. RNA-seq analyses further revealed a pivotal role of Tet3 in regulating gene expression in response to global synaptic activity changes. Thus, Tet3 serves as a synaptic activity sensor to epigenetically regulate fundamental properties and meta-plasticity of neurons via active DNA demethylation.
Project description:An efficient, accurate, and timely DNA damage response (DDR) is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. Here, we report that ten-eleven translocation dioxygenase (TET) 3-mediated conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in response to ATR-dependent DDR regulates DNA repair. ATR-dependent DDR leads to dynamic changes in 5hmC levels and TET3 enzymatic activity. We show that TET3 is an ATR kinase target that oxidizes DNA during ATR-dependent DNA damage repair. Modulation of TET3 expression and activity affects DNA damage signaling and DNA repair and consequently cell death. Our results provide novel insight into ATR-mediated DDR, in which TET3-mediated DNA demethylation is crucial for efficient DNA repair and maintenance of genome stability.
Project description:TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a process thought to be intermediary in an active DNA demethylation mechanism. Notably, 5hmC is highly abundant in the brain and in neuronal cells. Here, we interrogated the function of Tet3 in neural precursor cells (NPCs), using a stable and inducible knockdown system and an in vitro neural differentiation protocol. We show that Tet3 is upregulated during neural differentiation, whereas Tet1 is downregulated. Surprisingly, Tet3 knockdown led to a de-repression of pluripotency-associated genes such as Oct4, Nanog or Tcl1, with concomitant hypomethylation. Moreover, in Tet3 knockdown NPCs, we observed the appearance of OCT4-positive cells forming cellular aggregates, suggesting de-differentiation of the cells. Notably, Tet3 KD led to a genome-scale loss of DNA methylation and hypermethylation of a smaller number of CpGs that are located at neurogenesis-related genes and at imprinting control regions (ICRs) of Peg10, Zrsr1 and Mcts2 imprinted genes. Overall, our results suggest that TET3 is necessary to maintain silencing of pluripotency genes and consequently neural stem cell identity, possibly through regulation of DNA methylation levels in neural precursor cells.
Project description:Tet3 regulates the dynamic balance between 5-methylcyotsine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in DNA during brain development and homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how its functions are modulated in a context-dependent manner during neuronal differentiation. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) phosphorylates Tet3 at the highly conserved serine 1310 and 1379 residues within its catalytic domain, changing its in vitro dioxygenase activity. Interestingly, when stably expressed in Tet1, 2, 3 triple-knockout mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), wild-type Tet3 induces higher level of 5hmC and concomitant expression of genes associated with neurogenesis whereas phosphor-mutant (S1310A/S1379A) Tet3 causes elevated 5hmC and expression of genes that are linked to metabolic processes. Consistent with this observation, Tet3-knockout mouse ESCs rescued with wild-type Tet3 have higher level of 5hmC at the promoter of neuron-specific gene BRN2 when compared to cells that expressed phosphor-mutant Tet3. Wild-type and phosphor-mutant Tet3 also exhibit differential binding affinity to histone variant H2A.Z. The differential 5hmC enrichment and H2A.Z occupancy at BRN2 promoter is correlated with higher gene expression and more efficient neuronal differentiation of ESCs that expressed wild-type Tet3. Taken together, our results suggest that cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Tet3 is required for robust activation of neuronal differentiation program.